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The Self and Its Brain

Philosophical Quarterly 29 (117):370 (1979)

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  1. The Process of Reflective Teaching.Peter Silcock - 1994 - British Journal of Educational Studies 42 (3):273 - 285.
    The process of reflection is analysed into three components - an ego-driven purpose, a restructuring capability, and a transforming perspective. Different types of reflection are argued to be instances of cognitive restructuring determined by purpose and by context. Procedures for resolving contradictions in the literature concerning ways in which 'reflective teaching' can be fostered are also suggested. It is argued that adopting any single model of 'reflective practice' can be unnecessarily restrictive given the ubiquity of the reflective process. Finally, the (...)
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  • Why Quantum Correlates of Consciousness Are Fine, but Not Enough.Ruediger Vaas - 2001 - Informacao E Cognicao 3 (1):64-107.
    The existence of quantum correlates of consciousness (QCC) is doubtful from a scientific perspective. But even if their existence were verified, philosophical problems would remain. On the other hand, there could be more to QCC than meets the sceptic's eye: • QCC might be useful or even necessary for a better understanding of conscious experience or quantum physics or both. The main reasons for this are: the measurement problem (the nature of observation, the mysterious collapse of the wave function, etc.), (...)
     
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  • Three Elements of Causation: Biconditionality, Asymmetry, and Experimental Manipulability.Ralph Ellis - 2001 - Philosophia 28 (1-4):103-125.
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  • Causal closure of the physical, mental causation, and physics.Dejan R. Dimitrijević - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-22.
    The argument from causal closure of the physical is usually considered the most powerful argument in favor of the ontological doctrine of physicalism. Many authors, most notably Papineau, assume that CCP implies that physicalism is supported by physics. I demonstrate, however, that physical science has no bias in the ontological debate between proponents of physicalism and dualism. I show that the arguments offered for CCP are effective only against the accounts of mental causation based on the action of the mental (...)
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  • Creativity in Biology and in the Human Mind (Manifestation of Concepts).J. Siegfried Wagener - 1985 - Acta Biotheoretica 34 (1):3-51.
  • Minds, Brains, and Programs.John R. Searle - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):417-57.
    What psychological and philosophical significance should we attach to recent efforts at computer simulations of human cognitive capacities? In answering this question, I find it useful to distinguish what I will call "strong" AI from "weak" or "cautious" AI. According to weak AI, the principal value of the computer in the study of the mind is that it gives us a very powerful tool. For example, it enables us to formulate and test hypotheses in a more rigorous and precise fashion. (...)
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  • The Mind-Body Problem: An Overview.Kirk Ludwig - 2002 - In Stephen P. Stich & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell. pp. 1-46.
    My primary aim in this chapter is to explain in what the traditional mind–body problem consists, what its possible solutions are, and what obstacles lie in the way of a resolution. The discussion will develop in two phases. The first phase, sections 1.2–1.4, will be concerned to get clearer about the import of our initial question as a precondition of developing an account of possible responses to it. The second phase, sections 1.5–1.6, explains how a problem arises in our attempts (...)
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  • Mariano Artigas: 1979–1987.José María Valderas - 2016 - Scientia et Fides 4 (2):57-75.
    The period 1979 to 1987 was critical in the development of the intellectual interests of Mariano Artigas. He focused on the analysis and critique of scientism and its forms, particularly because of its impact on the debate on science and theology. In the field of meta-theory of consciousness he was influenced by John Eccles. He studied the properties of science, its limitations and, above all, its reliability.
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  • Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics.Henry P. Stapp - 1993 - Springer Verlag.
    In this book, which contains several of his key papers as well as new material, he focuses on the problem of consciousness and explains how quantum mechanics...
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  • Biological Foundations of Prediction in an Unpredictable Environment.M. Marušiç - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (4):485-499.
  • Epiphenomenalism and Machines: A Discussion of Van Rooijen's Critique of Popper.Davor Pećnjak - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (3):404-408.
  • Causal Emergentism.Olga Markič - 2004 - Acta Analytica 19 (33):65-81.
    In this paper I describe basic features of traditional (British) emergentism and Popper’s emergentist theory of consciousness and compare them to the contemporary versions of emergentism present in connectionist approach in cognitive sciences. I argue that despite their similarities, the traditional form, as well as Popper’s theory belong to strong causal emergentism and yield radically different ontological consequences compared to the weaker, contemporary version present in cognitive science. Strong causal emergentism denies the causal closure of the physical domain and introduces (...)
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  • Emergencies and Emergent Selves.Felicity Haynes - 2005 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (3):343–347.
    Marshall's article used Wittgenstein to argue that self functions as an explanation for a name rather than a referent. This brief response tries to rescue Marshall from an apparent reduction of self to material body without returning him to the mind/body dualism that he, with Wittgenstein and Dennett, seeks to avoid. It treats ‘I’ as an emergent institutional fact, not inconsistent with a constructed explanation or narrative, but emerging from shared social practices rather than an abstracted agent.
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  • Popper, Objectification, and the Problem of the Public Sphere.Jeremy Shearmur - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (4):392-411.
    Shearmur argues for the importance of Popper’s ideas about World 3, and against the idea that they should be re-interpreted in social terms. However, he also argues for the importance of Popper’s ideas about methodological rules—and that these may be given a partially social interpretation. The content of our ideas may in consequence differ from what we take it to be, as a consequence of our institutions and practices operating as methodological rules. He also explores related ideas about the interplay (...)
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  • Toward Peaceful Coexistence of Adaptive Central Strategies and Medical Professionals.J. Greg Anson & Mark L. Latash - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):94-106.
  • Free Will and Probability.Danny Frederick - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (1):60-77.
    The chance objection to incompatibilist accounts of free action maintains that undetermined actions are not under the agent's control. Some attempts to circumvent this objection locate chance in events posterior to the action. Indeterministic-causation theories locate chance in events prior to the action. However, neither type of response gives an account of free action which avoids the chance objection. Chance must be located at the act of will if actions are to be both undetermined and under the agent's control. This (...)
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  • Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.Laura Y. Cabrera & Bernice S. Elger - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):95-103.
    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical (...)
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  • A Soul of Truth in Things Erroneous: Popper’s “Amateurish” Evolutionary Philosophy in Light of Contemporary Biology.Davide Vecchi & Lorenzo Baravalle - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (4):525-545.
    This paper will critically assess Popper’s evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper’s evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper’s ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be (...)
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  • The Epigenesis of Regional Specificity.Ralph-Axel Müller - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):650-675.
    Chomskyian claims of a genetically hard-wired and cognitively autonomous “universal grammar” are being promoted by generative linguistics as facts about language to the present day. The related doctrine of an evolutionary discontinuity in language emergence, however, is based on misconceptions about the notions of homology and preadaptation. The obvious lack of equivalence between symbolic communicative capacities in existing nonhuman primates and human language does not preclude common roots. Normal and disordered language development is strongly influenced by the genome, but there (...)
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  • Innateness, Autonomy, Universality? Neurobiological Approaches to Language.Ralph-Axel Müller - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):611-631.
    The concepts of the innateness, universality, species-specificity, and autonomy of the human language capacity have had an extreme impact on the psycholinguistic debate for over thirty years. These concepts are evaluated from several neurobiological perspectives, with an emphasis on the emergence of language and its decay due to brain lesion and progressive brain disease.Evidence of perceptuomotor homologies and preadaptations for human language in nonhuman primates suggests a gradual emergence of language during hominid evolution. Regarding ontogeny, the innate component of language (...)
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  • Modularity in Philosophy, the Neurosciences, and Psychiatry.Jürgen Zielasek & Wolfgang Gaebel - 2008 - Poiesis and Praxis 6 (1-2):93-108.
    The neurosciences are generating new findings regarding genetic and neurobiological aspects of the pathophysiology of mental disorders. Especially, certain genetic risk factors like neuregulin-1 seem to predispose individuals to a psychotic phenotype beyond the limits of traditional classificatory boundaries between organic psychoses in Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Little, however, is known about how such genetic risk factors actually confer an increased risk for psychosis in an individual patient. A gap between neuroscientific findings and psychopathological phenomena exists. The (...)
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  • Classical Levels, Russellian Monism and the Implicate Order.William Seager - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (4):548-567.
    Reception of the Bohm-Hiley interpretation of quantum mechanics has a curiously Janus faced quality. On the one hand, it is frequently derided as a conservative throwback to outdated classical patterns of thought. On the other hand, it is equally often taken to task for encouraging a wild quantum mysticism, often regarded as anti-scientific. I will argue that there are reasons for this reception, but that a proper appreciation of the dual scientific and philosophical aspects of the view reveals a powerful (...)
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  • Speaking of Language: Thoughts on Associations.Susan Graham & Diane Poulin-Dubois - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):636-636.
    Müller attempts to downplay cases of dissociation between language and cognition as evidence against the modularity of language. We review cases of associations between verbal and nonverbal abilities as further evidence against the notion of language as an autonomous subsystem. We also point out a discrepancy between his proposal of homologies between nonhuman primates' communication and human language and recent proposals on the evolution of language.
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  • Implications of the “Initial Brain” Concept for Brain Evolution in Cetacea.Ilya I. Glezer, Myron S. Jacobs & Peter J. Morgane - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):75-89.
    We review the evidence for the concept of the “initial” or prototype brain. We outline four possible modes of brain evolution suggested by our new findings on the evolutionary status of the dolphin brain. The four modes involve various forms of deviation from and conformity to the hypothesized initial brain type. These include examples of conservative evolution, progressive evolution, and combinations of the two in which features of one or the other become dominant. The four types of neocortical organization in (...)
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  • What about Sirenia?Bernhard Rensch - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):99-99.
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  • The “Initial” Brain Concept: Its Uses and Misuses.Ilya I. Glezer, Myron S. Jacobs & Peter J. Morgane - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):106-116.
    We review the evidence for the concept of the “initial” or prototype brain. We outline four possible modes of brain evolution suggested by our new findings on the evolutionary status of the dolphin brain. The four modes involve various forms of deviation from and conformity to the hypothesized initial brain type. These include examples of conservative evolution, progressive evolution, and combinations of the two in which features of one or the other become dominant. The four types of neocortical organization in (...)
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  • Is Human Language Just Another Neurobiological Specialization?Stephen F. Walker - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):649-650.
    One can disagree with Müller that it is neurobiologically questionable to suppose that human language is innate, specialized, and species-specific, yet agree that the precise brain mechanisms controlling language in any individual will be influenced by epigenesis and genetic variability, and that the interplay between inherited and acquired aspects of linguistic capacity deserves to be investigated.
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  • Genes, Specificity, and the Lexical/Functional Distinction in Language Acquisition.Karin Stromswold - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):648-649.
    Contrary to Müller's claims, and in support of modular theories, genetic factors play a substantial and significant role in language. The finding that some children with specific language impairment have nonlinguistic impairments may reflect improper diagnosis of SLI or impairments that are secondary to linguistic impairments. Thus, such findings do not argue against the modularity thesis. The lexical/functional distinction appears to be innate and specifically linguistic and could be instantiated in either symbolic or connectionist systems.
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  • A Polyglot Perspective on Dissociation.Neil Smith - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):648-648.
    Evidence is presented from a polyglot savant to suggest that double dissociations between linguistic and nonverbal abilities are more important than Müller's target article implies. It is also argued that the special nature of syntax makes its assimilation to other aspects of language or to nonhuman communication systems radically implausible.
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  • Autonomy and its Discontents.Chris Sinha - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):647-648.
    Müller's review of the neuroscientific evidence undermines nativist claims for autonomous syntax and the argument from the poverty of the stimulus. Generativists will appeal to data from language acquisition, but here too there is growing evidence against the nativist position. Epigenetic naturalism, the developmental alternative to nativism, can be extended to epigenetic socionaturalism, acknowledging the importance of sociocultural processes in language and cognitive development.
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  • Evolutionary Principles and the Emergence of Syntax.P. Thomas Schoenemann & William S.-Y. Wang - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):646-647.
    The belief that syntax is an innate, autonomous, species-specific module is highly questionable. Syntax demonstrates the mosaic nature of evolutionary change, in that it made use of numerous preexisting neurocognitive features. It is best understood as an emergent characteristic of the explosion of semantic complexity that occurred during hominid evolution.
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  • It's a Far Cry From Speech to Language.Maritza Rivera-Gaxiola & Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):645-646.
    We agree with Müller's epigenetic view of evolution and ontogeny and applaud his multilevel perspective. With him, we stress the importance in ontogeny of progressive specialisation rather than prewired structures. However, we argue that he slips from “speech” to “language” and that, in seeking homologies, these two levels need to be kept separate in the analysis of evolution and ontogeny.
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  • Biology of Language: Principle Predictions and Evidence.Friedemann Pulvermüller, Bettina Mohr & Hubert Preissl - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):643-645.
    Müller's target article aims to summarize approaches to the question of how language elements and rules are laid down in the brain. However, it suffers from being too vague about basic assumptions and empirical predictions of neurobiological models, and the empirical evidence available to test the models is not appropriately evaluated. In a neuroscientific model of language, different cortical localizations of words can only be based on biological principles. These need to be made explicit. Evidence for and against word class (...)
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  • Neurobiology and Linguistics Are Not yet Unifiable.David Poeppel - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):642-643.
    Neurobiological models of language need a level of analysis that can account for the typical range of language phenomena. Because linguistically motivated models have been successful in explaining numerous language properties, it is premature to dismiss them as biologically irrelevant. Models attempting to unify neurobiology and linguistics need to be sensitive to both sources of evidence.
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  • Müller's Conclusions and Linguistic Research.Frederick J. Newmeyer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):641-642.
    Because Müiller fails to distinguish between two senses of the term “autonomy,” there is a danger that his results will be misinterpreted by both linguists and neuroscientists. Although he may very well have been successful in refuting one sense of autonomy, he may actually have helped to provide an explanation for the correctness of autonomy in its other sense.
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  • Neuroanatomical Structures and Segregated Circuits.Philip Lieberman - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):641-641.
    Segregated neural circuits that effect particular domain-specific behaviors can be differentiated from neuroanatomical structures implicated in many different aspects of behavior. The basal ganglionic components of circuits regulating nonlinguistic motor behavior, speech, and syntax all function in a similar manner. Hence, it is unlikely that special properties and evolutionary mechanisms are associated with the neural bases of human language.
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  • Innateness, Autonomy, Universality, and the Neurobiology of Regular and Irregular Inflectional Morphology.David Kemmerer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):639-641.
    Müller's goal of bringing neuroscience to bear on controversies in linguistics is laudable. However, some of his specific proposals about innateness and autonomy are misguided. Recent studies on the neurobiology of regular and irregular inflectional morphology indicate that these two linguistic processes are subserved by anatomically and physiologically distinct neural subsystems, whose functional organization is likely to be under direct genetic control rather than assembled by strictly epigenetic factors.
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  • Pluripotentiality, Epigenesis, and Language Acquisition.Bob Jacobs & Lori Larsen - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):639-639.
    Müller provides a valuable synthesis of neurobiological evidence on the epigenetic development of neural structures involved in language acquisition. The pluripotentiality of developing neural tissue crucially constrains linguistic/cognitive theorizing about supposedly innate neural mechanisms and contributes significantly to our understanding of experience–dependent processes involved in language acquisition. Without this understanding, any proposed explanation of language acquisition is suspect.
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  • A Worthy Enterprise Injured by Overinterpretation and Misrepresentation.Marc D. Hauser & Jon Sakata - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):638-638.
    The synthetic position adopted by Müller is weakened by a large number of overinterpretations and misrepresentations, together with a caricatured view of innateness and modularity.
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  • Neurobiological Approaches to Language: Falsehoods and Fallacies.Yosef Grodzinsky - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):637-637.
    The conclusion that language is not really innate or modular is based on several fallacies. I show that the target article confuses communicative skills with linguistic abilities, and that its discussion of brain/language relations is replete with factual errors. I also criticize its attempt to contrast biological and linguistic principles. Finally, I argue that no case is made for the “alternative” approach proposed here.
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  • Familial Language Impairment: The Evidence.Myrna Gopnik - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):635-636.
    Müller argues that general cognitive skills and linguistic skills are not necessarily independent. However, cross-linguistic evidence from an inherited specific language disorder affecting productive rules suggests significant degrees of modularity, innateness, and universality of language. Confident claims about the overall nature of such a complex system still await more interdisciplinary research.
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  • Autonomy of Syntactic Processing and the Role of Broca's Area.Angela D. Friederici - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):634-635.
    Both autonomy and local specificity are compatible with observed interconnectivity at the cell level when considering two different levels: cell assemblies and brain systems. Early syntactic structuring processes in particular are likely to representan autonomous module in the language/brain system.
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  • Sign Language and the Brain: Apes, Apraxia, and Aphasia.David Corina - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):633-634.
    The study of signed languages has inspired scientific' speculation regarding foundations of human language. Relationships between the acquisition of sign language in apes and man are discounted on logical grounds. Evidence from the differential hreakdown of sign language and manual pantomime places limits on the degree of overlap between language and nonlanguage motor systems. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals neural areas of convergence and divergence underlying signed and spoken languages.
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  • How to Grow a Human.Michael C. Corballis - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):632-633.
    I enlarge on the theme that the brain mechanisms required for languageand other aspects of the human mind evolved through selective changes in the regulatory genes governing growth. Extension of the period of postnatal growth increases the role of the environment in structuring the brain, and spatiotemporal programming ofgrowth might explain hierarchical representation, hemispheric specialization, and perhaps sex differences.
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  • Double Dissociation, Modularity, and Distributed Organization.John A. Bullinaria & Nick Chater - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):632-632.
    Müller argues that double dissociations do not imply underlying modularity of the cognitive system, citing neural networks as examples of fully distributed systems that can give rise to double dissociations. We challenge this claim, noting that suchdouble dissociations typically do not “scale-up,” and that even some singledissociations can be difficult to account for in a distributed system.
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  • An Innate Language Faculty Needs Neither Modularity nor Localization.Derek Bickerton - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):631-632.
    Müller misconstrues autonomy to mean strict locality of brain function, something quite different from the functional autonomy that linguists claim. Similarly, he misperceives the interaction of learned and innate components hypothesized in current generative models. Evidence from sign languages, Creole languages, and neurological studies of rare forms of aphasia also argues against his conclusions.
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  • Experience and Content: Consequences of a Continuum Theory.W. Martin Davies - 1993 - Dissertation,
    This thesis is about experiential content: what it is; what kind of account can be given of it. I am concerned with identifying and attacking one main view - I call it the inferentialist proposal. This account is central to the philosophy of mind, epistemology and philosophy of science and perception. I claim, however, that it needs to be recast into something far more subtle and enriched, and I attempt to provide a better alternative in these pages. The inferentialist proposal (...)
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  • Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action.Benjamin Libet - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):529-66.
    Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about200 ms. Control experiments, in which a skin stimulus was timed (S), helped evaluate each subject's error in reporting the clock times for awareness of any perceived event.
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  • Quantum Aspects of Brain Activity and the Role of Consciousness.Friedrich Beck & John C. Eccles - 1992 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Usa 89:11357-61.
  • From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution in the Aims and Methods of Science.Nicholas Maxwell - 1984 - Oxford: Blackwell.
    This book argues for the need to put into practice a profound and comprehensive intellectual revolution, affecting to a greater or lesser extent all branches of scientific and technological research, scholarship and education. This intellectual revolution differs, however, from the now familiar kind of scientific revolution described by Kuhn. It does not primarily involve a radical change in what we take to be knowledge about some aspect of the world, a change of paradigm. Rather it involves a radical change in (...)
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