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Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life

Oxford University Press (2002)

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  1. On Some Rhetorical-pedagogical Strategies in Epictetus' Discourses Concerning Proairesis.Rodrigo Sebastian Braicovich - 2013 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 19:39-56.
    The paper aims to clarify some features of Epictetus ' specific usage of the concept of proairesis throughout his Discourses. This will be done by suggesting that a number of problematic expressions concerning proairesis and its freedom should be understood as rhetorical-pedagogical expressions of Epictetus ' intellec-tualism. I will mainly focus on a series of problematic passages that have been discussed by several commentators concerning the concept of proairesis, and I will suggest that those passages are best interpreted as rhetorical (...)
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  • Teoría y práctica en Musonio Rufo: Un análisis crítico de las Disertaciones 5 y 6.Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich - 2013 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 18 (1):49-68.
    Los objetivos específicos son los siguientes: (i) reconstruir en forma sistemática la relación entre λόγος y ἔθος/ἄσκησις desarrollada por Musonio Rufo en las Disertaciones 5 y 6; (ii) postular las reflexiones de Aristóteles sobre el problema de la habituación como un marco conceptual relevante para encuadrar el análisis de ambas disertaciones; (iii) analizar las posibles tensiones lógicas entre la concepción de Musonio de ἔθος/ἄσκησις y la concepción intelectualista de la acción humana defendida por la ortodoxia estoica. Sugeriré asimismo que el (...)
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  • The usage and the development of the term prohairesis from Aristotle to Maximus the Confessor.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2015 - Theoria 58 (3):69-86.
    The term prohairesis has a long history; its usage is crucial for the development and understanding of basic ethical and anthropological assumptions in ancient Hellenic philosophy. In this article the author analyses the most important moments for the semantic transformation of this term, with particular reference to the implications of its usage in Byzantine theological and philosophical heritage, with the ultimate expression in work of St Maximus the Confessor and his christological synthesis. The equation between the terms prohairesis and gnome (...)
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  • Overcoming the Philosophy/Life, Body/Mind Rift: Demonstrating Yoga as Embodied-Lived-Philosophical-Practice.Oren Ergas - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (1):1-13.
    Philosophy’s essence depicted by Socrates lies in its role as pedagogy for living, yet its traditional treatment of ‘body’ as a hindrance to ‘knowledge’ in fact severs it from life, transforming it into ‘an escape from life’.The philosophy/life dichotomy is thus an inherent flaw preventing philosophy as traditionally taught and engaged in, from fulfilling its original goal. Recent rejections of the Cartesian nature of Western curriculum, such as O’Loughlin’s ‘Embodiment and Education: Exploring creatural existence’, constitute an important theoretical paradigm shift, (...)
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  • The Moral Development in Stoic Oikeiôsis and Wang Yang-Ming’s ‘Wan Wu Yi Ti’.Jiangxia Yu - 2017 - Asian Philosophy 27 (2):150-173.
    The Neo-Confucian notion of wan wu yi ti 万物一体 and Stoic oikeiôsis both come up with a motivational basis for the expansion of concern, but one of the toughest problems in them is how to elaborate on selfhood and self–other relation in moral development. This paper takes a comparative view of Hierocles’ fragments and a few other relevant Stoic texts and Wang Yang-ming’s Inquiry on the Great Learning, and argues that doing so helps eliminate some confusions concerning selfhood and self–other (...)
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  • Care of Self in Dawn: On Nietzsche’s Resistance to Bio-Political Modernity.Keith Ansell-Pearson - 2014 - In Barry Stocker & Manuel Knoll (eds.), Nietzsche as Political Philosopher. De Gruyter. pp. 269-286.
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  • Stoics Against Stoics In Cudworth's A Treatise of Freewill.John Sellars - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (5):935-952.
    In his A Treatise of Freewill, Ralph Cudworth argues against Stoic determinism by drawing on what he takes to be other concepts found in Stoicism, notably the claim that some things are ?up to us? and that these things are the product of our choice. These concepts are central to the late Stoic Epictetus and it appears at first glance as if Cudworth is opposing late Stoic voluntarism against early Stoic determinism. This paper argues that in fact, despite his claim (...)
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  • The Ideal of the Stoic Sportsman.William Stephens & Randolph Feezell - 2004 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 31 (2):196-211.
    Philosophers of sport have debated whether supporting one team over others is commendable or morally suspect. We show how Stoicism sheds light on this controversy. Several caricature views of Stoic sportsmanship are studied. Stoics learn how to enjoy the blessings that come their way without mistakenly judging challenges to be hardships that detract from their happiness. Stoic sportsmen celebrate the successes of their teams while exercising the virtues of patience, endurance, loyalty, and appreciation of athletic excellence when their teams flounder. (...)
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  • Sobre el "arte de vivir" en Epícteto.Germán A. Meléndez - 2014 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 20:271-310.
    Resumen El propósito del presente ensayo es explorar la comprensión de technê que Epícteto asocia con la expresión technê peri bion ("arte/técnica de la vida"), utilizada por él para determinar tanto la "materia" de la que se debe ocupar la filosofía como el tipo de actividad que ha de aplicarse a dicha materia. Con base en dicha exploración, el ensayo defiende la tesis de que la filosofía de Epícteto acusa un cierto talante individualista que la acerca a conocidas variantes modernas (...)
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  • Nature and Utopia in Epictetus’ Theory of Oikeiōsis.Sara Magrin - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (3):293-350.
    _ Source: _Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 293 - 350 It is widely agreed that there is a gap between the personal and the social ethics of the Stoics due to the difficulty of harmonizing personal and social _oikeiōsis_. By reconstructing Epictetus’ theory of _oikeiōsis_, this paper aims to show that, in his ethics, there is no such gap, and this for two reasons: first, his account of social _oikeiōsis_ is not meant to ground his social ethics; second, his theory (...)
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  • Words That Burn: Why Did the Buddha Say What He Did?Jonardon Ganeri - 2006 - Contemporary Buddhism 7 (1):7-27.
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  • Drafted Into a Foreign War?: On the Very Idea of Ancient Philosophy as a Way of Life.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Rhizomata 8 (2):183-217.
    This paper examines the central criticisms that come, broadly, from the modern, ‘analytic’ tradition, of Pierre Hadot’s idea of ancient philosophy as a way of life.: Firstly, ancient philosophy just did not or could not have involved anything like the ‘spiritual practices’ or ‘technologies of the self’, aiming at curing subjects’ unnecessary desires or bettering their lives, contra Hadot and Foucault et al. Secondly, any such metaphilosophical account of putative ‘philosophy’ must unacceptably downplay the role of ‘serious philosophical reasoning’ or (...)
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  • ‘I Have Regained Memory’ (Smṛtir Labdhā): The Bhagavad Gītā as a Parrhesiastic Journey Against Forgetfulness.Raquel Ferrández-Formoso - 2020 - Comparative Philosophy 11 (2).
    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary reading of the Bhagavad Gītā, presenting it as a parrhesiastic dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, and focusing on the importance attached to memory. Foucault’s studies on the exercise of parrhesia in the Greco-Roman context, but also Heidegger's views on the original memory, and Abhinavagupta’s commentary to the Bhagavad Gītā have been used as important tools of interpretation. Devotion is described as the constant memory of Kṛṣṇa, through which the practitioner succeeds in substituting some subconscious dispositions (...)
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  • Virtues, Social Roles, and Contextualism.Sarah Wright - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (1-2):95-114.
    : Contextualism in epistemology has been proposed both as a way to avoid skepticism and as an explanation for the variability found in our use of "knows." When we turn to contextualism to perform these two functions, we should ensure that the version we endorse is well suited for these tasks. I compare two versions of epistemic contextualism: attributor contextualism and methodological contextualism. I argue that methodological contextualism is superior both in its response to skepticism and in its mechanism for (...)
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  • Between Medicine and Rhetoric: Therapeutic Arguments in Roman Stoicism.Krzysztof Łapiński - 2019 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 9 (1):11-24.
    In this paper, I intend to focus on some rhetorical strategies of argumentation which play crucial role in the therapeutic discourse of Roman Stoicism, namely in Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, Seneca, and Marcus Aurelius. Reference is made to Chaim Perelman’s view of ancient rhetoric as an art of inventing arguments. Moreover, it is pointed out that in rhetorical education as well as in therapeutic discourse the concept of “exercise” and constant practice play a crucial role.
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  • Seneca’s Philosophical Predecessors and Contemporaries.John Sellars - 2014 - In Gregor Damschen & A. Heil (eds.), Brill's Companion to Seneca. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 97-112.
    This chapter examines the philosophical context in which Seneca thought and wrote, drawing primarily on evidence within Seneca's works. It considers Seneca's immediate teachers, his debt to the Stoic tradition, other Greek philosophical influences, and other contemporary philosophers.
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  • Reassessing Epictetus’ Opinion of Divination.Erlend D. MacGillivray - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (2):147-160.
    In recent years substantial effort has been expended by scholars to better understand the nature of the ancient interest in divination. This study will argue that the Stoic philosopher Epictetus’ views of divination have been largely overlooked and mistakenly defined by his modern interpreters. While often portrayed as being opposed to the art, it is proposed that he envisages divination can be beneficially employed: namely in highlighting certain moral actions, and in motivating individuals to commence philosophical study.
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  • R. D. Laing and Theology: The Influence of Christian Existentialism on The Divided Self.Gavin Miller - 2009 - History of the Human Sciences 22 (2):1-21.
    The radical psychiatrist R. D. Laing's first book, The Divided Self (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation — an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of `form criticism'. Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. (...)
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  • Before and After Philosophy Takes Possession of the Soul.Thomas A. Blackson - 2020 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):53-75.
    In the Phaedo, to explain why the philosopher lives in the unusually ascetic way he does, Socrates explains what someone realizes when philosophy takes possession of his soul and how he changes his behavior on the basis of this information. This paper considers the conception of belief the character uses in this explanation and whether it is the same as the conception Michael Frede thinks the historical Socrates is likely to have held and that the Stoics much later incorporated into (...)
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  • Virtuous and Vicious Anger.Bommarito Nicolas - 2017 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 11 (3):1-28.
    I defend an account of when and why anger is morally virtuous or vicious. Anger often manifests what we care about; a sports fan gets angry when her favorite team loses because she cares about the team doing well. Anger, I argue, is made morally virtuous or vicious by the underlying care or concern. Anger is virtuous when it manifests moral concern and vicious when it manifests moral indifference or ill will. In defending this view, I reject two common views (...)
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  • Stoicism.Dirk Baltzly - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated with mural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectures were held. Unlike ‘epicurean,’ the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins. The Stoics did, in fact, hold that emotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate love of anything (...)
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  • Akrasia in Epictetus: A Comparison with Aristotle.Michael Tremblay - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):397-417.
    This paper argues that Epictetus’ ethics involves three features which are also present in Aristotle’s discussion of akrasia in the Nicomachean Ethics: 1) A major problem for agents is when they fail to render a universal premise effective at motivating a particular action in accordance with that premise. 2) There are two reasons this occurs: Precipitancy and Weakness. 3) Precipitancy and Weakness can be prevented by gaining a fuller understanding of our beliefs and commitments. This comparison should make clear that (...)
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  • Refugees, Stoicism, and Cosmic Citizenship.William O. Stephens - 2020 - Pallas: Revue d'Etudes Antiques 112:289-307.
    The Roman imperial Stoics were familiar with exile. I argue that the Stoics’ view of being a refugee differed sharply from their view of what is owed to refugees. A Stoic adopts the perspective of a cosmopolitēs, a ‘citizen of the world’, a rational being everywhere at home in the universe. Virtue can be cultivated and practiced in any locale, so being a refugee is an ‘indifferent’ that poses no obstacle to happiness. But other people are our fellow cosmic citizens (...)
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  • The Logoi of Philosophers in Lucian of Samosata.Karin Schlapbach - 2010 - Classical Antiquity 29 (2):250-277.
    This paper explores Lucian's presentation of the philosopher as a creator of discourse. In particular, the paper argues that the lack of control over the discourse, once it is passed on, is at the core of Lucian's treatment of philosophers. An analysis of this eminently Platonic problem allows the interpretation both to go beyond the simplistic view that Lucian has no real philosophical interest at all but merely follows the Second Sophistic trend of subordinating philosophy to rhetoric, and to qualify (...)
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  • A Brief Account of Epictetus Prohairesis on Human Dignity.Janyne Sattler - 2014 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 12:113-119.
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  • A Brief Account of Epictetus Prohairesis on Human Dignity.Janyne Sattler - 2014 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 12:113-119.
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  • Beyond Compassion: On Nietzsche’s Moral Therapy in Dawn. [REVIEW]Keith Ansell-Pearson - 2011 - Continental Philosophy Review 44 (2):179-204.
    In this essay I seek to show that a philosophy of modesty informs core aspects of both Nietzsche’s critique of morality and what he intends to replace morality with, namely, an ethics of self-cultivation. To demonstrate this I focus on Dawn: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality, a largely neglected text in his corpus where Nietzsche carries out a quite wide-ranging critique of morality, including Mitleid. It is one of Nietzsche’s most experimental works and is best read, I claim, as (...)
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  • Una vida sin examen no merece ser vivida por el hombre: variaciones "socráticas" en Epicteto.Marcelo D. Boeri - 2012 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 53 (125):81-102.
  • Colloquium 7: Eudaimonism, Divinity, and Rationality in Greek Ethics1.A. A. Long - 2004 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 19 (1):123-143.
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  • Colloquium 6: The Good is Benefit: On the Stoic Definition of the Good.Katja Maria Vogt - 2008 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 23 (1):155-186.
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  • The Body in Spiritual Exercise: A Comparative Study Between Epictetan Askēsis and Early Buddhist Meditation.Jiangxia Yu - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (2):158-177.
    (2014). The Body in Spiritual Exercise: A Comparative Study between Epictetan Askēsis and Early Buddhist Meditation. Asian Philosophy: Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 158-177. doi: 10.1080/09552367.2014.919752.
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  • Destino E Liberdade No Pensamento Estoico Greco-Romano.Andityas Soares de Moura Costa Santos - 2013 - Revista Filosófica de Coimbra 22 (43):7-42.
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  • The Thirteenth Oration of Dio Chrysostom: Complexity and Simplicity, Rhetoric and Moralism, Literature and Life.John Moles - 2005 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 125:112-138.
    This paper takes the Thirteenth Oration as a test case of many of the questions raised by the career and works of Dio Chrysostom. The speech's generic creativity and philosophical expertise are demonstrated. Historical problems are clarified. Analysis shows how Dio weaves seemingly diverse themes into a complex unity. New answers are given to two crucial interpretative problems. Exploration of Dio's self-representation and of his handling of internal and external audiences and of temporal and spatial relationships leads to the conclusion (...)
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  • Consent, Conversion, and Moral Formation: Stoic Elements in Jonathan Edwards's Ethics.Elizabeth Agnew Cochran - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):623-650.
    The contemporary revival of virtue ethics has focused primarily on retrieving central moral commitments of Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, and the Neoplatonist traditions. Christian virtue ethicists would do well to expand this retrieval further to include the writings of the Roman Stoics. This essay argues that the ethics of Jonathan Edwards exemplifies major Stoic themes and explores three noteworthy points of intersection between Stoic ethics and Edwards's thought: a conception of virtue as consent to a benevolent providence, the identification of virtue (...)
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  • “Emotions That Do Not Move”: Zhuangzi and Stoics on Self-Emerging Feelings.David Machek - 2015 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (4):521-544.
    This essay develops a comparison between the Stoic and Daoist theories of emotions in order to provide a new interpretation of the emotional life of the wise person according to the Daoist classic Zhuangzi 莊子, and to shed light on larger divergences between the Greco-Roman and Chinese intellectual traditions. The core argument is that both Zhuangzi and the Stoics believed that there is a peculiar kind of emotional responses that emerge by themselves and are therefore wholly natural, since they do (...)
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  • Epictetus.Margaret Graver - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • The Art of Retrieval: Stoicism?C. Kavin Rowe - 2012 - Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (4):706-719.
    ABSTRACTThis essay argues that retrieving insights from the ancient Stoic philosophers for Christian ethics is much more difficult than is often assumed and, further, that the “ethics of retrieval” is itself something worth prolonged reflection. The central problem is that in their ancient sense both Christianity and Stoicism are practically dense patterns of reasoning and mutually incompatible forms of life. Coming to see this clearly requires the realization that the encounter between Stoicism and Christianity is a conflict of lived traditions. (...)
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