Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. The Nature of the Memory Buffer in Implicit Learning: Learning Chinese Tonal Symmetries.Feifei Li, Shan Jiang, Xiuyan Guo, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):920-930.
    Previous research has established that people can implicitly learn chunks, which do not require a memory buffer to process. The present study explores the implicit learning of nonlocal dependencies generated by higher than finite-state grammars, specifically, Chinese tonal retrogrades and inversions , which do require buffers . People were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry instantiating one of the two grammars; after this training phase, people were informed of the existence of rules and asked to classify new poems, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • The Relationship Between Strategic Control and Conscious Structural Knowledge in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Ryan B. Scott, Mark C. Price & Zoltan Dienes - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:229-236.
  • Measuring Strategic Control in Implicit Learning: How and Why?Elisabeth Norman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Tonal Symmetry Induces Fluency and Sense of Well-Formedness.Fuqiang Qiao, Fenfen Sun, Fengying Li, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo & Zoltan Dienes - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Distinguishing the Role of Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge in Evaluative Conditioning.Laurent Waroquier, Marlène Abadie & Zoltan Dienes - 2020 - Cognition 205:104460.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge.Sachiko Kiyokawa, Zoltán Dienes, Daisuke Tanaka, Ayumi Yamada & Louise Crowe - 2012 - Cognition 124 (1):16-24.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Measuring “Intuition” in the SRT Generation Task.Elisabeth Norman & Mark C. Price - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):475-477.
    We address some concerns related to the use of post-trial attribution judgments, originally developed for artificial grammar learning , during the version of the serial reaction time task used by Fu, Dienes, and Fu . In particular, intuition attributions, which are central to Fu et al.’s arguments, seem problematic: This attribution is likely to be made when stimuli contain several competing sources of information to which subjective feelings could be attributed. The interpretation of intuition attributions in Fu et al.’s SRT (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Form–Meaning Connections.Weiwen Chen, Xiuyan Guo, Jinghua Tang, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1751-1760.
    We investigated the implicit learning of a linguistically relevant variable in a natural language context . Trial by trial subjective measures indicated that exposure to a form–animacy regularity led to unconscious knowledge of that regularity. Under the same conditions, people did not learn about another form–meaning regularity when a linguistically arbitrary variable was used instead of animacy . Implicit learning is constrained to acquire unconscious knowledge about features with high prior probabilities of being relevant in that domain.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Strategic Control in AGL is Not Attributable to Simple Letter Frequencies Alone.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price, Emma Jones & Zoltan Dienes - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1933-1934.
    In Norman, Price, and Jones , we argued that the ability to apply two sets of grammar rules flexibly from trial to trial on a “mixed-block” AGL classification task indicated strategic control over knowledge that was less than fully explicit. Jiménez suggested that our results do not in themselves prove that participants learned – and strategically controlled – complex properties of the structures of the grammars, but that they may be accounted for by learning of simple letter frequencies. We first (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Can Unconscious Knowledge Allow Control in Sequence Learning?Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):462-474.
    This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious.Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs.Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
    A series of five experiments investigated the extent of subliminal processing of negation. Participants were presented with a subliminal instruction to either pick or not pick an accompanying noun, followed by a choice of two nouns. By employing subjective measures to determine individual thresholds of subliminal priming, the results of these studies indicated that participants were able to identify the correct noun of the pair – even when the correct noun was specified by negation. Furthermore, using a grey-scale contrast method (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Subjective Measures of Implicit Knowledge That Go Beyond Confidence: Reply to Overgaard Et Al.☆.Zoltán Dienes, Ryan B. Scott & Anil K. Seth - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):685-686.
    Overgaard, Timmermans, Sandberg, and Cleeremans ask if the conscious experience of people in implicit learning experiments can be explored more fully than just confidence ratings allow. We show that confidence ratings play a vital role in such experiments, but are indeed incomplete in themselves: in addition, use of structural knowledge attributions and ratings of fringe feelings like familiarity are important in characterizing the phenomenology of the application of implicit knowledge.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Learning Without Consciously Knowing: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in Sequence Learning.Qiufang Fu, Guangyu Bin, Zoltan Dienes, Xiaolan Fu & Xiaorong Gao - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):22-34.
    This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • The Distinction Between Intuition and Guessing in the SRT Task Generation: A Reply to Norman and Price.Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):478-480.
    We investigated the extent to which people could generate sequences of responses based on knowledge acquired from the Serial Reaction Time task, depending on whether it felt subjectively like the response was based on pure guessing, intuition, conscious rules or memories. Norman and Price argued that in the context of our task, intuition responses were the same as guessing responses. In reply, we argue that not only do subjects apparently claim to be experiencing different phenomenologies when saying intuition versus guess, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Methodological Vs. Strategic Control in Artificial Grammar Learning: A Commentary on Norman, Price and Jones (2011).Luis Jiménez - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1930-1932.
    Norman et al. reported that participants exposed in succession to two artificial grammars could be able to learn implicitly about them, and could apply their knowledge strategically to select which string corresponds to one of these two grammars. In this commentary, I identify an artifact that could account for the learning obtained not only in this study, but also in some previous studies using the same procedures. I claim that more methodological control is needed before jumping to conclusions on the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Measuring Strategic Control in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Emma Jones - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1920-1929.
    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning , we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars , or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry: Tang Poetry Redefines Limits of Implicit Learning.Shan Jiang, Lei Zhu, Xiuyan Guo, Wendy Ma, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):476-486.
    The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning.Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation