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Integrity

Ethics 98 (1):5-20 (1987)

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  1. The Reason For Following: Moral Integrity and the Christological Summons.William Schweiker - 2005 - Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):173-198.
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  • Extending the Horizon of Business Ethics: Restorative Justice and the Aftermath of Unethical Behavior.Jerry Goodstein & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):453-480.
    We call for business ethics scholars to focus more attention on how individuals and organizations respond in the aftermath of unethical behavior. Insight into this issue is drawn from restorative justice, which moves beyond traditional approaches that emphasize retribution or rehabilitation to include restoring victims and other affected parties, reintegrating offenders, and facilitating moral repair in the workplace. We review relevant theoretical and empirical work in restorative justice and develop a conceptual model that highlights how this perspective can enhance theory (...)
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  • The Integrity Objection, Reloaded.Jill Hernandez - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (2):145-162.
    Bernard Williams? integrity objection poses a significant challenge to utilitarianism, which has largely been answered by utilitarians. This paper recasts the integrity objection to show that utilitarian agents could be committed to producing the overall best states of affairs and yet not positively act to bring them about. I introduce the ?Moral Pinch Hitter? ? someone who performs actions at the bequest of another agent ? to demonstrate that utilitarianism cannot distinguish between cases in which an agent maximizes utility by (...)
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  • Could Integrity Be An Epistemic Virtue?Greg Scherkoske - 2012 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 20 (2):185-215.
    Abstract 1 This paper makes a preliminary case for a central and radical claim. I begin with Bernard Williams? seldom-faced argument that integrity cannot be a moral virtue because it lacks two key ingredients of moral virtues, namely a characteristic thought and motivation. Whereas, for example, generosity involves the thought that another could use assistance, and the motivation to actually give assistance, integrity lacks these two things essential to morally excellent responses. I show that several maneuvers aimed at avoiding Williams? (...)
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  • Political Integrity and Dirty Hands: Compromise and the Ambiguities of Betrayal.Demetris Tillyris - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (4):475-494.
    The claim that democratic politics is the art of compromise is a platitude but we seem allergic to compromise in politics when it happens. This essay explores this paradox. Taking my cue from Machiavelli’s claim that there exists a rift between a morally admirable and a virtuous political life, I argue that: a ‘compromising disposition’ is an ambiguous virtue—something which is politically expedient but not necessarily morally admirable; whilst uncongenial to moral integrity, a ‘compromising disposition’ constitutes an essential aspect of (...)
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  • Authenticity in Political Discourse.Ben Jones - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):489-504.
    Judith Shklar, David Runciman, and others argue against what they see as excessive criticism of political hypocrisy. Such arguments often assume that communicating in an authentic manner is an impossible political ideal. This article challenges the characterization of authenticity as an unrealistic ideal and makes the case that its value can be grounded in a certain political realism sensitive to the threats posed by representative democracy. First, by analyzing authenticity’s demands for political discourse, I show that authenticity has greater flexibility (...)
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  • Does Reproductive Justice Demand Insurance Coverage for IVF? Reflections on the Work of Anne Donchin.Carolyn McLeod - 2017 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 10 (2):133-143.
    This paper comes out of a panel honoring the work of Anne Donchin (1940-2014), which took place at the 2016 Congress of the International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics (FAB) in Edinburgh. My general aim is to highlight the contributions Anne made to feminist bioethics, and to feminist reproductive ethics in particular. My more specific aim, however, is to have a kind of conversation with Anne, through her work, about whether reproductive justice could demand insurance coverage for in vitro (...)
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  • Getting the Story Straight: Kierkegaard, MacIntyre and Some Problems with Narrative Getting the Story Straight: Kierkegaard, MacIntyre and Some Problems with Narrative.John Lippitt - 2007 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):34-69.
    As part of the widespread turn to narrative in contemporary philosophy, several commentators have recently attempted to sign Kierkegaard up for the narrative cause, most notably in John Davenport and Anthony Rudd's recent collection Kierkegaard After MacIntyre: Essays on Freedom, Narrative and Virtue. I argue that the aesthetic and ethical existence‐spheres in Either/Or cannot adequately be distinguished in terms of the MacIntyre‐inspired notion of ‘narrative unity’. Judge William's argument for the ethical life contains far more in the way of substantive (...)
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  • Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.Raja Halwani - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):161-192.
    : The paper argues that care ethics should be subsumed under virtue ethics by construing care as an important virtue. Doing so allows us to achieve two desirable goals. First, we preserve what is important about care ethics (for example, its insistence on particularity, partiality, emotional engagement, and the importance of care to our moral lives). Second, we avoid two important objections to care ethics, namely, that it neglects justice, and that it contains no mechanism by which care can be (...)
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  • The Challenges of Algorithm-Based HR Decision-Making for Personal Integrity.Ulrich Leicht-Deobald, Thorsten Busch, Christoph Schank, Antoinette Weibel, Simon Schafheitle, Isabelle Wildhaber & Gabriel Kasper - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (2):377-392.
    Organizations increasingly rely on algorithm-based HR decision-making to monitor their employees. This trend is reinforced by the technology industry claiming that its decision-making tools are efficient and objective, downplaying their potential biases. In our manuscript, we identify an important challenge arising from the efficiency-driven logic of algorithm-based HR decision-making, namely that it may shift the delicate balance between employees’ personal integrity and compliance more in the direction of compliance. We suggest that critical data literacy, ethical awareness, the use of participatory (...)
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  • Protecting One’s Commitments.Sylvia Burrow - 2012 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):49-66.
    Living in a culture of violence against women leads women to employ any number of avoidance and defensive strategies on a daily basis. Such strategies may be self protective but do little to counter women’s fear of violence. A pervasive fear of violence comes with a cost to integrity not addressed in moral philosophy. Restricting choice and action to avoid possibility of harm compromises the ability to stand for one’s commitments before others. If Calhoun is right that integrity is a (...)
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  • Compensation as Moral Repair and as Moral Justification for Risks.Madeleine Hayenhjelm - 2019 - Ethics, Politics, and Society 2 (1):33-63.
    Can compensation repair the moral harm of a previous wrongful act? On the one hand, some define the very function of compensation as one of restoring the moral balance. On the other hand, the dominant view on compensation is that it is insufficient to fully repair moral harm unless accompanied by an act of punishment or apology. In this paper, I seek to investigate the maximal potential of compensation. Central to my argument is a distinction between apologetic compensation and non-apologetic (...)
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  • Undivided Corporate Responsibility: Towards a Theory of Corporate Integrity.Thomas Maak - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):353-368.
    In the years since Enron corporate social responsibility, or “CSR,” has become a ubiquitous phenomenon in both research and business practice. CSR is used as an umbrella term to describe much of what is done in terms of ethics-related activities in firms around the globe to such an extent that some consider it a “tortured concept” (Godfrey and Hatch 2007, Journal of Business Ethics 70, 87–98). Addressing this skepticism, I argue in this article that the focus on CSR is indeed (...)
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  • Love as a Moral Emotion.J. David Velleman - 1999 - Ethics 109 (2):338-374.
  • Should We Strive for Integrity?Damian Cox, Marguerite LaCaze & M. P. Levine - 1999 - Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (4):519-530.
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  • On Sporting Integrity.Alfred Archer - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (2):117-131.
    It has become increasingly popular for sports fans, pundits, coaches and players to appeal to ideas of ‘sporting integrity’ when voicing their approval or disapproval of some aspect of the sporting world. My goal in this paper will be to examine whether there is any way to understand this idea in a way that both makes sense of the way in which it is used and presents a distinctly ‘sporting’ form of integrity. I will look at three recent high-profile sporting (...)
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  • Integrity, Commitment, and a Coherent Self.Warren J. von Eschenbach - 2012 - Journal of Value Inquiry 46 (3):369-378.
    Integrity not only is a central concept within virtue ethics and a subject of considerable debate among philosophers regarding its nature and relation to other virtues, but also is important for our understanding of what it means to possess a constituted and coherent self. Much of the literature on integrity is focused on relationships among moral principles and virtues, while less attention is paid to any relationship that integrity might have to practical agency or personal identity. In maintaining this focus, (...)
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  • Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Institutions.Mukesh Sud, Craig V. VanSandt & Amanda M. Baugous - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S1):201 - 216.
    A relatively small segment of business, known as social entrepreneurship (SE), is increasingly being acknowledged as an effective source of solutions for a variety of social problems. Because society tends to view "new" solutions as "the" solution, we are concerned that SE will soon be expected to provide answers to our most pressing social ills. In this paper we call into question the ability of SE, by itself, to provide solutions on a scope necessary to address large-scale social issues. SE (...)
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  • Integrity and the Moral Complexity of Professional Practice.Andrew Edgar & Stephen Pattison - 2011 - Nursing Philosophy 12 (2):94-106.
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  • Moral Compromise and Personal Integrity: Exploring the Ethical Issues of Deciding Together in Organizations.Jerry D. Goodstein - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (4):805-819.
    In this paper I explore the topic of moral compromise in institutional settings and highlight how moral compromise may affirm,rather than undermine, personal integrity. Central to this relationship between moral compromise and integrity is a view of the self that is responsive to multiple commitments and grounded in an ethic of responsibility. I elaborate a number of virtues that are related to thisnotion of the self and highlight how these virtues may support the development of individuals who are responsive and (...)
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  • The Many Faces of Integrity.Robert Audi & Patrick E. Murphy - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):3-21.
    Integrity is a central topic in business ethics, and in the world of business it is quite possibly the most commonly cited morally desirable trait. But integrity is conceived in widely differing ways, and as often as it is discussed in the literature and given a central place in corporate ethics statements, the notion is used so variously that its value in guiding everyday conduct may be more limited than is generally supposed. Two central questions for this paper are what (...)
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  • The Role of Character in Business Ethics.Edwin M. Hartman - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):547-559.
    There is good reason to take a virtue-based approach to business ethics. Moral principles are fairly useful in assessing actions, but understanding how moral people behave and how they become moral requires reference to virtues, some of which are important inbusiness. We must go beyond virtues and refer to character, of which virtues are components, to grasp the relationship between moralassessment and psychological explanation. Virtues and other character traits are closely related to (in technical terms, they superveneon) personality traits postulated (...)
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  • Sexualized Violence, Moral Disintegration and Ethical Advocacy.Melissa Mosko - unknown
    This dissertation develops and defends a conception of sexualized violence that is rooted in philosophical theories of violence, and at the same time helps us understand the way that violence is connected to various kinds of oppression, namely, the oppression of women. It argues that sexualized violence, which is typically theorized through related notions of physical violation and psychological trauma, is best understood in terms of its moral quality. Sexualized violence against women is fundamentally a moral problem insofar as it (...)
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  • Integrity.Christian Miller - 2013 - In Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. pp. 1-11.
    Integrity is one of the leading normative concepts employed in our society. We frequently talk about the degree of integrity of community leaders and famous historical figures, and we highly value integrity in our elected public officials. But philosophers have had a difficult time arriving at consensus about what integrity consists in. Some claim that it is a purely formal relation of consistency, others that it has to do primarily with one‟s identity, and still others that it involves subjective or (...)
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  • Craving the Right: Emotions and Moral Reasons.Patricia Greenspan - 2011 - In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. pp. 39.
    I first began working on emotions as a project in philosophy of action, without particular reference to moral philosophy. My thought was that emotions have a distinctive role to play in rationality that tends to be underappreciated by philosophers. Bringing this out was meant to counter a widespread tendency to treat emotions as “blind” causes of action (for the general picture, see Greenspan 2009.) Instead, I thought that emotions could be seen as providing reasons. I took their significance as moral (...)
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  • Integrity—Clarifying and Upgrading an Important Concept for Business Ethics.Jan Tullberg - 2012 - Business and Society Review 117 (1):89-121.
    ABSTRACTThis article discusses the concept of integrity. Often, integrity is used as a characteristic of individuals showing a high fidelity to generally praised norms. Here, a more independent meaning is suggested so that the concept implies a clear distance to integration instead of mixing up the two concepts. Integrity implies integration within the individual of beliefs, statements, and action. To what degree can society and companies accommodate a pluralism created by individuals with integrity? Here, it is argued that integrity is (...)
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  • Toward a Shallow Interpretivist Model of Sport.Sinclair A. MacRae - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (3):285-299.
    Deep ethical interpretivism has been the standard view of the nature of sport in the philosophy of sport for the past seventeen years or so. On this account excellence assumes the role of the foundational, ethical goal that justice assumes in Ronald Dworkin’s interpretivist model of law. However, since excellence in sports is not an ethical value, and since it should not be regarded as an ultimate goal, the case for the traditional account fails. It should be replaced by the (...)
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  • The Moral Meaning of Recent Revisions to the SPJ Code of Ethics.Karen L. Slattery - 2016 - Journal of Media Ethics 31 (1):2-17.
    The field of journalism has experienced recent upheavals caused in part by shifts in technology, economic challenges, and questions about the concept of truth telling. This study compares the new version of the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics with its 1996 version in an effort to determine how journalists who embrace the ethos of a profession have responded to these challenges, as reflected in the standards and practices outlined in their code. A framework for systematically reading codes is (...)
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  • On Playing With Emotion.Jeffrey P. Fry - 2003 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 30 (1):26-36.
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  • Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.Raja Halwani - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):161-192.
    The paper argues that care ethics should be subsumed under virtue ethics by construing care as an important virtue. Doing so allows us to achieve two desirable goals. First, we preserve what is important about care ethics. Second, we avoid two important objections to care ethics, namely, that it neglects justice, and that it contains no mechanism by which care can be regulated so as not to be become morally corrupt.
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  • Integrity.Damian Cox - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Virtuous Peers in Work Organizations.Dennis Moberg - 1997 - Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (1):67-85.
    It is argued that virtuous peers in work organizations have two elements of character no matter what the nature of the goods the organization produces: loyalty to common projects for their own sake and trustworthiness. Each of these is shown to be a uniquely human attribute, an element of character that contributes to a life well lived, and a trait that leads to the flourishing of an entire work community.
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  • Corporate Roles, Personal Virtues: An Aristotelean Approach to Business Ethics.Robert C. Solomon - 1992 - Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (3):317-339.
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  • Corporate Roles, Personal Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach to Business Ethics.Robert C. Solomon - 1992 - Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (3):317-339.
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  • Integrity and Moral Danger.Greg Scherkoske - 2010 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (3):335-358.
    While it isn't clear that we are right to value integrity — or so I shall argue — most of us do. Persons of integrity merit respect. Compromising one's integrity — or failing completely to exhibit it — seems a serious flaw. Two influential accounts suggest why. For Bernard Williams, integrity is 'a person's sticking by what [she] regards as ethically necessary or worthwhile.'2 To this Cheshire Calhoun adds a helpful negative gloss:To lack integrity is to underrate both formulating and (...)
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  • Integrity and Moral Danger.Greg Scherkoske - 2010 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (3):335-358.
    While it isn't clear that we are right to value integrity — or so I shall argue — most of us do. Persons of integrity merit respect. Compromising one's integrity — or failing completely to exhibit it — seems a serious flaw. Two influential accounts suggest why. For Bernard Williams, integrity is ‘a person's sticking by what [she] regards as ethically necessary or worthwhile.’ To this Cheshire Calhoun adds a helpful negative gloss:To lack integrity is to underrate both formulating and (...)
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  • Virtuous Leadership: Exploring the Effects of Leader Courage and Behavioral Integrity on Leader Performance and Image.Michael E. Palanski, Kristin L. Cullen, William A. Gentry & Chelsea M. Nichols - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (2):297-310.
    We examined the relationship between leader behavioral integrity and leader behavioral courage using data from two studies. Results from Study 1, an online experiment, indicated that behavioral manifestations of leader behavioral integrity and situational adversity both have direct main effects on behavioral manifestations of leader courage. Results from Study 2, a multisource field study with practicing executives, indicated that leader behavioral courage fully mediates the effects of leader behavioral integrity on leader performance and leader executive image. Implications of these findings (...)
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  • Freedom of Conscience in the Pharmacy: A Legalo-Ethical Analysis of a Healthcare Ethical Problem.Jürgen Wallner - 2010 - Ethik in der Medizin 22 (2):117-130.
    ZusammenfassungIn den letzten Jahren wird intensiv darüber diskutiert, ob und in welcher Weise das Gewissen im Kontext der Apotheke zu schützen ist. Der Status quo in Deutschland und Österreich sieht keine gesetzliche Regelung für dieses Problem vor. Der ethische Rahmen für eine Bewältigungsstrategie im Umgang mit dem Problem der Gewissensfreiheit in der Apotheke wird deutlich gemacht. Unter Anwendung des rechtsethischen Verhältnismäßigkeitsprinzips wird das Problem mit Berücksichtigung des deutschen und österreichischen Verfassungsrechts sowie der Europäischen Menschenrechtskonvention auf individueller, korporativer und gesellschaftlicher Ebene (...)
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  • The “Meta” Level of Integrity: Integrity in the Context of Structural Injustice.Jessica Payson - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (2):347-362.
    This essay argues for a new, “meta,” level of integrity that is created by the context of structural injustice. The essay will draw from Margaret Walker to bring out a defining social value of integrity, namely, its ability to facilitate reliable response to harms caused by “moral luck.” The essay will then argue that, when bad luck is caused by complex social-structural function, traditional advice for maintaining one's integrity fails to provide adequate guidance; following such advice facilitates unjust social-structural function, (...)
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  • Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered.Lisa Rivera - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (1):69-87.
    When a person gives up an end of crucial importance to her in order to promote a moral aim, we regard her as having made a moral sacrifice. The paper analyzes these sacrifices in light of some of Bernard Williams’ objections to Kantian and Utilitarian accounts of them. Williams argues that an implausible consequence of these theories is that that we are expected to sacrifice projects that make our lives worth living and contribute to our integrity. Williams’ arguments about integrity (...)
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  • The Promise of a Managerial Values Approach to Corporate Philanthropy.Jaepil Choi & Heli Wang - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):345-359.
    This article presents an alternative rationale for corporate philanthropy based on managerial values of benevolence and integrity. On the one hand, top managers with benevolence and integrity values are more likely to spread their intrinsic concern for others into the wider society in the form of corporate philanthropy. On the other hand, top managers high in benevolence and integrity are likely to contribute to improved managerial credibility and trusting firm-stakeholder relationships, thereby improving corporate financial performance. Therefore, the article makes the (...)
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  • Taking Our Selves Too Seriously: Commitment, Contestation, and the Dynamic Life of the Self.Christian M. Golden - 2019 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 57 (4):505-538.
    In this article, I distinguish two models of personal integrity. The first, wholeheartedness, regards harmonious unity of the self as psychologically healthy and volitional consistency as ethically ideal. I argue that it does so at the substantial cost of framing ambivalence and conflict as defects of character and action. To avoid these consequences, I propose an alternate ideal of humility that construes the self as multiple and precarious and celebrates experiences of loss and transformation through which learning, growth, innovation, and (...)
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  • Intellectual Honesty.Louis M. Guenin - 2005 - Synthese 145 (2):177-232.
    Engaging a listener’s trust imposes moral demands upon a presenter in respect of truthtelling and completeness. An agent lies by an utterance that satisfies what are herein defined as signal and mendacity conditions; an agent deceives when, in satisfaction of those conditions, the agent’s utterances contribute to a false belief or thwart a true one. I advert to how we may fool ourselves in observation and in the perception of our originality. Communication with others depends upon a convention or practice (...)
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  • Giving Voice in a Culture of Silence. From a Culture of Compliance to a Culture of Integrity.Peter Verhezen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):187 - 206.
    This article argues that attempting to overcome moral silence in organizations will require management to move beyond a compliance-oriented organizational culture toward a culture based on integrity. Such cultural change is part of good corporate governance that aims to steer an organization to enhance creativity and moral excellence, and thus organizational value. Governance mechanisms can be either formal or informal. Formal codes and other internal formal regulations that emphasize compliance are necessary, although informal mechanisms that are based on relationship-building are (...)
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  • Ethical Managerial Behaviour as an Antecedent of Organizational Social Capital.David Pastoriza, Miguel A. Ariño & Joan E. Ricart - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (3):329-341.
    There is a need of further research to understand how social capital in the organization can be fostered. Existing literature focuses on the design of reciprocity norms, procedures and stability employment practices as the main levers of social capital in the workplace. Complementary to these mechanisms, this paper explores the impact of ethical managerial behaviour on the development of social capital. We argue that a managerial behaviour based on the true concern for the well-being of employees, as well as their (...)
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  • Creating an Ethical Work Context: A Pathway to Generate Social Capital in the Firm.David Pastoriza, Miguel A. Ariño & Joan E. Ricart - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S3):477-489.
    There is a need for further research to understand how social capital in the workplace can be promoted. This article studies the generation of social capital from a comprehensive perspective that integrates ethics and general management. We propose the concept of “ethical work context” as an influential antecedent of the social capital in the firm. The ethical work context, which is aligned with the “humanizing culture” approach proposed by Melé ( Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1), 3–14, 2003a ), allows (...)
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  • Integrity and Cynicism: Possibilities and Constraints of Moral Communication. [REVIEW]Erik De Bakker - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):119-136.
    Paying thorough attention to cynical action and integrity could result in a less naive approach to ethics and moral communication. This article discusses the issues of integrity and cynicism on a theoretical and on a more practical level. The first part confronts Habermas’s approach of communicative action with Sloterdijk’s concept of cynical reason. In the second part, the focus will be on the constraints and possibilities of moral communication within a business context. Discussing the corporate integrity approach of Kaptein and (...)
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  • The Fit Between Integrity and Integrative Social Contracts Theory.Mark Gosling & Heh Jason Huang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S3):407 - 417.
    The concept of integrity appears in many arguments and theories in business ethics and organizational behavior where it plays multiple roles. It has been shown to have desirable organizational outcomes and is held as important by the academic and practitioner alike. Yet despite its prominence there are a variety of approaches to defining and conceptualizing it and little existent theory to explain its nature. We offer integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) as a framework that can anchor integrity in ethical theory (...)
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  • Trustworthiness, Governance, and Wealth Creation.Cam Caldwell & Mark H. Hansen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):173 - 188.
    Although trustworthiness has been described as a source of competitive advantage, its value extends to organizational governance and wealth creation. We identify the importance of the commitment—compliance continuum in the decision to trust and note that trustworthiness is a subjective perception viewed through each person's mediating lens. That lens and each person's interpretation of the social contract impact one's commitment to cooperate. We suggest five propositions that integrate trustworthiness, governance, and wealth creation.
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility and the "Divided Corporate Self": The Case of Chiquita in Colombia. [REVIEW]Virginia G. Maurer - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):595 - 603.
    This article employs Maak's framework of the seven "Cs" of Corporate Integrity to assess the problems faced by Chiquita Brands in dealing with extortion by left-wing guerilla and right wing paramilitary groups in Colombia from 1989 to 2004. Both types of organizations used Chiquita payments to engage in terrorist activity in Colombia. The extended and systematic dealings with these groups were antithetical to the process of corporate responsibility to which the firm was committed during the timeframe of 1998–2004, revealing a (...)
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