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  1. Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings.Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
    Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...)
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  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • The Nature of the Memory Buffer in Implicit Learning: Learning Chinese Tonal Symmetries.Feifei Li, Shan Jiang, Xiuyan Guo, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):920-930.
    Previous research has established that people can implicitly learn chunks, which do not require a memory buffer to process. The present study explores the implicit learning of nonlocal dependencies generated by higher than finite-state grammars, specifically, Chinese tonal retrogrades and inversions , which do require buffers . People were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry instantiating one of the two grammars; after this training phase, people were informed of the existence of rules and asked to classify new poems, (...)
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  • Tonal Symmetry Induces Fluency and Sense of Well-Formedness.Fuqiang Qiao, Fenfen Sun, Fengying Li, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo & Zoltan Dienes - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Unconsciously Learning Task-Irrelevant Perceptual Sequences.Xiuyan Guo, Shan Jiang, Hongyi Wang, Lei Zhu, Jinghua Tang, Zoltan Dienes & Zhiliang Yang - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):203-211.
    We demonstrated unconscious learning of task-irrelevant perceptual regularities in a Serial Reaction Time task in both visual and auditory domains. Participants were required to respond to different letters or syllables which occurred in random order. Unbeknownst to participants, the color of the two letters or the tone of the syllables varied according to certain rules. Reaction times indicated that people indeed learnt both the color and tonal regularities indicating that task-irrelevant sequence structure can be learned perceptually. In a subsequent prediction (...)
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  • Using Bayes to Get the Most Out of Non-Significant Results.Zoltan Dienes - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Tendency of Unconscious Thought Toward Global Processing Style.Jiansheng Li, Fan Wang, Mowei Shen & Gang Fan - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 53:14-22.