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  1. Abstraction and Idealization in the Formal Verification of Software Systems.Nicola Angius - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (2):211-226.
    Questions concerning the epistemological status of computer science are, in this paper, answered from the point of view of the formal verification framework. State space reduction techniques adopted to simplify computational models in model checking are analysed in terms of Aristotelian abstractions and Galilean idealizations characterizing the inquiry of empirical systems. Methodological considerations drawn here are employed to argue in favour of the scientific understanding of computer science as a discipline. Specifically, reduced models gained by Dataion are acknowledged as Aristotelian (...)
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  • Towards the Methodological Turn in the Philosophy of Science.Hsiang-Ke Chao, Szu-Ting Chen & Roberta L. Millstein - 2013 - In Hsiang-Ke Chao, Szu-Ting Chen & Roberta L. Millstein (eds.), Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics. Springer.
    This chapter provides an introduction to the study of the philosophical notions of mechanisms and causality in biology and economics. This chapter sets the stage for this volume, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics, in three ways. First, it gives a broad review of the recent changes and current state of the study of mechanisms and causality in the philosophy of science. Second, consistent with a recent trend in the philosophy of science to focus on scientific practices, it in (...)
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  • Imagination's Grip on Science.Tim Mey - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (2):222-239.
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  • The Distribution of Representation.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2006 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36 (2):141–160.
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  • Enculturation Into Technoscience: Analysis of the Views of Novices and Experts on Modelling and Learning in Nanophysics.Suvi Tala - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (7-8):733-760.
  • The Strategies of Modeling in Biology Education.Julia Svoboda & Cynthia Passmore - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (1):119-142.
  • A ‘Semantic’ View of Scientific Models for Science Education.Agustín Adúriz-Bravo - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (7):1593-1611.
  • Metaphysics as Modeling: The Handmaiden’s Tale.L. A. Paul - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 160 (1):1-29.
    Critics of contemporary metaphysics argue that it attempts to do the hard work of science from the ease of the armchair. Physics, not metaphysics, tells us about the fundamental facts of the world, and empirical psychology is best placed to reveal the content of our concepts about the world. Exploring and understanding the world through metaphysical reflection is obsolete. In this paper, I will show why this critique of metaphysics fails, arguing that metaphysical methods used to make claims about the (...)
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  • Scientific Theories of Computational Systems in Model Checking.Nicola Angius & Guglielmo Tamburrini - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):323-336.
    Model checking, a prominent formal method used to predict and explain the behaviour of software and hardware systems, is examined on the basis of reflective work in the philosophy of science concerning the ontology of scientific theories and model-based reasoning. The empirical theories of computational systems that model checking techniques enable one to build are identified, in the light of the semantic conception of scientific theories, with families of models that are interconnected by simulation relations. And the mappings between these (...)
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  • Computational Idealizations in Software Intensive Science: A Comment on Symons’ and Horner’s Paper.Nicola Angius - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):479-484.
    This commentary on John Symons’ and Jack Horner’s paper, besides sharing its main argument, challenges the authors’ statement that there is no effective method to evaluate software-intensive systems as a distinguishing feature of software intensive science. It is underlined here how analogous methodological limitations characterise the evaluations of empirical systems in non-software intensive sciences. The authors’ claim that formal methods establish the correctness of computational models rather than of the represented programme is here compared with the empirical adequacy problem typifying (...)
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  • The Problem of Justification of Empirical Hypotheses in Software Testing.Nicola Angius - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):423-439.
    This paper takes part in the methodological debate concerning the nature and the justification of hypotheses about computational systems in software engineering by providing an epistemological analysis of Software Testing, the practice of observing the programs’ executions to examine whether they fulfil software requirements. Property specifications articulating such requirements are shown to involve falsifiable hypotheses about software systems that are evaluated by means of tests which are likely to falsify those hypotheses. Software Reliability metrics, used to measure the growth of (...)
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  • Understanding Natural Science Based on Abductive Inference: Continental Drift.Jun-Young Oh - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (2):153-174.
    This study aims to understand scientific inference for the evolutionary procedure of Continental Drift based on abductive inference, which is important for creative inference and scientific discovery during problem solving. We present the following two research problems: (1) we suggest a scientific inference procedure as well as various strategies and a criterion for choosing hypotheses over other competing or previous hypotheses; aspects of this procedure include puzzling observation, abduction, retroduction, updating, deduction, induction, and recycle; and (2) we analyze the “theory (...)
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  • From Core Cognition to Intuitive Theories: A Psychologist’s Account of Conceptual Change: Susan Carey: The Origin of Concepts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, Viii+598pp, £32.50, $49.95 HB. [REVIEW]Christophe Heintz - 2012 - Metascience 21 (2):439-444.
  • The Strategy of Model-Based Science.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):725-740.
  • A.I., Scientific Discovery and Realism.Mario Alai - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):21-42.
    Epistemologists have debated at length whether scientific discovery is a rational and logical process. If it is, according to the Artificial Intelligence hypothesis, it should be possible to write computer programs able to discover laws or theories; and if such programs were written, this would definitely prove the existence of a logic of discovery. Attempts in this direction, however, have been unsuccessful: the programs written by Simon's group, indeed, infer famous laws of physics and chemistry; but having found no new (...)
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  • Preface.Lorenzo Magnani & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2001 - Mind and Society 2 (2):29-32.
  • Connecting Internal and External Representations: Spatial Transformations of Scientific Visualizations. [REVIEW]J. Gregory Trafton, Susan B. Trickett & Farilee E. Mintz - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):89-106.
    Many scientific discoveries have depended on external diagrams or visualizations. Many scientists also report to use an internal mental representation or mental imagery to help them solve problems and reason. How do scientists connect these internal and external representations? We examined working scientists as they worked on external scientific visualizations. We coded the number and type of spatial transformations (mental operations that scientists used on internal or external representations or images) and found that there were a very large number of (...)
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  • Reconsidering the Carnap-Kuhn Connection.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2015 - In Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer Verlag.
    Recently, some philosophers of science (e.g., Gürol Irzik, Michael Friedman) have challenged the ‘received view’ on the relationship between Rudolf Carnap and Thomas Kuhn, suggesting that there is a close affinity (rather than opposition) between their philosophical views. In support of this argument, these authors cite Carnap and Kuhn’s similar views on incommensurability, theory-choice, and scientific revolutions. Against this revisionist view, I argue that the philosophical relationship between Carnap and Kuhn should be regarded as opposed rather than complementary. In particular, (...)
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  • Understanding Scientific Inquiries of Galileo’s Formulation for the Law of Free Falling Motion.Jun-Young Oh - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (4):567-578.
    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role of abstraction and idealization in Galileo’s scientific inquiries into the law of free falling motion, and their importance in the history of science. Because there is no consensus on the use of the terms “abstraction” and “idealization” in the literature, it is necessary to distinguish between them at the outset. This paper will argue for the importance of abstraction and idealization in physics and the theories and (...)
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  • Symposium on “Cognition and Rationality: Part I” The Rationality of Scientific Discovery: Abductive Reasoning and Epistemic Mediators. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Magnani - 2006 - Mind and Society 5 (2):213-228.
    Philosophers have usually offered a number of ways of describing hypotheses generation, but all aim at demonstrating that the activity of generating hypotheses is paradoxical, illusory or obscure, and then not analysable. Those descriptions are often so far from Peircian pragmatic prescription and so abstract to result completely unknowable and obscure. The “computational turn” gives us a new way to understand creative processes in a strictly pragmatic sense. In fact, by exploiting artificial intelligence and cognitive science tools, computational philosophy allows (...)
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  • 'New Age' Philosophies of Science: Constructivism, Feminism and Postmodernism.N. Koertge - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):667-683.
    This paper surveys three controversial new directions in research about the nature of science and briefly summarizes both the intellectual and sociological impact of this work. A bibliographic introduction to the major literature is provided and some fruitful directions for future research are proposed. Philosophers of science are also exhorted to perform 'community service' by correcting misunderstandings of the methods of science fostered by these new approaches.
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  • Naturalizing Peirce's Semiotics: Ecological Psychology's Solution to the Problem of Creative Abduction.Alex Kirlik & Peter Storkerson - 2010 - In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. pp. 31--50.
    "It is difficult not to notice a curious unrest in the philosophic atmosphere of the time, a loosening of old landmarks, a softening of oppositions, a mutual borrowing from one another on the part of systems anciently closed, and an interest in new suggestions, however vague, as if the one thing sure were the inadequacy of extant school-solutions. The dissatisfactions with these seems due for the most part to a feeling that they are too abstract and academic. Life is confused (...)
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  • Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science.T. R. Addis & D. C. Gooding - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):37-52.
    We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of new information in a computer model. Experiments with this model display a number of features of collective belief-revision leading to consensus-formation, (...)
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  • Scientific Fictions as Rules of Inference.Mauricio Suárez - 2009 - In Fictions in Science: Philosophical Essays on Modeling and Idealization. Routledge. pp. 158--178.
  • Explanation and Understanding Through Scientific Models.Richard David-Rus - unknown
  • Mathematical Representations in Science: A Cognitive–Historical Case History.Ryan D. Tweney - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):758-776.
  • Soccer Science and the Bayes Community: Exploring the Cognitive Implications of Modern Scientific Communication.Jeff Shrager, Dorrit Billman, Gregorio Convertino, J. P. Massar & Peter Pirolli - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):53-72.
  • Conjectures and Manipulations: External Representations in Scientific Reasoning.Lorenzo Magnani - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):9-31.
    What I call theoretical abduction (sentential and model-based) certainly illustrates much of what is important in abductive reasoning, especially the objective of selecting and creating a set of hypotheses that are able to dispense good (preferred) explanations of data, but fails to account for many cases of explanations occurring in science or in everyday reasoning when the exploitation of the environment is crucial. The concept of manipulative abduction is devoted to capture the role of action in many interesting situations: action (...)
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  • Idealization Within a Structuralist Perspective.Xavier de Donato Rodríguez - 2011 - Metatheoria – Revista de Filosofía E Historia de la Ciencia 1:65--90.
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  • Models as Make-Believe.Adam Toon - 2010 - In Roman Frigg & Matthew Hunter (eds.), Beyond Mimesis and Convention: Representation in Art and Science. Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science.
    In this paper I propose an account of representation for scientific models based on Kendall Walton’s ‘make-believe’ theory of representation in art. I first set out the problem of scientific representation and respond to a recent argument due to Craig Callender and Jonathan Cohen, which aims to show that the problem may be easily dismissed. I then introduce my account of models as props in games of make-believe and show how it offers a solution to the problem. Finally, I demonstrate (...)
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  • Lessons From the Large Hadron Collider for Model-Based Experimentation: The Concept of a Model of Data Acquisition and the Scope of the Hierarchy of Models.Koray Karaca - 2018 - Synthese 195 (12):1-22.
    According to the hierarchy of models account of scientific experimentation developed by Patrick Suppes and elaborated by Deborah Mayo, theoretical considerations about the phenomena of interest are involved in an experiment through theoretical models that in turn relate to experimental data through data models, via the linkage of experimental models. In this paper, I dispute the HoM account in the context of present-day high-energy physics experiments. I argue that even though the HoM account aims to characterize experimentation as a model-based (...)
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  • On the Mutual Dependence Between Formal Methods and Empirical Testing in Program Verification.Nicola Angius - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):349-355.
    This paper provides a review of Raymond Turner’s book Computational Artefacts. Towards a Philosophy of Computer Science. Focus is made on the definition of program correctness as the twofold problem of evaluating whether both the symbolic program and the physical implementation satisfy a set of specifications. The review stresses how these are not two separate problems. First, it is highlighted how formal proofs of correctness need to rely on the analysis of physical computational processes. Secondly, it is underlined how software (...)
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  • Scientific Models.Stephen M. Downes - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (11):757-764.
    This contribution provides an assessment of the epistemological role of scientific models. The prevalent view that all scientific models are representations of the world is rejected. This view points to a unified way of resolving epistemic issues for scientific models. The emerging consensus in philosophy of science that models have many different epistemic roles in science is presented and defended.
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  • Scientific Representation.Mauricio Suárez - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (1):91-101.
    Scientific representation is a currently booming topic, both in analytical philosophy and in history and philosophy of science. The analytical inquiry attempts to come to terms with the relation between theory and world; while historians and philosophers of science aim to develop an account of the practice of model building in the sciences. This article provides a review of recent work within both traditions, and ultimately argues for a practice-based account of the means employed by scientists to effectively achieve representation (...)
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  • Model‐Based Reasoning in Distributed Cognitive Systems.Nancy J. Nersessian - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):699-709.
    This paper examines the nature of model-based reasoning in the interplay between theory and experiment in the context of biomedical engineering research laboratories, where problem solving involves using physical models. These "model systems" are sites of experimentation where in vitro models are used to screen, control, and simulate specific aspects of in vivo phenomena. As with all models, simulation devices are idealized representations, but they are also systems themselves, possessing engineering constraints. Drawing on research in contemporary cognitive science that construes (...)
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  • Simulating Many-Body Models in Physics: Rigorous Results, 'Benchmarks', and Cross-Model Justification.Axel Gelfert - unknown
    This paper argues that, for a prospective philosophical analysis of models and simulations to be successful, it must accommodate an account of mathematically rigorous results. Such rigorous results are best thought of as genuinely model-specific contributions, which can neither be deduced from fundamental theory nor inferred from empirical data. Rigorous results often provide new indirect ways of assessing the success of computer simulations of individual models. This is most obvious in cases where rigorous results map different models on to one (...)
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  • Entropy - A Guide for the Perplexed.Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 115-142.
    Entropy is ubiquitous in physics, and it plays important roles in numerous other disciplines ranging from logic and statistics to biology and economics. However, a closer look reveals a complicated picture: entropy is defined differently in different contexts, and even within the same domain different notions of entropy are at work. Some of these are defined in terms of probabilities, others are not. The aim of this chapter is to arrive at an understanding of some of the most important notions (...)
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  • Logic and Abduction: Cognitive Externalizations in Demonstrative Environments.Lorenzo Magnani - 2007 - Theoria 22 (3):275-284.
    In her book Abductive Reasoning Atocha Aliseda (2006) stresses the attention to the logical models of abduction, centering on the semantic tableaux as a method for extending and improving both the whole cognitive/philosophical view on it and on other more restricted logical approaches. I will provide further insight on two aspects. The first is re-lated to the importance of increasing logical knowledge on abduction: Aliseda clearly shows how the logical study on abduction in turn helps us to extend and modernize (...)
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  • Perceiving the Infinite and the Infinitesimal World: Unveiling and Optical Diagrams in Mathematics. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Magnani & Riccardo Dossena - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):7-23.
    Many important concepts of the calculus are difficult to grasp, and they may appear epistemologically unjustified. For example, how does a real function appear in “small” neighborhoods of its points? How does it appear at infinity? Diagrams allow us to overcome the difficulty in constructing representations of mathematical critical situations and objects. For example, they actually reveal the behavior of a real function not “close to” a point (as in the standard limit theory) but “in” the point. We are interested (...)
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  • Essay Review: Models and Exploratory Models.Fiora Salis - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 63:58-61.
    Review essay of How to do science with models. A philosophical primer. Springer briefs in philosophy, Axel Gelfert., 129, Price € 49,99 softcover, ISBN: 978-3-319-27954-1.
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  • Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery?Mehul Shah - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.
    In his influential paper, 'Why Was the Logic of Discovery Abandoned?', Laudan contends that there has been no philosophical rationale for a logic of discovery since the emergence of consequentialism in the 19th century. It is the purpose of this paper to show that consequentialism does not involve the rejection of all types of logic of discovery. Laudan goes too far in his interpretation of the historical shift from generativism to consequentialism, and his claim that the context of pursuit belongs (...)
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  • Conceptual Mapping Through Keyword Coupled Clustering.Zvika Marx & Ido Dagan - 2001 - Mind and Society 2 (2):59-85.
    This paper introduces coupled clustering—a novel computational framework for detecting corresponding themes in unstructured data. Gaining its inspiration from the structure mapping theory, our framework utilizes unsupervised statistical learning tools for automatic construction of aligned representations reflecting the context of the particular mapping being made. The coupled clustering algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated through detecting conceptual correspondences in textual corpora. In its current phase, the method is primarily oriented towards context-dependent feature-based similarity. However, it is preliminary demonstrated how it could (...)
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  • Remodeling the Past.Tim De Mey - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):47-66.
    In some of the papers in which she develops and defends the mental modelview of thought experiments in physics, Nersessian expresses the belief that her account has implications for thought experiments in other domains as well. In this paper, I argue, firstly, that counterfactual reasoning has a legitimate place in historical inquiry, and secondly, that the mental model view can account for such "alternative histories". I proceed as follows. Firstly, I review the main accounts of thought experiments in physics and (...)
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  • Rigorous Results, Cross-Model Justification, and the Transfer of Empirical Warrant: The Case of Many-Body Models in Physics.Axel Gelfert - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):497-519.
    This paper argues that a successful philosophical analysis of models and simulations must accommodate an account of mathematically rigorous results. Such rigorous results may be thought of as genuinely model-specific contributions, which can neither be deduced from fundamental theory nor inferred from empirical data. Rigorous results provide new indirect ways of assessing the success of models and simulations and are crucial to understanding the connections between different models. This is most obvious in cases where rigorous results map different models on (...)
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  • Multiagent System Based Scientific Discovery Within Information Society.Francesco Amigoni, Viola Schiaffonati & Marco Somalvico - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):111-127.
    In this paper we investigate the role of information machines in the scientific enterprise intended as a social activity. Our discussion is based on a powerful kind of information machines called scientific social agencies, which are multiagent systems of distributed artificial intelligence. Scientific social agency, on the one hand, can provide great benefits to the present common scientific practice but, on the other hand, its development represents a strong and still open technical challenge. This paper shows a coherent framework in (...)
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  • Preface.Lorenzo Magnani & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):1-4.
  • Preface.Lorenzo Magnani & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):3-7.
  • Representing N-Ary Relations in the Semantic Web.Marco Giunti, Giuseppe Sergioli, Giuliano Vivanet & Simone Pinna - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Knowledge representation is a central issue for Artificial Intelligence and the Semantic Web. In particular, the problem of representing n-ary relations in RDF-based languages such as RDFS or OWL by no means is an obvious one. With respect to previous attempts, we show why the solutions proposed by the well known W3C Working Group Note on n-ary relations are not satisfactory on several scores. We then present our abstract model for representing n-ary relations as directed labeled graphs, and we show (...)
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  • Estruturas conceituais e estratégias de investigação: modelos representacionais e instanciais, analogias e correspondência.Valter Alnis Bezerra - 2011 - Scientiae Studia 9 (3):585-609.
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