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Normative Systems

Philosophical Quarterly 23 (92):280 (1973)

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  1. On the Axiomatisation of Elgesem's Logic of Agency and Ability.Guido Governatori & Antonino Rotolo - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (4):403-431.
    In this paper we show that the Hilbert system of agency and ability presented by Dag Elgesem is incomplete with respect to the intended semantics. We argue that completeness result may be easily regained. Finally, we shortly discuss some issues related to the philosophical intuition behind his approach. This is done by examining Elgesem's modal logic of agency and ability using semantics with different flavours.
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  • Eros Roberto Grau: Pourquoi J’Ai Peur des Juges. L’Interprétation du Droit Et les Principes Juridiques: Avant-Propos D’Antoine Jeammaud, Paris, Kimé, 2014, 199 Pp.Jérémy Mercier - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (4):879-885.
    Les juges créent-ils du droit ? Eros Roberto Grau, avocat, ancien professeur à la prestigieuse Faculté de droit de l’Université de São Paulo et ancien membre de la Cour suprême brésilienne de 2004 à 2010, aurait sans aucun doute pu faire un livre inaccessible sur cette question, tant son parcours, ses forts engagements et ses réflexions prolifiques l’y autorisent.Sa biographie est en particulier disponible en brésilien sur le site de la Cour suprême brésilienne et sur son site personnel . Mais (...)
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  • An Axiomatic Theory of Law.Paolo Sandro - 2011 - Res Publica 17 (4):343-354.
    This paper presents in outline Luigi Ferrajoli’s axiomatic and general theory of law, as developed in his lifelong work Principia Iuris . The first section focuses on the three main aspects of the theory: the methodological, the theoretical and the pragmatic, which respectively represent the theory’s syntax, semantics and its pragmatics. Ferrajoli identifies three deontic gaps of norms: firstly, the one between their validity and efficacy ; secondly, the one between their justice and validity ; and finally, and most importantly, (...)
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  • Le Raisonnement Juridique: Une Pratique Spécifique? [REVIEW]Pierre Brunet - 2013 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 26 (4):767-782.
    Selon une thèse largement partagée, le droit et une pratique sociale et les contributions des participants sont complémentaires les unes des autres. Dans ces conditions, le raisonnement juridique consiste d’abord en une interprétation de ces pratiques et présuppose un point de vue interne de la part de celui qui souhaite en rendre compte. Le raisonnement juridique est ainsi conçu comme une argumentation pratique, subordonnée aux exigences de la rationalité car ceux qui participent à la pratique juridique sont contraints de donner (...)
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  • Les Figures de L’Ordre Juridique Dans les Relations Entre le Droit Et Son Environnement.Pierre Moor - 2013 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 26 (4):783-804.
    La question posée est celle des interfaces entre le système juridique et la société. Le contexte social du droit n’est pas pris ici comme surdéterminant, le droit se développant de manière autoréférentielle, dans une mesure, certes limitée, limites qu’il convient précisément d’analyser. Il y a entre le système social et le système juridique une circulation constante d’informations, qui passent par ce que nous appelons les figures juridiques. Celles-ci—le législateur, le juge ou le sujet de droit—sont en situation de choisir dans (...)
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  • The Structure of Conflicts of Fundamental Legal Rights.David Martinez-Zorrilla - 2011 - Law and Philosophy 30 (6):729-749.
    In recent years, the most widespread doctrine about the conflicts between fundamental (usually constitutional) legal rights could be summarized in the following three main theses: (1) The elements in conflict are legal principles, as opposed to legal rules; (2) Those conflicts are not consequences of the existence of inconsistencies or antinomies between the norms involved, but rather depend on the empirical circumstances of the case. In other words, the norms are logically consistent and the conflicts are not determinable a priori (...)
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  • An Inconsistency-Adaptive Deontic Logic for Normative Conflicts.Mathieu Beirlaen, Christian Straßer & Joke Meheus - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):285-315.
    We present the inconsistency-adaptive deontic logic DP r , a nonmonotonic logic for dealing with conflicts between normative statements. On the one hand, this logic does not lead to explosion in view of normative conflicts such as O A ∧ O ∼A, O A ∧ P ∼A or even O A ∧ ∼O A. On the other hand, DP r still verifies all intuitively reliable inferences valid in Standard Deontic Logic (SDL). DP r interprets a given premise set ‘as normally (...)
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  • Comparing Alternatives in the Law.Jaap Hage - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (3):181-225.
    This paper argues the thesis that a particular style of reasoning, qualitative comparative reasoning (QCR), plays a role in at least three areas of legal reasoning that are central in AI and law research, namely legal theory construction, case-based reasoning in the form of case comparison, and legal proof. The paper gives an informal exposition of one particular way to deal with QCR, based on the author’s previous work on reason-based logic (RBL). Then it contains a substantially adapted formalisation of (...)
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  • Legal Ontologies in Knowledge Engineering and Information Management.Joost Breuker, André Valente & Radboud Winkels - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (4):241-277.
    In this article we describe two core ontologies of law that specify knowledge that is common to all domains of law. The first one, FOLaw describes and explains dependencies between types of knowledge in legal reasoning; the second one, LRI-Core ontology, captures the main concepts in legal information processing. Although FOLaw has shown to be of high practical value in various applied European ICT projects, its reuse is rather limited as it is rather concerned with the structure of legal reasoning (...)
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  • Fundamental Legal Concepts: A Formal and Teleological Characterisation. [REVIEW]Giovanni Sartor - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (1-2):101-142.
    We shall introduce a set of fundamental legal concepts, providing a definition of each of them. This set will include, besides the usual deontic modalities (obligation, prohibition and permission), the following notions: obligative rights (rights related to other’s obligations), permissive rights, erga-omnes rights, normative conditionals, liability rights, different kinds of legal powers, potestative rights (rights to produce legal results), result-declarations (acts intended to produce legal determinations), and sources of the law.
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  • From Human Regulations to Regulated Software Agents’ Behavior: Connecting the Abstract Declarative Norms with the Concrete Operational Implementation. A Position Paper.Javier Vázquez-Salceda, Huib Aldewereld, Davide Grossi & Frank Dignum - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):73-87.
    In order to design and implement electronic institutions that incorporate norms governing the behavior of the participants of those institutions, some crucial steps should be taken. The first problem is that human norms are (on purpose) specified on an abstract level. This ensures applicability of the norms over long periods of time in many different circumstances. However, for an electronic institution to function according to those norms, they should be concrete enough to be able to check them run time. A (...)
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  • Legal Concepts as Inferential Nodes and Ontological Categories.Giovanni Sartor - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (3):217-251.
    I shall compare two views of legal concepts: as nodes in inferential nets and as categories in an ontology (a conceptual architecture). Firstly, I shall introduce the inferential approach, consider its implications, and distinguish the mere possession of an inferentially defined concept from the belief in the concept’s applicability, which also involves the acceptance of the concept’s constitutive inferences. For making this distinction, the inferential and eliminative analysis of legal concepts proposed by Alf Ross will be connected to the views (...)
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  • Norm-System Revision: Theory and Application. [REVIEW]Audun Stolpe - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (3):247-283.
    This paper generalises classical revision theory of the AGM brand to sets of norms. This is achieved substituting input/output logic for classical logic and tracking the changes. Operations of derogation and amendment—analogues of contraction and revision—are defined and characterised, and the precise relationship between contraction and derogation, on the one hand, and derogation and amendment on the other, is established. It is argued that the notion of derogation, in particular, is a very important analytical tool, and that even core deontic (...)
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  • Situated Legal Systems and Their Operational Semantics.Antônio Carlos da Rocha Costa - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (1):43-102.
    This work adopts H. Kelsen’s concept of legal system, proposes a formal definition for such notion, and introduces an operational semantical framework for legal systems that are situated in agent societies. Agent societies are defined. Relevant formal properties of situated legal systems are discussed; the way they are exposed in the operational semantical framework is explained, and their truth formally proved. Also, for the sake of a better understanding of the legal-theoretic assumptions of the paper, recurring issues regarding Kelsen’s theory (...)
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  • Jumps and Logic in the Law.Aleksander Peczenik - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (3-4):297-329.
    The main stream of legal theory tends to incorporate unwritten principles into the law. Weighing of principles plays a great role in legal argumentation, inter alia in statutory interpretation. A weighing and balancing of principles and other prima facie reasons is a jump. The inference is not conclusive.To deal with defeasibility and weighing, a jurist needs both the belief-revision logic and the nonmonotonic logic. The systems of nonmonotonic logic included in the present volume provide logical tools enabling one to speak (...)
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  • Imperatives: A Judgemental Analysis.Chris Fox - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (4):879-905.
    This paper proposes a framework for formalising intuitions about the behaviour of imperative commands. It seeks to capture notions of satisfaction and coherence. Rules are proposed to express key aspects of the general logical behaviour of imperative constructions. A key objective is for the framework to allow patterns of behaviour to be described while avoiding making any commitments about how commands, and their satisfaction criteria, are to be interpreted. We consider the status of some conundrums of imperative logic in the (...)
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  • Five Faces of Minimality.David Makinson - 1993 - Studia Logica 52 (3):339 - 379.
    We discuss similarities and residual differences, within the general semantic framework of minimality, between defeasible inference, belief revision, counterfactual conditionals, updating — and also conditional obligation in deontic logic. Our purpose is not to establish new results, but to bring together existing material to form a clear overall picture.
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  • Normal = Normative? The Role of Intelligent Agents in Norm Innovation.Marco Campenní, Giulia Andrighetto, Federico Cecconi & Rosaria Conte - 2009 - Mind and Society 8 (2):153-172.
    The necessity to model the mental ingredients of norm compliance is a controversial issue within the study of norms. So far, the simulation-based study of norm emergence has shown a prevailing tendency to model norm conformity as a thoughtless behavior, emerging from social learning and imitation rather than from specific, norm-related mental representations. In this paper, the opposite stance—namely, a view of norms as hybrid, two-faceted phenomena, including a behavioral/social and an internal/mental side—is taken. Such a view is aimed at (...)
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  • On Logic in the Law: "Something, but Not All".Susan Haack - 2007 - Ratio Juris 20 (1):1-31.
    In 1880, when Oliver Wendell Holmes (later to be a Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court) criticized the logical theology of law articulated by Christopher Columbus Langdell (the first Dean of Harvard Law School), neither Holmes nor Langdell was aware of the revolution in logic that had begun, the year before, with Frege's Begriffsschrift. But there is an important element of truth in Holmes's insistence that a legal system cannot be adequately understood as a system of axioms and corollaries; and (...)
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  • Legal Progress Through Pragma-Dialectics? Prospects Beyond Analogy and E Contrario.Hendrik Kaptein - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (4):497-507.
    Pragma-dialectical approaches to legal argumentation seem to be rather different from traditional approaches appealing to standards of propositional logic. Pragma-dialectical analysis of arguments by analogy and e contrario seem to fall foul to the rigors of logical analysis, in which problems or even concepts of analogy and e contrario seem to disappear. The brunt of both types of special legal argumentation appears to be borne by often implicit general principles and an appeal to the system of the law as a (...)
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  • What Can One Expect From Logic in the Law?: Notes • Discussion • Book Reviews.Eugenio Bulygin - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (1):150-156.
  • On the Wrong Track: Andrei Marmor on Legal Positivism, Interpretation, and Easy Cases.Pierluigi Chiassoni - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (2):248-267.
    Abstract. The paper argues for the following points: (1) Marmor's own understanding of "legal positivism" is different from the understanding defended, e.g., by Herbert Hart and Norberto Bobbio, and apparently misleads him into the wrong track of a theoretical inversion; (2) Marmor's two-stages model of (legal) interpretation—the understanding-interpretion model—provides no support for Marmor's own positivistic theory of law; (3) Marmor's concept of interpretation is at odds both with the basic tenets of Hartian and Continental methodological legal positivism, on the one (...)
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  • Deontic Logic as Logic of Legal Norms: Two Main Sources of Problems.Tecla Mazzarese - 1991 - Ratio Juris 4 (3):374-392.
  • Deduction and Justification in the Law. The Role of Legal Terms and Concepts.Lars Lindahl - 2004 - Ratio Juris 17 (2):182-202.
  • Constitutional Dilemmas and Balancing.David Martínez Zorrilla - 2011 - Ratio Juris 24 (3):347-363.
  • Ways of Solving Conflicts of Constitutional Rights: Proportionalism and Specificationism.José Juan Moreso - 2012 - Ratio Juris 25 (1):31-46.
    This paper deals with the question of the conflict of constitutional rights with regard to basic rights. Two extreme accounts are outlined: the subsumptive approach and the particularistic approach, that embody two main conceptions of practical rationality. Between the two approaches there is room for a range of options, two of which are examined: the proportionalist approach, which conserves the scope of rights restricting their stringency, and the specificationist approach, which preserves the stringency of rights restricting their scope. I will (...)
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  • An Antimony in Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law.Eugenio Bulygin - 1990 - Ratio Juris 3 (1):29-45.
  • Ought-Sentences and the Juristic Description of Rules.Riccardo Guastini - 1991 - Ratio Juris 4 (3):308-321.
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  • Jurisprudence in the Snare of Vagueness.Pierluigi Chiassoni - 2005 - Ratio Juris 18 (2):258-270.
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  • Fragments of a Theory of Legal Sources.Riccardo Guastini - 1996 - Ratio Juris 9 (4):364-386.
  • Some Remarks on the Notions of Legal Order and Legal System.José Juan Moreso & Pablo Eugenio Navarro - 1993 - Ratio Juris 6 (1):48-63.
  • The Representation of Legal Contracts.Aspassia Daskalopulu & Marek Sergot - 1997 - AI and Society 11 (1-2):6-17.
    The paper outlines ongoing research on logic-based tools for the analysis and representation of legal contracts, of the kind frequently encountered in large-scale engineering projects and complex, long-term trading agreements. We consider both contract formation and contract performance, in each case identifying the representational issues and the prospects for providing automated support tools.
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