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  1. Different Countries-Different Paths Extended Comparison of the Introduction of eIDs in Eight European Countries.Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):235-245.
    A first comparison of the innovation processes of introducing electronic identities on a national level in Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, based on extensive expert interviews with key actors, has been amended by four more country reports from Denmark, Finland, Estonia and Sweden in order to check the validity of generalisations derived from the first four cases. The extended comparison with the four additional countries increases the variance between the eID systems in Europe by showing differing technical and organisational features, (...)
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  • Introduction: Conceptual Framework and Research Design for a Comparative Analysis of National eID Management Systems in Selected European Countries. [REVIEW]Herbert Kubicek - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):5-26.
    This paper introduces the objectives and basic approach of a collaborative comparative research project on the introduction of national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS) in Member States of the European Union. Altogether eight country case studies have been produced in two waves by researchers in the respective countries, which will be presented in the following articles in this special issue. The studies adopt a common conceptual framework and use the same terminology, which will be presented in this introduction, just as (...)
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  • The Path Dependency of National Electronic Identities.Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):111-153.
    This paper compares the four national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS), which have been described in the previous chapters. The section Similarities and differences between four national eIDMS will highlight the differences between these systems conceived as socio-technical systems with regard to the eID itself, the eID cards as tokens, the authentication processes as well as the procedures for distribution and personalisation, the support provided for installing the technology and any provider-related regulation. The section A three-fold path dependency , according (...)
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