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  1. Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation.Frances Bowen - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):257-272.
    When is industry self-regulation a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper (...)
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  • The Effects of Ethical Codes on Ethical Perceptions of Actions Toward Stakeholders.Joseph A. McKinney, Tisha L. Emerson & Mitchell J. Neubert - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):505 - 516.
    As a result of numerous, highly publicized, ethical breaches, firms and their agents are under ongoing scrutiny. In an attempt to improve both their image and their ethical performance, some firms have adopted ethical codes of conduct. Past research investigating the effects of ethical codes of conduct on behavior and ethical attitudes has yielded mixed results. In this study, we again take up the question of the effect of ethical codes on ethical attitudes and find strong evidence to suggest that (...)
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  • A Critical Examination of the AICPA’s New “Conceptual Framework” Ethics Protocol.Albert D. Spalding & Gretchen R. Lawrie - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4):1135-1152.
    What does it look like when an organization tentatively steps away from an exclusively rules-based regime and begins to attend to both rules and principles? What insights and guidance can ethicists and ethical theory offer? This paper is a case study of an organization that has initiated such a transition. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants has begun a turn toward the promotion of ethical principles and best practices by adding a “conceptual framework” to its existing Code of Professional (...)
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  • How and When Does Corporate Giving Lead to Getting? An Investigation of the Relationship Between Corporate Philanthropy and Relative Competitive Performance From a Micro-Process Perspective.Wenwen Zhao & Zhe Zhang - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-16.
    The corporate ethics literature has considerably focused on whether giving results in getting. However, the relationship between corporate philanthropy and performance and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Drawing on signaling and cue consistency theories, we develop and test a model that specifies whether, how, and when corporate philanthropy benefits relative competitive performance from a micro-process perspective. Using a Chinese sample of 1623 employees, 145 CEOs, and 145 human resources managers, we found that corporate philanthropy could positively influence relative competitive performance (...)
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  • Making Sense of the Diversity of Ethical Decision Making in Business: An Illustration of the Indian Context.Taran Patel & Anja Schaefer - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):171-186.
    In this conceptual article, we look at the impact of culture on ethical decision making from a Douglasian Cultural Theory (CT) perspective. We aim to show how CT can be used to explain the diversity and dynamicity of ethical beliefs and behaviours found in every social system, be it a corporation, a nation or even an individual. We introduce CT in the context of ethical decision making and then use it to discuss examples of business ethics in the Indian business (...)
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  • When Does Ethical Code Enforcement Matter in the Inter-Organizational Context? The Moderating Role of Switching Costs.Scott R. Colwell, Michael J. Zyphur & Marshall Schminke - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (1):47-58.
    Drawing on signaling theory, we suggest that a supplier’s enforcement of ethical codes sends signals about the supplier that affect a buyer’s decision to continue their commitment to the supplier. We then draw on side-bet theory to hypothesize how switching costs influence the importance of a supplier’s enforcement of ethical codes in predicting a buyer’s continuance commitment to a supplier. We empirically test our model with data from 158 purchasing managers across three manufacturing industries. Results confirm the connection between ethical (...)
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  • Dressing Up for Diffusion: Codes of Conduct in the German Textile and Apparel Industry, 1997–2010.Florian Scheiber - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):559-580.
    I study the diffusion of codes of conduct in the German textile and apparel industry between 1997 and 2010. Using a longitudinal case study design, I aim to understand how the diffusion of this practice was affected by the way important “infomediaries”—a trade journal and a professional association—shaped its understanding within the industry. My results show that time-consuming processes of meaning reconstruction by these infomediaries temporarily hampered but finally facilitated the broader material diffusion of codes of conduct within the industry. (...)
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  • Legitimation Work Within a Cross-Sector Social Partnership.Dominik Rueede & Karin Kreutzer - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (1):39-58.
    This study illuminates how a cross-sector social partnership legitimizes itself toward multiple internal and external stakeholders. Within a single-case study design, we collected retrospective and real time data on the partnership between Deutsche Post DHL and The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Within this partnership, Deutsche Post DHL provides corporate volunteers that support disaster response after natural disasters on a pro bono basis. The main objects that needed legitimacy as well as the audiences from which legitimacy (...)
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  • Private Regulation and Trade Union Rights: Why Codes of Conduct Have Limited Impact on Trade Union Rights.Niklas Egels-Zandén & Jeroen Merk - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (3):1-13.
    Codes of conduct are the main tools to privately regulate worker rights in global value chains. Scholars have shown that while codes may improve outcome standards (such as occupational health and safety), they have had limited impact on process rights (such as freedom of association and collective bargaining). Scholars have, though, only provided vague or general explanations for this empirical finding. We address this shortcoming by providing a holistic and detailed explanation, and argue that codes, in their current form, have (...)
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  • Furthering Organizational Priorities with Less Than Truthful Behavior: A Call for Additional Tools.William Keep - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):81-90.
    Though codes of ethics exist in many businesses, employees still view less than truthful behaviors to be a significant ethical problem. The current study examines the related and somewhat counterintuitive issue of less than truthful behaviors intended to further organizational priorities. Such behaviors risk violating one organizational priority (e. g., adhering to a code of ethics) to achieve another. Data indicated four unique though non-mutually exclusive motivations: (1) to avoid confrontation or conflict; (2) to ensure quality in the delivery of (...)
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  • Sources of Stakeholder Salience in the Responsible Investment Movement: Why Do Investors Sign the Principles for Responsible Investment?Arleta A. A. Majoch, Andreas G. F. Hoepner & Tessa Hebb - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (4):723-741.
    Since its inception in 2006, the United Nations-backed Principles for Responsible Investment have grown to over 1300 signatories representing over $45 trillion. This growth is not slowing down. In this paper, we argue that there is a set of attributes which make the PRI salient as a stakeholder and its claim to sign the six PRI important to institutional investors. We use Mitchell et al.’s theoretical framework of stakeholder salience, as extended by Gifford. We use as evidence confidential data from (...)
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  • Constructing a Code of Ethics: An Experiential Case of a National Professional Organization. [REVIEW]Carla Masciocchi Messikomer & Carol Cabrey Cirka - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):55 - 71.
    This paper documents the development and implementation of an ethically valid code of ethics in a newly formed national professional organization. It describes the experience and challenges faced by the National Association of Senior Move Managers (NASMM) and its leaders as they worked to establish ethics as an organizing framework early in its evolution. Designed by the investigators and supported by the NASMM Board, the process took place over a 2 year period and more than 130 people participated. It provides (...)
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  • What Drives Substantive Versus Symbolic Implementation of ISO 14001 in a Time of Economic Crisis? Insights From Greek Manufacturing Companies.Konstantinos Iatridis & Effie Kesidou - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (4):859-877.
    This paper analyses the role of external pressures, internal motivations and their interplay, with the intention of identifying whether they drive substantive or instead symbolic implementation of ISO 14001. The context is one of economic crisis. We focus on Greece, where the economic crisis has weakened the country’s institutional environment, and analyse qualitatively new interview data from 45 ISO 14001 certified firms. Our findings show that weak external pressures can lead to a symbolic implementation of ISO 14001, as firms can (...)
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  • Corporate Governance and Codes of Ethics.Luis Rodriguez-Dominguez, Isabel Gallego-Alvarez & Isabel Maria Garcia-Sanchez - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):187-202.
    As a result of recent corporate scandals, several rules have focused on the role played by Boards of Directors on the planning and monitoring of corporate codes of ethics. In theory, outside directors are in a better position than insiders to protect and further the interests of all stakeholders because of their experience and their sense of moral and legal obligations. Female directors also tend to be more sensitive to ethics according to several past studies which explain this affirmation by (...)
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  • Responsibility Boundaries in Global Value Chains: Supplier Audit Prioritizations and Moral Disengagement Among Swedish Firms.Niklas Egels-Zandén - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):515-528.
    To address substandard working conditions in global value chains, companies have adopted private regulatory systems governing worker rights. Scholars agree that without onsite factory audits, this private regulation has limited impact at the point of production. Companies, however, audit only a subset of their suppliers, severely restricting their private regulatory attempts. Despite the significance of the placement of suppliers inside or outside firms’ “responsibility boundaries” and despite scholars’ having called for more research into how firms prioritize what suppliers to audit, (...)
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  • Code of Ethics: A Stratified Vehicle for Compliance.Jennifer Adelstein & Stewart Clegg - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (1):53-66.
    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation (...)
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  • Corporate Responsibility Standards: Current Implications and Future Possibilities for Peace Through Commerce.Charles P. Koerber - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (S4):461 - 480.
    Calls for greater corporate responsibility have resulted in the creation of various extralegal mechanisms to shape corporate behavior. The number and popularity of corporate responsibility standards has grown tremendously in the last three decades. Current estimates suggest there may be over 300 standards that address various aspects of corporate behavior and responsibility (e. g., working conditions, human rights, protection of the natural environment, transparency, bribery). However, little is known about how these standards relate directly to the notion of peace through (...)
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  • TNC Motives for Signing International Framework Agreements: A Continuous Bargaining Model of Stakeholder Pressure.Niklas Egels-Zandén - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4):529-547.
    Over the past decade, discussion has flourished among practitioners and academics regarding workers’ rights in developing countries. The lack of enforcement of national labour laws and the limited protection of workers’ rights in developing countries have led workers’ rights representatives to attempt to establish transnational industrial relations systems to complement existing national systems. In practice, these attempts have mainly been operationalised in unilateral codes of conduct; recently, however, negotiated international framework agreements (IFAs) have been proposed as an alternative. Despite their (...)
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  • The Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Strategy in Medium-Sized Companies: Evidence From Italy.Lucio Lamberti & Giuliano Noci - 2012 - Business Ethics 21 (4):402-416.
    The paper responds to the recent calls for further evidence on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on the extant literature, the authors identify four characteristics contended by academicians as peculiarities of SMEs’ approach to CSR: the intrinsic relationship between CSR and corporate strategy motivated by the need to continuously dialogue with stakeholders; the centrality of the entrepreneur's ethos in CSR decisions; the coexistence and the cross-effect of economically instrumental and ethically motivated CSR policies; and (...)
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  • Institutional Pressures and Ethical Reckoning by Business Corporations.Frances Chua & Asheq Rahman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (2):307 - 329.
    Prior studies have provided explanations for the presence, use and dissemination of codes of corporate ethics or codes of corporate conduct of business corporations. Most such explanations are functional in nature, and are descriptive as they are derived from the codes and their associated documents. We search for more underlying explanations using two complementary theories: first, social contract theories explaining the exogenous and endogenous reasons of organizational behavior, and then institutional theory explaining why organizations take similar measures in response to (...)
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  • The Effect of Environmental Activism on the Long-Run Market Value of a Company: A Case Study.Robert Lewis, Gary O’Donovan & Roger Willett - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (3):455-476.
    This paper investigates the impact of activism on a large, powerful corporation in Tasmania. Gunns Ltd was a large woodchip processor in Tasmania that fought a long-running battle with environmental activists regarding Gunns’ logging and processing activities. The study focuses on events in 2004–2005, when Gunns applied to build a pulp mill in rural northern Tasmania and began a legal case against activists. The research question is whether there is clear statistical evidence that these events were important, as is widely (...)
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  • Ethics, Ethicists, and Professional Organizations in the Neurological Sciences.Tabitha Moses & Judy Illes - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (1):3-11.
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  • Top Management Ethical Leadership and Firm Performance: Mediating Role of Ethical and Procedural Justice Climate.Yuhyung Shin, Sun Young Sung, Jin Nam Choi & Min Soo Kim - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (1):43-57.
    Despite the prevailing discourses on the importance of top management ethical leadership, related theoretical and empirical developments are lacking. Drawing on institutional theory, we propose that top management ethical leadership contributes to organizational outcomes by promoting firm-level ethical and procedural justice climates. This theoretical framework was empirically tested using multi-source data obtained from 4,468 employees of 147 Korean companies from various industries. The firm-level analysis shows that top management ethical leadership significantly predicts ethical climate, which then results in procedural justice (...)
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  • On the Ethics of Management Research: An Exploratory Investigation. [REVIEW]Douglas C. Frechtling & Soyoung Boo - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (2):149-160.
    While there is an abundant academic literature on professional codes of ethics, there appears to be few devoted to assessing the compliance of management research with such codes. This article presents the results of applying the World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) Code of Professional Ethics and Practices to research articles based on probability sample surveys in the top three academic journals covering tourism, hospitality, and related fields. Four research questions are posed to focus application of the WAPOR Code (...)
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  • The Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Strategy in Medium-Sized Companies: Evidence From Italy.Lucio Lamberti & Giuliano Noci - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (4):402-416.
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  • The Cut and Paste Society: Isomorphism in Codes of Ethics. [REVIEW]Lori Holder-Webb & Jeffrey Cohen - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):485-509.
    Regulatory responses to the business failures of 1998–2001 framed them as a general failure of governance and ethics rather than as firm-specific problems. Among the regulatory responses are Section 406 of Sarbanes–Oxley Act, SEC, and exchange requirements to provide a Code of Ethics. However, institutional pressures surrounding this regulation suggest the potential for symbolic responses and decoupling of response from organizational action. In this article, we examine Codes of Ethics for a stratified sample of 75 U.S. firms across five distinct (...)
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