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  1. The Educational Ladder Model for Ethics Committees: Confidence and Change Flourishing Through Core Competency Development. [REVIEW]Deborah Pape & Suzanne Manning - 2006 - HEC Forum 18 (4):305-318.
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  • The Functioning of Hospital Ethics Committees: A Multiple-Case Study of Four Canadian Committees. [REVIEW]Alice Gaudine, Marianne Lamb, Sandra M. LeFort & Linda Thorne - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (3):225-238.
    A multiple-case study of four hospital ethics committees in Canada was conducted and data collected included interviews with key informants, observation of committee meetings and ethics-related hospital documents, such as policies and committee minutes. We compared the hospital committees in terms of their structure, functioning and perceptions of key informants and found variation in the dimensions of empowerment, organizational culture of ethics, breadth of ethics mandate, achievements, dynamism, and expertise.
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  • HEC Member Perspectives on the Case Analysis Process: A Qualitative Multi-Site Study. [REVIEW]Eric Racine - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (3):185-206.
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  • Development of the Hybrid Rule and the Concept of Justice: The Selection of Subjects in Biomedical Research.Yoshio Nukaga - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (6):891-924.
    As biomedical research with volunteers was expanded in the United States, the rule of subject selection, constituting scientific and ethical criteria, was generated in 1981 to resolve selection bias in research. Few historical studies, however, have investigated the role of this new hybrid rule in institutional review systems. This paper describes how bioethics commissions and federal agencies have created the subject selection rule based on the concept of justice. I argue that the standardization of this rule as temporal measures, linked (...)
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  • Sollte Es Ein Favorisiertes Modell Klinischer Ethikberatung Für Krankenhäuser Geben? – Erfahrungen Aus den USAWhich Model of Ethics Consultation Services Best Serves its Goals? – Experiences From the USA.Eva C. Winkler - 2009 - Ethik in der Medizin 21 (4):309-322.
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  • The Development of a Descriptive Evaluation Tool for Clinical Ethics Case Consultations.R. Pedersen, S. A. Hurst, J. Schildmann, S. Schuster & B. Molewijk - 2010 - Clinical Ethics 5 (3):136-141.
    There is growing interest in clinical ethics. However, we still have sparse knowledge about what is actually going on in the everyday practice of clinical ethics consultations. This paper introduces a descriptive evaluation tool to present, discuss and compare how clinical ethics case consultations are actually carried out. The tool does not aim to define ‘best practice’. Rather, it facilitates concrete comparisons and evaluative discussions of the role, function, procedures and ideals inherent in clinical ethics case consultation practices. The tool (...)
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  • The Role of Patients in Clinical Ethics Support: A Snapshot of Practices and Attitudes in the United Kingdom.A. J. Newson - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):139-145.
    Clinical ethics committees (CECs) in the United Kingdom (UK) have developed significantly over the past 15 years. The issue of access to and participation in clinical ethics consultation by patients and family members has, however, gone largely unrecognized. There are various dimensions to this kind of contact, including patient notification, consent and participation. This study reports the first specific investigation of patient contact with UK CECs. A questionnaire study was carried out with representatives from UK CECs. Results suggest that patient (...)
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  • Unterstützungsbedarf Bei Moralisch-Ethischer Entscheidungsfindung Erheben Und Organisieren. Konzeptuelle Aspekte Und Strategien Für Ein Erhebungsinstrument Zur Ethikberatung Im Kontext der PflegeNeed to Raise and Organize Support for Moral-Ethical Decision-Making in Nursing and Health Facilities—Conceptual Aspects and Results in Developing a Survey Instrument.Gabriele Gschwandtner, Stefan Dinges & Eleonore Kemetmüller - forthcoming - Ethik in der Medizin.
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  • Membership Recruitment and Training in Health Care Ethics Committees: Results From a National Pilot Survey.Anya E. R. Prince, R. Jean Cadigan, Warren Whipple & Arlene M. Davis - 2017 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 8 (3):161-169.
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  • Strangers at the Benchside: Research Ethics Consultation.Mildred K. Cho, Sara L. Tobin, Henry T. Greely, Jennifer McCormick, Angie Boyce & David Magnus - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):4 – 13.
    Institutional ethics consultation services for biomedical scientists have begun to proliferate, especially for clinical researchers. We discuss several models of ethics consultation and describe a team-based approach used at Stanford University in the context of these models. As research ethics consultation services expand, there are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed, including what the scope, composition, and purpose of such services should be, whether core competencies for consultants can and should be defined, and how conflicts of interest should (...)
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  • To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Health Care Ethics Consultation Based on the Goals of Health Care Ethics Consultation: A Prospective Cohort Study with Randomization.Yen-Yuan Chen, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Yu-Hui Kao, Pi-Ru Tsai, Tien-Shang Huang & Wen-Je Ko - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):1.
    The growing prevalence of health care ethics consultation (HCEC) services in the U.S. has been accompanied by an increase in calls for accountability and quality assurance, and for the debates surrounding why and how HCEC is evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HCEC as indicated by several novel outcome measurements in East Asian medical encounters.
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  • Do Tanzanian Hospitals Need Healthcare Ethics Committees? Report on the 2014 Dartmouth/Penn Research Ethics Training and Program Development for Tanzania Workshop.M. Aboud, D. Bukini, R. Waddell, L. Peterson, R. Joseph, B. M. Morris, J. Shayo, K. Williams, J. F. Merz & C. M. Ulrich - 2018 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 11 (2):75.
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  • The Issue of Expertise in Clinical Ethics.George J. Agich - 2009 - Diametros 22:3-20.
    The proliferation of ethics committees and ethics consultation services has engendered a discussion of the issue of the expertise of those who provide clinical ethics consultation services. In this paper, I discuss two aspects of this issue: the cognitive dimension or content knowledge that the clinical ethics consultant should possess and the practical dimension or set of dispositions, skills, and traits that are necessary for effective ethics consultation. I argue that the failure to differentiate and fully explicate these dimensions contributes (...)
     
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  • Clinical Ethics Consultation: Examining How American and Japanese Experts Analyze an Alzheimeras Case.Noriko Nagao, Mark P. Aulisio, Yoshio Nukaga, Misao Fujita, Shinji Kosugi, Stuart Youngner & Akira Akabayashi - 2008 - BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):2-.
    BackgroundFew comparative studies of clinical ethics consultation practices have been reported. The objective of this study was to explore how American and Japanese experts analyze an Alzheimer's case regarding ethics consultation.MethodsWe presented the case to physicians and ethicists from the US and Japan (one expert from each field from both countries; total = 4) and obtained their responses through a questionnaire and in-depth interviews.ResultsEstablishing a consensus was a common goal among American and Japanese participants. In attempting to achieve consensus, the (...)
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  • The Ethics of Policy Writing: How Should Hospitals Deal with Moral Disagreement About Controversial Medical Practices?E. C. Winkler - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (10):559-566.
    Every healthcare organisation enacts a multitude of policies, but there has been no discussion as to what procedural and substantive requirements a policy writing process should meet in order to achieve good outcomes and to possess sufficient authority for those who are asked to follow it.Using, as an example, the controversy about patient’s refusal of blood transfusions, I argue that a hospital wide policy is preferable to individual decision making, because it ensures autonomy, quality, fairness, and efficiency.Policy writing for morally (...)
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  • Barriers and Challenges in Clinical Ethics Consultations: The Experiences of Nine Clinical Ethics Committees: Country Reports.Reidar Pedersen - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (8):460-469.
    Clinical ethics committees have recently been established in nearly all Norwegian hospital trusts. One important task for these committees is clinical ethics consultations. This qualitative study explores significant barriers confronting the ethics committees in providing such consultation services. The interviews with the committees indicate that there is a substantial need for clinical ethics support services and, in general, the committee members expressed a great deal of enthusiasm for the committee work. They also reported, however, that tendencies to evade moral disagreement, (...)
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  • The Proper Locus of Professionalization: The Individual or the Institutions?David Magnus & Bela Fishbeyn - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (5):1-2.
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  • The Texas Advanced Directive Law: Unfinished Business.Michael Kapottos & Stuart Youngner - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):34-38.
    The Texas Advance Directive Act allows physicians and hospitals to overrule patient or family requests for futile care. Purposefully not defining futility, the law leaves its determination in specific cases to an institutional process. While the law has received several criticisms, it does seem to work constructively in the cases that come to the review process. We introduce a new criticism: While the law has been justified by an appeal to professional values such as avoiding harm to patients, avoiding the (...)
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  • The Changing Composition of a Hospital Ethics Committee: A Tertiary Care Center’s Experience. [REVIEW]Andrew Courtwright, Sharon Brackett, Alexandra Cist, M. Cornelia Cremens, Eric L. Krakauer & Ellen M. Robinson - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (1):59-68.
    A growing body of research has demonstrated significant heterogeneity of hospital ethics committee (HEC) size, membership and training requirements, length of appointment, institutional support, clinical and policy roles, and predictors of self identified success. Because these studies have focused on HECs at a single point in time, however, little is known about how the composition of HECs changes over time and what impact these changes have on committee utilization. The current study presents 20 years of data on the evolution of (...)
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  • Hospital Ethics Committees: The Case for Limiting Policy Work.Reid Cushman & Robin N. Fiore - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):23-24.
  • Münchner Leitlinie zu Entscheidungen am LebensendeMunich policy on end-of-life decisions.Eva C. Winkler, Gian Domenico Borasio, Peter Jacobs, Jürgen Weber & Ralf J. Jox - 2012 - Ethik in der Medizin 24 (3):221-234.
    Die Entscheidung für oder gegen lebensverlängernde Behandlungsmaßnahmen geht inzwischen der Hälfte aller Todesfälle in Europa voraus. Sie wird im klinischen Alltag häufig als ethische Herausforderung wahrgenommen, zudem sind unter Klinikern juristische Unsicherheiten und Fragen der korrekten Vorgehensweise verbreitet. Die hier vorgestellte Münchner Leitlinie zu Entscheidungen am Lebensende soll rechtliche Unsicherheit reduzieren, Klinikumsmitarbeiter für die ethische Dimension von Therapieentscheidungen am Lebensende sensibilisieren und ethisch begründete Entscheidungen fördern. Aus organisationsethischer Perspektive soll mit der Leitlinie eine Reflexion und Meinungsbildung zu einem ethisch relevanten (...)
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  • The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics.Alexander A. Kon - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):59-65.
    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing (...)
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  • A Comment on Community Consultation.Richard M. Zaner - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):29 – 31.
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  • What is Happening During Case Deliberations in Clinical Ethics Committees? A Pilot Study.R. Pedersen, V. Akre & R. Forde - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (3):147-152.
    Background: Clinical ethics consultation services have been established in many countries during recent decades. An important task is to discuss concrete clinical cases. However, empirical research observing what is happening during such deliberations is scarce. Objectives: To explore clinical ethics committees’ deliberations and to identify areas for improvement. Design: A pilot study including observations of committees deliberating a paper case, semistructured group interviews, and qualitative analysis of the data. Participants: Nine hospital ethics committees in Norway. Results and interpretations: Key elements (...)
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  • Successes and Failures of Hospital Ethics Committees: A National Survey of Ethics Committee Chairs.Glenn Mcgee, Joshua P. Spanogle, Arthur L. Caplan, Dina Penny & David A. Asch - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (1):87-93.
    In 1992, the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) passed a mandate that all its approved hospitals put in place a means for addressing ethical concerns.Although the particular process the hospital uses to address such concernsmay vary, the hospital or healthcare ethics committee (HEC) is used most often. In a companion study to that reported here, we found that in 1998 over 90% of U.S. hospitals had ethics committees, compared to just 1% in 1983, and that many (...)
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  • Networking Ethics: A Survey of Bioethics Networks Across the U.S.Jennifer Kleiner Fausett, Eleanor Gilmore-Szott & D. Micah Hester - 2016 - HEC Forum 28 (2):153-167.
    Ethics networks have emerged over the last few decades as a mechanism for individuals and institutions over various regions, cities and states to converge on healthcare-related ethical issues. However, little is known about the development and nature of such networks. In an effort to fill the gap in the knowledge about such networks, a survey was conducted that evaluated the organizational structure, missions and functions, as well as the outcomes/products of ethics networks across the country. Eighteen established bioethics networks were (...)
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  • What Ethical Issues Really Arise in Practice at an Academic Medical Center? A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Clinical Ethics Consultations From 2008 to 2013.Katherine Wasson, Emily Anderson, Erika Hagstrom, Michael McCarthy, Kayhan Parsi & Mark Kuczewski - 2016 - HEC Forum 28 (3):217-228.
    As the field of clinical ethics consultation sets standards and moves forward with the Quality Attestation process, questions should be raised about what ethical issues really do arise in practice. There is limited data on the type and number of ethics consultations conducted across different settings. At Loyola University Medical Center, we conducted a retrospective review of our ethics consultations from 2008 through 2013. One hundred fifty-six cases met the eligibility criteria. We analyzed demographic data on these patients and conducted (...)
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  • A Better Way to Evaluate Clinical Ethics Consultations? An Ecological Approach.Elisa J. Gordon - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):26 – 29.
  • Clinical Ethics Consultation: A Need for Evidence.David Magnus - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (1):1-2.
  • Quality in Ethics Consultations.Gerard Magill - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):761-774.
    There is an increasing need for quality in ethics consultations, though there have been significant achievements in the United States and Europe. However, fundamental concerns that place the profession in jeopardy are discussed from the perspective of the U.S. in a manner that will be helpful for other countries. The descriptive component of the essay (the first two points) explains the achievements in ethics quality (illustrated by the IntegratedEthics program of the Veterans Health Administration) and the progress on standards and (...)
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  • The Instrumental Role of Hospital Ethics Committees in Policy Work.Nanibaa’ A. Garrison & David Magnus - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):1-2.
  • Sollte es ein favorisiertes Modell klinischer Ethikberatung für Krankenhäuser geben? – Erfahrungen aus den USA.Dr med Eva C. Winkler - 2009 - Ethik in der Medizin 21 (4):309-322.
    In den USA haben sich im Wesentlichen drei verschiedene Organisationsformen klinischer Ethikberatung entwickelt: der einzelne Berater, das große Komitee und das Beratungsteam teilweise mit Rückbindung an ein größeres Komitee. Bislang gibt es jedoch weder empirische Daten noch ein Ergebnis der anfänglichen theoretischen Diskussion, ob es ein favorisiertes Modell für die klinische Ethikberatung geben sollte und welches dieses sei. Dieser Artikel argumentiert, dass die Vorzüge, Nachteile und die Erfolgsfaktoren der verschiedenen Organisationsformen in Abhängigkeit von der Zielsetzung klinischer Ethikdienste (KED) bewertet werden (...)
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