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  1. Iconicity as Multimodal, Polysemiotic, and Plurifunctional.Gabrielle Hodge & Lindsay Ferrara - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Investigations of iconicity in language, whereby interactants coordinate meaningful bodily actions to create resemblances, are prevalent across the human communication sciences. However, when it comes to analysing and comparing iconicity across different interactions and modes of communication, it is not always clear we are looking at the same thing. For example, tokens of spoken ideophones and manual depicting actions may both be analysed as iconic forms. Yet spoken ideophones may signal depictive and descriptive qualities via speech, while manual actions may (...)
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  • Iconicity and Diachronic Language Change.Padraic Monaghan & Seán G. Roberts - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12968.
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  • Iconicity and the Emergence of Combinatorial Structure in Language.Tessa Verhoef, Simon Kirby & Bart Boer - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):1969-1994.
    In language, recombination of a discrete set of meaningless building blocks forms an unlimited set of possible utterances. How such combinatorial structure emerged in the evolution of human language is increasingly being studied. It has been shown that it can emerge when languages culturally evolve and adapt to human cognitive biases. How the emergence of combinatorial structure interacts with the existence of holistic iconic form-meaning mappings in a language is still unknown. The experiment presented in this paper studies the role (...)
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  • Manual Movement in Sign Languages: One Hand Versus Two in Communicating Shapes.Casey Ferrara & Donna Jo Napoli - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (9).
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  • Tools for Language: Patterned Iconicity in Sign Language Nouns and Verbs.Carol Padden, So-One Hwang, Ryan Lepic & Sharon Seegers - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (1):81-94.
    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing (...)
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  • Arbitrariness, Iconicity, and Systematicity in Language.Mark Dingemanse, Damián E. Blasi, Gary Lupyan, Morten H. Christiansen & Padraic Monaghan - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (10):603-615.
    The notion that the form of a word bears an arbitrary relation to its meaning accounts only partly for the attested relations between form and meaning in the languages of the world. Recent research suggests a more textured view of vocabulary structure, in which arbitrariness is complemented by iconicity (aspects of form resemble aspects of meaning) and systematicity (statistical regularities in forms predict function). Experimental evidence suggests these form-to-meaning correspondences serve different functions in language processing, development, and communication: systematicity facilitates (...)
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  • Boundaries in Space and Time: Iconic Biases Across Modalities.Jeremy Kuhn, Carlo Geraci, Philippe Schlenker & Brent Strickland - 2021 - Cognition 210:104596.
    The idea that the form of a word reflects information about its meaning has its roots in Platonic philosophy, and has been experimentally investigated for concrete, sensory-based properties since the early 20th century. Here, we provide evidence for an abstract property of ‘boundedness’ that introduces a systematic, iconic bias on the phonological expectations of a novel lexicon. We show that this abstract property is general across events and objects. In Experiment 1, we show that subjects are systematically more likely to (...)
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  • Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations.Robert Östling, Carl Börstell & Servane Courtaux - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Iconicity in Signed and Spoken Vocabulary: A Comparison Between American Sign Language, British Sign Language, English, and Spanish.Marcus Perlman, Hannah Little, Bill Thompson & Robin L. Thompson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • From Iconic Handshapes to Grammatical Contrasts: Longitudinal Evidence From a Child Homesigner.Marie Coppola & Diane Brentari - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Many sign languages display crosslinguistic consistencies in the use of two iconic aspects of handshape, handshape type and finger group complexity. Handshape type is used systematically in form-meaning pairings (morphology): Handling handshapes (Handling-HSs), representing how objects are handled, tend to be used to express events with an agent (“hand-as-hand” iconicity), and Object handshapes (Object-HSs), representing an object's size/shape, are used more often to express events without an agent (“hand-as-object” iconicity). Second, in the distribution of meaningless properties of form (morphophonology), Object-HSs (...)
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  • Which Words Are Most Iconic?Bodo Winter, Marcus Perlman, Lynn K. Perry & Gary Lupyan - 2017 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 18 (3):443-464.
    Some spoken words are iconic, exhibiting a resemblance between form and meaning. We used native speaker ratings to assess the iconicity of 3001 English words, analyzing their iconicity in relation to part-of-speech differences and differences between the sensory domain they relate to. First, we replicated previous findings showing that onomatopoeia and interjections were highest in iconicity, followed by verbs and adjectives, and then nouns and grammatical words. We further show that words with meanings related to the senses are more iconic (...)
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  • Iconic Features.Philippe Schlenker - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (4):299-356.
    Sign languages are known to display the same general grammatical properties as spoken languages, but also to make greater use of iconic mechanisms. In Schlenker et al.’s ‘Iconic Variables’ :91–149, 2013), it was argued that loci can have an iconic semantics, in the sense that certain geometric relations among loci are preserved by the interpretation function. Here we ask whether plural and height specifications of loci display the formal behavior of phi-features in remaining uninterpreted in focus- and ellipsis-constructions. Data from (...)
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