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  1. Reporting on the Temporal Properties of Visual Events Masked with Continuous Flash Suppression.Travis Riddle, Hakwan Lau & Betsy Sparrow - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:154-168.
  • Neuropsychological Dissociations Between Priming and Recognition: A Single-System Connectionist Account.Annette Kinder & David R. Shanks - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (4):728-744.
  • Why Animals Are Not Robots.Theresa S. S. Schilhab - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):599-611.
    In disciplines traditionally studying expertise such as sociology, philosophy, and pedagogy, discussions of demarcation criteria typically centre on how and why human expertise differs from the expertise of artificial expert systems. Therefore, the demarcation criteria has been drawn between robots as formalized logical architectures and humans as creative, social subjects, creating a bipartite division that leaves out animals. However, by downsizing the discussion of animal cognition and implicitly intuiting assimilation of living organisms to robots, key features to explain why human (...)
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  • Learning Rapidly About the Relevance of Visual Cues Requires Conscious Awareness.Eoin Travers, Chris D. Frith & Nicholas Shea - 2018 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (8):1698–1713.
    Humans have been shown capable of performing many cognitive tasks using information of which they are not consciously aware. This raises questions about what role consciousness actually plays in cognition. Here, we explored whether participants can learn cue-target contingencies in an attentional learning task when the cues were presented below the level of conscious awareness, and how this differs from learning about conscious cues. Participants’ manual (Experiment 1) and saccadic (Experiment 2) response speeds were influenced by both conscious and unconscious (...)
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  • Don’T Bet on It! Wagering as a Measure of Awareness in Decision Making Under Uncertainty.Emmanouil Konstantinidis & David R. Shanks - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (6):2111-2134.
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  • Music Evoked Emotions Are Different–More Often Aesthetic Than Utilitarian.Klaus Scherer & Marcel Zentner - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):595-596.
    We disagree with Juslin & Vll's (J&V's) thesis that music-evoked emotions are indistinguishable from other emotions in both their nature and underlying mechanisms and that music just induces some emotions more frequently than others. Empirical evidence suggests that frequency differences reflect the specific nature of music-evoked emotions: aesthetic and reactive rather than utilitarian and proactive. Additional mechanisms and determinants are suggested as predictors of emotions triggered by music.
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  • Reversing Threat to Safety: Incongruence of Facial Emotions and Instructed Threat Modulates Conscious Perception but Not Physiological Responding.Florian Bublatzky, Martin Riemer & Pedro Guerra - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Insight and Strategy in Multiple-Cue Learning.David R. Shanks - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 135 (2):162-183.
    Insight and strategy 2 Abstract In multiple-cue learning (also known as probabilistic category learning) people acquire information about cue-outcome relations and combine these into predictions or judgments. Previous studies claim that people can achieve high levels of performance without explicit knowledge of the task structure or insight into their own judgment policies. It has also been argued that people use a variety of suboptimal strategies to solve such tasks. In three experiments we re-examined these conclusions by introducing novel measures of (...)
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  • Learning in a Changing Environment.Maarten Speekenbrink & David R. Shanks - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (2):266-298.
  • How Do We Know What We Are Doing? Time, Intention and Awareness of Action.Jean-Christophe Sarrazin, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Haggard - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):602-615.
    Time is a fundamental dimension of consciousness. Many studies of the “sense of agency” have investigated whether we attribute actions to ourselves based on a conscious experience of intention occurring prior to action, or based on a reconstruction after the action itself has occurred. Here, we ask the same question about a lower level aspect of action experience, namely awareness of the detailed spatial form of a simple movement. Subjects reached for a target, which unpredictably jumped to the side on (...)
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  • Romance, Risk, and Replication: Can Consumer Choices and Risk-Taking Be Primed by Mating Motives?David R. Shanks, Miguel A. Vadillo, Benjamin Riedel, Ashley Clymo, Sinita Govind, Nisha Hickin, Amanda J. F. Tamman & Lara M. C. Puhlmann - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (6):e142-e158.
  • Categories, Concepts, and Conditioning: How Humans Generalize Fear.Joseph E. Dunsmoor & Gregory L. Murphy - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (2):73-77.
  • Unconscious Conditioning: Demonstration of Existence and Difference From Conscious Conditioning.Anthony G. Greenwald & Jan De Houwer - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (12):1705-1721.
  • Learning, Awareness, and Instruction: Subjective Contingency Awareness Does Matter in the Colour-Word Contingency Learning Paradigm.James R. Schmidt & Jan De Houwer - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1754-1768.
    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour . In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance and half were not . The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be (...)
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  • Functional Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Relates to Learning and Awareness.Anthony Randal McIntosh, M. Natasha Rajah & Nancy J. Lobaugh - 2003 - Journal of Neuroscience 23 (16):6520-6528.
  • Differential Classical Conditioning of the Nocebo Effect: Increasing Heat-Pain Perception Without Verbal Suggestions.Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Dieter Kleinböhl, Rupert Hölzl & Susanne Becker - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Does Opposition Logic Provide Evidence for Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Artificial Grammar Learning?Richard J. Tunney & David R. Shanks - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):201-218.
    The question of whether studies of human learning provide evidence for distinct conscious and unconscious influences remains as controversial today as ever. Much of this controversy arises from the use of the logic of dissociation. The controversy has prompted the use of an alternative approach that places conscious and unconscious influences on memory retrieval in opposition. Here we ask whether evidence acquired via the logic of opposition requires a dual-process account or whether it can be accommodated within a single similarity-based (...)
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  • The Experiential Blink: Mapping the Cost of Working Memory Encoding Onto Conscious Perception in the Attentional Blink.Hannah Pincham, Howard Bowman & Szucs Denes - unknown
    The attentional blink represents a cognitive deficit in reporting the second of two targets, when that second target appears 200-600 msec after the first. However, it is unclear how this paradigm impacts the subjective visibility of T2, and whether the temporal profile of T2 report accuracy matches the temporal profile of subjective visibility. In order to compare report accuracy and subjective visibility, we asked participants to identify T1 and T2, and to rate the subjective visibility of T2 across two experiments. (...)
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  • Interoceptive Fear Learning to Mild Breathlessness as a Laboratory Model for Unexpected Panic Attacks.Meike Pappens, Evelien Vandenbossche, Omer Van den Bergh & Ilse Van Diest - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Commentary: Olfactory Aversive Conditioning During Sleep Reduces Cigarette-Smoking Behavior.Nicola Cellini & Valentina Parma - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Emotion and Consciousness.Naotsugu Tsuchiya & Ralph Adolphs - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):158-167.
    Consciousness and emotion feature prominently in our personal lives, yet remain enigmatic. Recent advances prompt further distinctions that should provide more experimental traction: we argue that emotion consists of an emotion state (functional aspects, including emo- tional response) as well as feelings (the conscious experience of the emotion), and that consciousness consists of level (e.g. coma, vegetative state and wake- fulness) and content (what it is we are conscious of). Not only is consciousness important to aspects of emotion but structures (...)
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  • Varieties of Consciousness.Paolo Bartolomeo & Gianfranco Dalla Barba - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):331-332.
    In agreement with some of the ideas expressed by Perruchet & Vinter (P&V), we believe that some phenomena hitherto attributed to processing may in fact reflect a fundamental distinction between direct and reflexive forms of consciousness. This dichotomy, developed by the phenomenological tradition, is substantiated by examples coming from experimental psychology and lesion neuropsychology.
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  • Reinforcement of Perceptual Inference: Reward and Punishment Alter Conscious Visual Perception During Binocular Rivalry.Gregor Wilbertz, Joanne van Slooten & Philipp Sterzer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • IP Pavlov and the Freedom Reflex.B. Baars - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (11):19-40.
    Why was Ivan Pavlevich Pavlov so widely celebrated in the decades after 1900? As his story of the 'freedom reflex' illustrates, Pavlov often overstated his observations. By calling all innate behaviour a reflex and all learned behaviour a conditional reflex, he meant to eliminate consciousness and volition from science. Pavlov's universal reflex explanation became the prototype for behaviourism.
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  • Strong Conscious Cues Suppress Preferential Gaze Allocation to Unconscious Cues.Andrea Alamia, Oleg Solopchuk & Alexandre Zénon - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Classical Conditioning, Awareness, and Brain Systems.Robert E. Clark, Joseph R. Manns & Larry R. Squire - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):524-531.
  • Does Dietary Learning Occur Outside Awareness?Jeffrey M. Brunstrom - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):453-470.
    Several forms of dietary learning have been identified in humans. These include flavor–flavor learning, flavor–postingestive learning , and learned satiety. Generally, learning is thought to occur in the absence of contingency or demand awareness. However, a review of the literature suggests that this conclusion may be premature because measures of awareness lack the rigor that is found in studies of other kinds of human learning. If associations do configure outside awareness then this should be regarded as a rare instance of (...)
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  • Interoceptive Awareness and Unaware Fear Conditioning: Are Subliminal Conditioning Effects Influenced by the Manipulation of Visceral Self-Perception?An K. Raes & Rudi De Raedt - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1393-1402.
    Research has shown repeatedly that attention influences implicit learning effects. In a similar vein, interoceptive awareness might be involved in unaware fear conditioning: The fact that the CS is repeatedly presented in the context of aversive bodily experiences might facilitate the development of conditioned responding. We investigated the role of interoceptive attention in a subliminal conditioning paradigm. Conditioning was embedded in a spatial cueing task with subliminally presented cues that were followed by a masking stimulus. Response times to the targets (...)
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  • Detecting Conscious Awareness From Involuntary Autonomic Responses.Ryan B. Scott, Ludovico Minati, Zoltan Dienes, Hugo D. Critchley & Anil K. Seth - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):936-942.
    Can conscious awareness be ascertained from physiological responses alone? We evaluate a novel learning-based procedure permitting detection of conscious awareness without reliance on language comprehension or behavioural responses. The method exploits a situation whereby only consciously detected violations of an expectation alter skin conductance responses . Thirty participants listened to sequences of piano notes that, without their being told, predicted a pleasant fanfare or an aversive noise according to an abstract rule. Stimuli were presented without distraction , or while distracted (...)
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  • On the Role of Attention in Generating Explicit Awareness of Contingent Relations: Evidence From Spatial Priming.Chris M. Fiacconi & Bruce Milliken - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1433-1451.
    In a series of four experiments, we examine the hypothesis that selective attention is crucial for the generation of conscious knowledge of contingency information. We investigated this question using a spatial priming task in which participants were required to localize a target letter in a probe display. In Experiment 1, participants kept track of the frequency with which the predictive letter in the prime appeared in various locations. This manipulation had a negligible impact on contingency awareness. Subsequent experiments requiring participants (...)
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  • Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning.Nick Chater - 2009 - Cognition 113 (3):350-364.
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  • A Multinomial Modeling Approach to Dissociate Different Components of the Truth Effect.Christian Unkelbach & Christoph Stahl - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):22-38.
    The subjective impression that statements are true increases when statements are presented repeatedly. There are two sources for this truth effect: An increase in validity based on recollection and increase in processing fluency due to repeated exposure . Using multinomial processing trees , we present a comprehensive model of the truth effect. Furthermore, we show that whilst the increase in processing fluency is indeed automatic, the interpretation and use of that experience is not. Experiment 1 demonstrates the standard use of (...)
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  • Phenomenal and Access Consciousness in Olfaction.Richard J. Stevenson - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1004-1017.
    Contemporary literature on consciousness, with some exceptions, rarely considers the olfactory system. In this article the characteristics of olfactory consciousness, viewed from the standpoint of the phenomenal /access distinction, are examined relative to the major senses. The review details several qualitative differences in both olfactory P consciousness and A consciousness . The basis for these differences is argued to arise from the functions that the olfactory system performs and from the unique neural architecture needed to instantiate them. These data suggest, (...)
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  • Awareness is Awareness is Awareness? Decomposing Different Aspects of Awareness and Their Role in Operant Learning of Pain Sensitivity.Susanne Becker, Dieter Kleinböhl & Rupert Hölzl - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1073-1084.
    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was (...)
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