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  1. Varieties of Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia: A New Theory of Phenomenological and Behavioural Differences.Jamie Ward, Ryan Li, Shireen Salih & Noam Sagiv - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):913-931.
    Recent research has suggested that not all grapheme-colour synaesthetes are alike. One suggestion is that they can be divided, phenomenologically, in terms of whether the colours are experienced in external or internal space. Another suggestion is that they can be divided according to whether it is the perceptual or conceptual attributes of a stimulus that is critical. This study compares the behavioural performance of 7 projector and 7 associator synaesthetes. We demonstrate that this distinction does not map on to behavioural (...)
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  • Multisensory Consciousness and Synesthesia.Berit Brogaard & Elijah Chudnoff - forthcoming - In Routledge Handbook of Consciousness. Oxford: Routledge.
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  • Neural Plasticity and Consciousness.Susan L. Hurley & Alva Noë - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):131-168.
    and apply it to various examples of neural plasticity in which input is rerouted intermodally or intramodally to nonstandard cortical targets. In some cases but not others, cortical activity ‘defers’ to the nonstandard sources of input. We ask why, consider some possible explanations, and propose a dynamic sensorimotor hypothesis. We believe that this distinction is important and worthy of further study, both philosophical and empirical, whether or not our hypothesis turns out to be correct. In particular, the question of how (...)
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  • Can Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Be Induced by Hypnosis?Hazel P. Anderson, Anil K. Seth, Zoltan Dienes & Jamie Ward - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • N1 Enhancement in Synesthesia During Visual and Audio–Visual Perception in Semantic Cross-Modal Conflict Situations: An ERP Study.Christopher Sinke, Janina Neufeld, Daniel Wiswede, Hinderk M. Emrich, Stefan Bleich, Thomas F. Münte & Gregor R. Szycik - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • A Systematic, Large-Scale Study of Synaesthesia: Implications for the Role of Early Experience in Lexical-Colour Associations.Anina N. Rich, John L. Bradshaw & Jason B. Mattingley - 2005 - Cognition 98 (1):53-84.
  • Synaesthesia in Chinese Characters: The Role of Radical Function and Position.Wan-Yu Hung, Julia Simner, Richard Shillcock & David M. Eagleman - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 24:38-48.
    Grapheme-colour synaesthetes experience unusual colour percepts when they encounter letters and/or digits. Studies of English-speaking grapheme-colour synaesthetes have shown that synaesthetic colours are sometimes triggered by rule-based linguistic mechanisms . In contrast, little is known about synaesthesia in logographic languages such as Chinese. The current study shows the mechanisms by which synaesthetic speakers of Chinese colour their language. One hypothesis is that Chinese characters might be coloured by their constituent morphological units, known as radicals, and we tested this by eliciting (...)
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  • Synaesthesia: A Window Into Perception, Thought and Language.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (12):3-34.
    (1) The induced colours led to perceptual grouping and pop-out, (2) a grapheme rendered invisible through ‘crowding’ or lateral masking induced synaesthetic colours — a form of blindsight — and (3) peripherally presented graphemes did not induce colours even when they were clearly visible. Taken collectively, these and other experiments prove conclusively that synaesthesia is a genuine percep- tual phenomenon, not an effect based on memory associations from childhood or on vague metaphorical speech. We identify different subtypes of number–colour synaesthesia (...)
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  • Synaesthesia in a Logographic Language: The Colouring of Chinese Characters and Pinyin/Bopomo Spellings.Julia Simner, Wan-Yu Hung & Richard Shillcock - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1376-1392.
    Studies of linguistic synaesthesias in English have shown a range of fine-grained language mechanisms governing the associations between colours on the one hand, and graphemes, phonemes and words on the other. However, virtually nothing is known about how synaesthetic colouring might operate in non-alphabetic systems. The current study shows how synaesthetic speakers of Mandarin Chinese come to colour the logographic units of their language. Both native and non-native Chinese speakers experienced synaesthetic colours for characters, and for words spelled in the (...)
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  • Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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  • Synesthesia, Sensory-Motor Contingency, and Semantic Emulation: How Swimming Style-Color Synesthesia Challenges the Traditional View of Synesthesia.Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Markus Werning - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology / Research Topic Linking Perception and Cognition in Frontiers in Cognition 3 (279):1-12.
    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an additional nonstandard perceptual experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality. Recent studies suggest an important role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia. In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation to newly discovered cases of swimming-style color synesthesia. In the latter color experiences are evoked only by showing the synesthetes a (...)
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  • Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia.Kylie J. Barnett, Ciara Finucane, Julian E. Asher, Gary Bargary, Aiden P. Corvin, Fiona N. Newell & Kevin J. Mitchell - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):871-893.
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  • Synaesthesia: Supernormal Integration?C. Mulvenna & V. Walsh - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8):350-352.
  • Synesthesia, at and Near its Borders.Lawrence E. Marks & Catherine M. Mulvenna - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Towards a Synergistic Understanding of Synaesthesia Combining Current Experimental Findings With Synaesthetes' Subjective Descriptions.Daniel Smilek & Mike Dixon - 2002 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 8.
    In synaesthesia, ordinary stimuli elicit extraordinary conscious experiences. For example, standard black digits may elicit highly specific colour experiences and specific tastes may elicit unusual tactile sensations. The growing interest in synaesthesia has led to numerous experimental studies of this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review these recent studies and to discuss the relationship between the results of these experimental investigations of synaesthesia and the subjective descriptions reported by synaesthetes. It is argued that when the experimental investigations (...)
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  • The Phenomenology of Synaesthesia.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (8):49-57.
    This article supplements our earlier paper on synaesthesia published in JCS (Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001a). We discuss the phenomenology of synaesthesia in greater detail, raise several new questions that have emerged from recent studies, and suggest some tentative answers to these questions.
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  • Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia.Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 2005 - Neuron 48 (3):509-520.
  • Synesthesia: A Colorful Word with a Touching Sound?Myrto I. Mylopoulos & Tony Ro - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • On the Perceptual Reality of Synesthetic Color.Randolph Blake, Thomas J. Palmeri, Rene Marois & Chai-Youn Kim - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
  • The Deferential Brain in Action.Alva Noë & Susan Hurley - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (5):195-196.
    binding of colour and alphanumeric form in synaesthesia. Nature 410.
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  • Ovals of Time: Time-Space Associations in Synaesthesia.Daniel Smilek, Alicia Callejas, Mike J. Dixon & Philip M. Merikle - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):507-519.
    We examine a condition in which units of time, such as months of the year, are associated with specific locations in space. For individuals with this time-space synaesthesia, contiguous time units such as months are spatially linked forming idiosyncratically shaped patterns such as ovals, oblongs or circles. For some individuals, each time unit appears in a highly specific colour. For instance, one of the synaesthetes we studied experienced December as a red area located at arms length to the left of (...)
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  • The Influence of Synesthesia on Eye Movements: No Synesthetic Pop-Out in an Oculomotor Target Selection Task.Tanja C. W. Nijboer, Gabriela Satris & Stefan Van der Stigchel - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1193-1200.
    Recent research on grapheme-colour synesthesia has focused on whether visual attention is necessary to induce a synesthetic percept. The current study investigated the influence of synesthesia on overt visual attention during an oculomotor target selection task. Chromatic and achromatic stimuli were presented with one target among distractors among multiple ‘5’s ). Participants executed an eye movement to the target. Synesthetes and controls showed a comparable target selection performance across conditions and a ‘pop-out effect’ was only seen in the chromatic condition. (...)
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  • Do Synesthetic Colors Grab Attention in Visual Search?Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):701-714.
    Recent research on synesthesia has focused on how the condition may depend on selective attention, but there is a lack of consensus on whether selective attention is required to bind colors to their grapheme inducers. In the present study, we used a novel change detection paradigm to examine whether synesthetic colors guide the subject’s attention to the location of the inducer or whether selective attention is required to act as a unique feature during visual search. If synesthetic experiences are elicited (...)
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  • Principle Component Analyses of Questionnaires Measuring Individual Differences in Synaesthetic Phenomenology.Hazel P. Anderson & Jamie Ward - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:316-324.
  • Psychophysiological Evidence for the Genuineness of Swimming-Style Colour Synaesthesia.Nicolas Rothen, Danko Nikolić, Uta Maria Jürgens, Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Josephine Cock & Beat Meier - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):35-46.
    Recently, swimming-style colour synaesthesia was introduced as a new form of synaesthesia. A synaesthetic Stroop test was used to establish its genuineness. Since Stroop interference can occur for any type of overlearned association, in the present study we used a modified Stroop test and psychophysiological synaesthetic conditioning to further establish the genuineness of this form of synaesthesia. We compared the performance of a swimming-style colour synaesthete and a control who was trained on swimming-style colour associations. Our results showed that behavioural (...)
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  • Genuine and Drug-Induced Synesthesia: A Comparison.Christopher Sinke, John H. Halpern, Markus Zedler, Janina Neufeld, Hinderk M. Emrich & Torsten Passie - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1419-1434.
    Despite some principal similarities, there is no systematic comparison between the different types of synesthesia . This comprehensive review compares the three principal types of synesthesia and focuses on their phenomenological features and their relation to different etiological models. Implications of this comparison for the validity of the different etiological models are discussed.Comparison of the three forms of synesthesia show many more differences than similarities. This is in contrast to their representation in the literature, where they are discussed in many (...)
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  • Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children.Jennifer A. K. Green & Usha Goswami - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):463-473.
  • Synaesthesia is Associated with Enhanced, Self-Rated Visual Imagery.Kylie J. Barnett & Fiona N. Newell - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1032-1039.
    Although the condition known as synaesthesia is currently undergoing a scientific resurgence, to date the literature has largely focused on the heterogeneous nature of synaesthesia across individuals. In order to provide a better understanding of synaesthesia, however, general characteristics need to be investigated. Synaesthetic experiences are often described as occurring ‘internally’ or in the ‘mind’s eye’, which is remarkably similar to how we would describe our experience of visual mental imagery. We assessed the role of visual imagery in synaesthesia by (...)
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  • Is “Σ” Purple or Green? Bistable Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Induced by Ambiguous Characters.Suhkyung Kim, Randolph Blake & Chai-Youn Kim - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):955-964.
    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered (...)
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  • Tasty Non-Words and Neighbours: The Cognitive Roots of Lexical-Gustatory Synaesthesia.Julia Simner & Sarah L. Haywood - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):171-181.
  • A Synesthetic Walk on the Mental Number Line: The Size Effect.Roi Cohen Kadosh, Joseph Tzelgov & Avishai Henik - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):548-557.
    Are small and large numbers represented similarly or differently on the mental number line? The size effect was used to argue that numbers are represented differently. However, recently it has been argued that the size effect is due to the comparison task and is not derived from the mental number line per se. Namely, it is due to the way that the mental number line is mapped onto the task-relevant output component. Here synesthesia was used to disentangle these two alternatives. (...)
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  • Can Synaesthesia Research Inform Cognitive Science?Roi Cohen Kadosh & Avishai Henik - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):177-184.
  • Type-Based Associations in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia Revealed by Response Time Distribution Analyses.Jun Saiki, Ayako Yoshioka & Hiroki Yamamoto - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1548-1557.
    Determining the nature of binding in grapheme-color synaesthesia has consequences for understanding the neural basis of synaesthesia and visual awareness in general. We evaluated type- and token-based letter-color binding using a synaesthetic version of the object-reviewing paradigm. Although mean response times failed to reveal any significant differences between synaesthetes and control participants, RT analyses with ex-Gaussian distributions revealed that the response facilitation in the synaesthesia group reflected type representations exclusively, while response facilitation in the control group, who learned letter-color associations, (...)
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  • Executive Functions in Synesthesia.Romke Rouw, Joram van Driel, Koen Knip & K. Richard Ridderinkhof - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):184-202.
    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences (...)
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  • Enhanced Dimension-Specific Visual Working Memory in Grapheme–Color Synesthesia.Devin Blair Terhune, Olga Anna Wudarczyk, Priya Kochuparampil & Roi Cohen Kadosh - 2013 - Cognition 129 (1):123-137.
  • Enhanced Semantic Priming in Synesthetes Independent of Sensory Binding.Stephanie C. Goodhew, Melissa R. Freire & Mark Edwards - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:443-456.
  • Cross-Modal, Bidirectional Priming in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia.Chris L. E. Paffen, Maarten J. Van der Smagt & Tanja C. W. Nijboer - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:325-333.
  • Phantom Perception: Voluntary and Involuntary Nonretinal Vision.Joel Pearson & Fred Westbrook - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (5):278-284.
  • Isolating Automatic Photism Generation From Strategic Photism Use in Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia.Arielle M. Levy, Mike J. Dixon & Sherif Soliman - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 56:165-177.
  • Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):215-227.
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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