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J. L. Mackie (1955). Evil and Omnipotence.

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  1.  45
    God’s Purpose for the Universe and the Problem of Animal Suffering.B. Kyle Keltz - forthcoming - Sophia:1-18.
    Proponents of the problem of animal suffering state that the great amount of animal death and suffering found in Earth’s natural history provides evidence against the truth of theism. In particular, philosophers such as Paul Draper have argued that regardless of the antecedent probability of theism and naturalism, animal suffering provides positive evidence for the truth of naturalism over theism. While theists have attempted to provide answers to the problem of animal suffering, almost none have argued that animal suffering and (...)
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  2.  19
    Omnipotence.Michael Wreen - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-17.
    If asked to define ‘omnipotence,’ the man on the street would probably say that it’s the ability to do anything. That’s about it, he’d think; nothing more needs be said. Philosophers are never so easily satisfied. They take it as matter of professional duty to find serious problems in important concepts, and to suggest that the concept be rejected or that solutions are at hand. This paper falls into the latter camp. Beginning with a relatively simple definition of ‘omnipotence,’ increasingly (...)
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  3.  27
    Soul-Making Theodicy and Compatibilism: New Problems and a New Interpretation.Michael Barnwell - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (1):29-46.
    In the elaboration of his soul-making theodicy, John Hick agrees with a controversial point made by compatibilists Antony Flew and John Mackie against the free will defense. Namely, Hick grants that God could have created humans such that they would be free to sin but would, in fact, never do so. In this paper, I identify three previously unrecognized problems that arise from his initial concession to, and ultimate rejection of, compatibilism. The first problem stems from the fact that in (...)
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  4.  29
    The Problem of Evil and the Suffering of Creeping Things.Dustin Crummett - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (1):71-88.
    Even philosophers of religion working on the problem of non-human animal suffering have ignored the suffering of creatures like insects. Sensible as this seems, it’s mistaken. I am not sure whether creatures like these can suffer, but it is plausible, on both commonsensical and scientific and philosophical grounds, that many of them can. If they do, their suffering makes the problem of evil much worse: their vast numbers mean the amount of evil in the world will almost certainly be increased (...)
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  5.  16
    A Radical Solution to the Problem of Evil.Gerald K. Harrison - 2017 - Sophia 56 (2):279-287.
    The problem of evil is widely recognised to be the most serious challenge to the reasonableness of believing this world to be God’s creation. In this paper, I offer a novel way of responding. I argue that given a certain sort of divine command metaethics our moral intuitions and beliefs about what moral goodness substantially involves cannot reasonably be expected to provide reliable insight into what God’s moral goodness substantially involves. As such, even if it is unreasonable to believe this (...)
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  6.  8
    Modus Vivendi, Toleration and Power Modus Vivendi, Toleration and Power.Glen Newey - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):425-442.
    This article deals with modus vivendi, toleration and power. On the face of it toleration and modus vivendi are in tension with each other, because of the power condition on toleration: that an agent is tolerant only if they have the power to engage in an alternative, non- or intolerant form of behaviour, and this seems to be absent in modus vivendi. The article argues that the scope of the power condition is unclear, but might be thought much more extensive (...)
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  7. Paratheism: A Proof That God Neither Exists nor Does Not Exist.Steven James Bartlett - 2016 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website: Http://Www.Willamette.Edu/~Sbartlet/Documents/Bartlett_Paratheism_A%20Proof%20that%20God%20neither%2 0Exists%20nor%20Does%20Not%20Exist.Pdf.
    Theism and its cousins, atheism and agnosticism, are seldom taken to task for logical-epistemological incoherence. This paper provides a condensed proof that not only theism, but atheism and agnosticism as well, are all of them conceptually self-undermining, and for the same reason: All attempt to make use of the concept of “transcendent reality,” which here is shown not only to lack meaning, but to preclude the very possibility of meaning. In doing this, the incoherence of theism, atheism, and agnosticism is (...)
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  8.  20
    Global and Local Atheisms.Jeanine Diller - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 79 (1):7-18.
    I introduce a distinction between global and local versions of atheism and theism, where global ones are about all notions of God and local ones are about specific notions. Current expressions of atheism are ambiguous between the two. I argue that global atheism is difficult to enunciate and even more difficult to defend, so much so that global atheism is not yet justified. Until it is, atheists should be local atheists.
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  9.  38
    Silencing Theodicy with Enthusiasm: Aesthetic Experience as a Response to the Problem of Evil in Shaftesbury, Annie Dillard, and the Book of Job.John McAteer - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (5):788-795.
    The problem of evil is not only a logical problem about God's goodness but also an existential problem about the sense of God's presence, which the Biblical book of Job conceives as a problem of aesthetic experience. Thus, just as theism can be grounded in religious experience, atheism can be grounded in experience of evil. This phenomenon is illustrated by two contrasting literary descriptions of aesthetic experience by Jean-Paul Sartre and Annie Dillard. I illuminate both of these literary texts with (...)
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  10.  87
    A Simpler Free Will Defence.C’Zar Bernstein & Nathaniel Helms - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 77 (3):197-203.
    Otte :165–177, 2009) and Pruss :400–415, 2012) have produced counterexamples to Plantinga’s famous free will defence against the logical version of the problem of evil. The target of this criticism is the possibility of universal transworld depravity, which is crucial to Plantinga’s defence. In this paper, we argue that there is a simpler and more plausible free will defence that does not require the possibility of universal transworld depravity or the truth of counterfactuals of creaturely freedom. We assume only that (...)
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  11.  68
    Transworld Depravity and Divine Omniscience.Sean Meslar - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 77 (3):205-218.
    This paper argues against the sufficiency of Alvin Plantinga’s free will defense, as presented in God, freedom, and evil as a response to the logical problem of evil. I begin by introducing the fundamental issues present in the problem of evil and proceed to present Plantinga’s response. Next, I argue that, despite the argument’s wide acceptance in the field, a central notion to the defense, transworld depravity, is internally inconsistent and that attempts to resolve the problem would result in an (...)
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  12.  78
    Has Plantinga “Buried” Mackie's Logical Argument From Evil?Anders Kraal - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 75 (3):189-196.
    In seeking to undermine Mackie’s logical argument from evil, Plantinga assumes that Mackie’s argument regards it as a necessary truth that a wholly good God would eliminate all evil that he could eliminate. I argue that this is an interpretative mistake, and that Mackie is merely assuming that the theist believes that God’s goodness entails that God would eliminate all evil that he could eliminate. Once the difference between these two assumptions, and the implausibility of Plantinga’s assumption, are brought out, (...)
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  13.  89
    Ignorance, Instrumentality, Compensation, and the Problem of Evil.Marilyn McCord Adams - 2013 - Sophia 52 (1):7-26.
    Some theodicists, skeptical theists, and friendly atheists agree that God-justifying reasons for permitting evils would have to have an instrumental structure: that is, the evils would have to be necessary to secure a great enough good or necessary to prevent some equally bad or worse evil. D.Z. Phillips contends that instrumental reasons could never justify anyone for causing or permitting horrendous evils and concludes that the God of Restricted Standard Theism does not exist—indeed, is a conceptual mistake. After considering Phillips’ (...)
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  14.  77
    Universalism and the Problem of Hell.Ioanna-Maria Patsalidou - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (11):808-820.
    Christian tradition speaks mainly of two possible post‐mortem human destinies. It holds that those human beings who, in their earthly lives, acted according to God’s will and accepted God’s love will be reconciled to Him in heaven; whereas those who have acted against God’s will and refused His love will be consigned to the everlasting torments of hell. The notion that hell is everlasting and also a place of unending suffering inevitably gives rise to the following question for theists: how (...)
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  15. The Normatively Relativised Logical Argument From Evil.John Bishop & Ken Perszyk - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (2):109-126.
    It is widely agreed that the ‘Logical’ Argument from Evil (LAFE) is bankrupt. We aim to rehabilitate the LAFE, in the form of what we call the Normatively Relativised Logical Argument from Evil (NRLAFE). There are many different versions of a NRLAFE. We aim to show that one version, what we call the ‘right relationship’ NRLAFE, poses a significant threat to personal-omniGod-theism—understood as requiring the belief that there is an omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good person who has created our world—because it (...)
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  16.  76
    Natural Selection and the Problem of Evil: An Evolutionary Model with Application to an Ancient Debate.Robert K. Fleck - 2011 - Zygon 46 (3):561-587.
    Abstract. Since Darwin, scholars have contemplated what our growing understanding of natural selection, combined with the fact that great suffering occurs, allows us to infer about the possibility that a benevolent God created the universe. Building on this long line of thought, I develop a model that illustrates how undesirable characteristics of the world (stylized “evils”) can influence long-run outcomes. More specifically, the model considers an evolutionary process in which each generation faces a risk from a “natural evil” (e.g., predation, (...)
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  17. Evil and the Many Universes Response.Jason Megill - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (2):127-138.
    I formulate and defend a version of the many universes (or multiverse) reply to the atheistic argument from evil. Specifically, I argue that (i) if we know that any argument from evil (be it a logical or evidential argument) is sound, then we know that God would be (or at least probably would be) unjustified in actualizing our universe. I then argue that (ii) there might be a multiverse and (iii) if so, then we do not know that God would (...)
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  18. Nelson Pike's Contribution to the Philosophy of Religion.Garrett Pendergraft - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (3):409-431.
    In this paper I attempt to capture the essence of Nelson Pike’s contribution to the philosophy of religion. My summary of his insights will revolve around three general topics: omniscience (and in particular its relation to human freedom), omnipotence (and in particular its relation to the existence of human suffering), and mysticism (with a focus on the question of whether and in what sense mystic visions can be sources of knowledge). Although the details vary in interesting ways, his work on (...)
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  19.  14
    Divine Omnipotence and Moral Perfection.Andrew Loke - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (4):525-538.
    Divine omnipotence entails that God can choose to do evil by taking up a human nature. In showing others by way of example how temptations are to be overcome, His exposure to evil desires in such circumstances is consistent with moral perfection. The view that 'God has the greatest power and is morally perfect simpliciter', is religiously more adequate than 'God has great power and is essentially morally perfect'. The essentiality of other divine attributes to God is discussed, and rebuttals (...)
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  20.  75
    Why a Believer Could Believe That God Answers Prayers.W. Paul Franks - 2009 - Sophia 48 (3):319-324.
    In a previous issue of this journal Michael Veber argued that God could not answer certain prayers because doing so would be immoral. In this article I attempt to demonstrate that Veber’s argument is simply the logical problem of evil applied to a possible world. Because of this, his argument is susceptible to a Plantinga-style defense.
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  21. The Problem of Natural Evil I: General Theistic Replies.Luke Gelinas - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (3):533-559.
    I examine different strategies involved in stating anti-theistic arguments from natural evil, and consider some theistic replies. There are, traditionally, two main types of arguments from natural evil: those that purport to deduce a contradiction between the existence of natural evil and the existence of God, and those that claim that the existence of certain types or quantities of natural evil significantly lowers the probability that theism is true. After considering peripheral replies, I state four prominent theistic rebutting strategies: skeptical (...)
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  22.  80
    The Anthropic Argument Against the Existence of God.Mark Walker - 2009 - Sophia 48 (4):351 - 378.
    If God is morally perfect then He must perform the morally best actions, but creating humans is not the morally best action. If this line of reasoning can be maintained then the mere fact that humans exist contradicts the claim that God exists. This is the ‘anthropic argument’. The anthropic argument, is related to, but distinct from, the traditional argument from evil. The anthropic argument forces us to consider the ‘creation question’: why did God not create other gods rather than (...)
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  23.  62
    Creation, Actualization and God's Choice Among Possible Worlds.Klaas J. Kraay - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (4):854-872.
    God is traditionally understood to be a perfect being who is the creator and sustainer of all that is. God's creative and sustaining activity is often thought to involve choosing a possible world for actualization. It is generally said that either there is (a) exactly one best of all possible worlds, or there are (b) infinitely many increasingly better worlds, or else there are (c) infinitely many unsurpassable worlds within God's power to actualize. On each view, critics have offered arguments (...)
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  24.  72
    What God Could Have Made.Michael Losonsky & Heimir Geirsson - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):355-376.
    Plantinga grants that there are possible worlds with freedom and no moral evil, but he argues that it is possible that although God is omnipotent, it is not within God’s power to actualize a world containing freedom and no moral evil. Plantinga believes that the atheologian assumes that it is necessary that it is within an omnipotent God’s power to actualize these better worlds, but in fact, Plantinga argues, this is demonstrably not the case. Since so many philosophers have regarded (...)
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  25.  12
    The Worship of Freedom: Negative and Positive Notions of Liberty in Philosophy of Religion and Political Philosophy.Christopher J. Insole - 2004 - Heythrop Journal 45 (2):209–226.
  26. The Worship of Freedom: Negative and Positive Notions of Liberty in Philosophy of Religion and Political Philosophy.Christopher J. Insole - 2004 - Heythrop Journal 45 (2):209-226.
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  27. Thomas Versus Thomas: A New Approach to Nagel's Bat Argument.Yujin Nagasawa - 2003 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):377-395.
    i l l ustrat es t he di ffi cul t y of providing a purely physical characterisation of phenomenal experi ence wi t ha vi vi d exampl e about a bat ’ s sensory apparatus. Whi l e a number of obj ect i ons have al ready been made to Nagel.
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  28.  9
    Plantinga's Defence of the Free Will Defence in Chapter Nine ofThe Nature of Necessity.K. H. A. Esmail - 2002 - Sophia 41 (2):19-29.
    Alvin Plantinga, in the ninth chapter ofThe Nature of Necessity, sets out a defence of the Free Will Defence (FWD)2. In what follows, I shall set out, to begin with, a statement of the main line of his argument3. I shall, then, set out a number of minor criticisms of the ninth chapter. Finally, I shall set out a criticism of Plantinga’s argument.
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  29.  79
    Applying Scientific Openmindedness to Religion and Science Education.Tom Settle - 1996 - Science & Education 5 (2):125-141.
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  30.  24
    Omnipotence and the Transfer of Power.Walter Glannon - 1994 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 36 (2):81 - 103.
  31.  54
    Theism, Natural Evil, and Superior Possible Worlds.Charles T. Hughes - 1992 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 31 (1):45 - 61.
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  32.  38
    Plantinga, Presumption, Possibility, and the Problem of Evil.Keith DeRose - 1991 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (4):497 - 512.
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  33.  6
    Evil and the Best of Possible Worlds.David E. Schrader - 1990 - Sophia 29 (2):40-54.
  34.  16
    Evil and the Best of Possible Worlds.David E. Schrader - 1988 - Sophia 27 (2):24-37.
  35.  11
    Descartes and the Paradox of the Stone.S. K. Wertz - 1984 - Sophia 23 (1):16-24.
  36.  18
    The Deductive Argument From Evil.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1981 - Sophia 20 (1):221--227.
    First, I consider J.L. Mackie's deductive argument from evil, noting that required modifications to his premises, especially those dealing with what it is to be a good person and omnipotence, do not entail that God would be required to eliminate evil completely. Hence, no contradiction exists between God's existence, possession of certain properties, and the existence of evil. Second I evaluate McCloskey's arguments against reasons for evil often suggested by the theist: that evil is a means to achieving the good, (...)
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  37.  7
    Christian Theism and the Free Will Defence.David Basinger - 1980 - Sophia 19 (2):20-33.
  38.  98
    Alvin Plantinga and the Argument From Evil.Michael Tooley - 1980 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (4):360 – 376.
    Among the central theses defended in this paper are the following. First, the logical incompatibility version of the argument from evil is not one of the crucial versions, and Plantinga, in fostering the illusion that it is, seriously misrepresents claims advanced by other philosophers. Secondly, Plantinga’s arguments against the thesis that the existence of any evil at all is logically incompatible with God’s existence. Thirdly, Plantinga’s attempt to demonstrate that the existence of a certain amount of evil in the world (...)
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  39.  3
    Some Theorems of Fitch on Omnipotence.Douglas Walton - 1976 - Sophia 15 (1):20-27.
  40.  8
    The Paradox of Omnipotence, and Perfection.Jerome Gellman - 1975 - Sophia 14 (3):31-39.
  41.  3
    Finite and Infinite Gods.A. Olding - 1967 - Sophia 6 (1):3-7.
  42.  4
    Freedom and Evil.P. M. Farrell - 1958 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 36 (3):216 – 221.
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