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  1. Defining astronomical community in early modern Europe.Aviva Rothman - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):231-234.
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  • Religion and narrative building in the history of science.Jason M. Rampelt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (2):286-289.
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  • The Other Merton Thesis.Harriet Zuckerman - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):239-267.
    The ArgumentWritten as one book, Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth-Century England has become two. One book, treating Puritanism and science, has since become “The Merton Thesis.” The other, treating shifts of interest among the sciences and problem choice within the sciences, has been less consequential. This paper proposes that neglect of one part of the monograph has skewed readers' understanding of the whole. Society and culture contributed to institutionalization of science and the directions it took, neither one exclusively. Four (...)
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  • Unfurling western notions of nature and Amerindian alternatives.Egleé L. Zent - 2015 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 15 (2):105-123.
  • Alexandre Koyré versus Lucien Lévy-Bruhl: From Collective Representations to Paradigms of Scientific Thought.Paola Zambelli - 1995 - Science in Context 8 (3):531-555.
    The ArgumentAlexandre Koyré is one of the most important historians of philosophic and scientific though since the thirties. Research on the Scientific Revolution, on Galileo, Descartes, Newton, as well as on Paracelsus and Boehme has deeply changed under his influential method: it has been a model for Kuhn's methodology of paradigms and revolutions in the histroy of science. Whereas Koyré used to be considered opposed in his ideology and method to sociological approaches, he has recently been characterized by Yehuda Elkana (...)
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  • Early modern protestant virtuosos and scientists: Some comments.Kaspar von Greyerz - 2016 - Zygon 51 (3):698-717.
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  • The Rise and Fall of Military Technology.Martin Van Creveld - 1994 - Science in Context 7 (2):327-351.
    The ArgumentThis paper is divided into four parts. Part I is a conventional, if necessarily very brief description of the way in which military technology and armed force reinforced each other from about 1500 until 1945. Part II examines the period between 1945 and the present; it argues that what most people saw as unprece-dentedly rapid military-technological progress did in fact constitute the onset of overkill and degeneration. Part III explains how, obscured and in part protected by military-technological progress, low-intensity (...)
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  • Religious rites and scientific communities: Ayudha puja as “culture” at the indian institute of science.Renny Thomas & Robert M. Geraci - 2018 - Zygon 53 (1):95-122.
    Ayudha Puja, a South Indian festival translated as “worship of the machines,” is a dramatic example of how religion and science intertwine in political life. Across South India, but especially in the state of Karnataka, scientists and engineers celebrate the festival in offices, laboratories, and workshops by attending a puja led by a priest. Although the festival is noteworthy in many ways, one of its most immediate valences is political. In this article, we argue that Ayudha Puja normalizes Brahminical Hinduism (...)
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  • Further Thoughts on Merton in Context.Dirk Struik - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):227-238.
    Robert Merton may not remember it, but in the 1930s we met in Cambridge and took one or more walks together – 1 think they were along Trapelo Road in Waltham, then a rural lane. Our conversation must have been interesting, since I remember the episode, but I can only guess at the subject. Since Merton was working on the sociology of science in Newton's day and I had a long standing interest in the relations between mathematics and society, especially (...)
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  • Phrenological knowledge and the social structure of early nineteenth-century Edinburgh.Steven Shapin - 1975 - Annals of Science 32 (3):219-243.
    This account of the conflict between phrenologists and anti-phrenologists in early nineteenth-century Edinburgh is offered as a case study in the sociological explanation of intellectual activity. The historiographical value and propriety of a sociological approach to ideas is defended against accounts which assume the autonomy of knowledge. By attending to the social context of the debate and the functions of ideas in that context one may construct an explanation of why the conflict took the course it did.
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  • History of Science and its Sociological Reconstructions.Steven Shapin - 1982 - History of Science 20 (3):157-211.
  • Incomplete knowledge: ethnography and the crisis of context in studies of media, science and technology.Markus Schlecker & Eric Hirsch - 2001 - History of the Human Sciences 14 (1):69-87.
    This article examines strands of an intellectual history in Media and Cultural Studies and Science and Technology Studies in both of which researchers were prompted to take up ethnography. Three historical phases of this process are identified. The move between phases was the result of particular displacements and contestations of perspective in the research procedures within each discipline. Thus concerns about appropriate contextualization led to the eventual embrace of anthropological ethnographic methods. The article traces the subsequent emergence of a ‘crisis (...)
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  • Wisdom in organizations: Whence and whither.David Rooney & Bernard McKenna - 2007 - Social Epistemology 21 (2):113 – 138.
    We trace the genealogy of wisdom to show that its status in epistemological and management discourse has gradually declined since the Scientific Revolution. As the status of wisdom has declined, so the status of rational science has grown. We argue that the effects on the practice of management of the decline of wisdom may impede management practice by clouding judgment, degrading decision making and compromising ethical standards. We show that wisdom combines transcendent intellection and rational process with ethics to provide (...)
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  • What is the good of history of science.Lewis Pyenson - 1989 - History of Science 27 (4):353-389.
  • ‘O tempera, O magnes!’: A sociological analysis of the discovery of secular magnetic variation in 1634.Stephen Pumfrey - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (2):181-214.
    As sociologists learn more about how scientific knowledge is created, they give historians the opportunity to rework their accounts from a more contextual perspective. It is relatively easy to do so in areas with large theoretical, cosmological or overtly ideological components. It is more difficult, but equally necessary, to open up very empirical accomplishments, and recent sociological analysis of the process of science gives us some interesting insights. This paper employs some of these on the apparently unpromising subject of the (...)
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  • El sexo de las metáforas.Eulalia Pérez Sedeño - 2011 - Arbor 187 (747):99-108.
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  • Technology and institutions: living in a material world. [REVIEW]Trevor Pinch - 2008 - Theory and Society 37 (5):461-483.
  • Anglicanism, latitudinarianism and science in seventeenth century England.Lotte Mulligan - 1973 - Annals of Science 30 (2):213-219.
  • Positivist discourse and social scientific communities: Towards an epistemological sociology of science.Robert Pahre - 1995 - Social Epistemology 9 (3):233 – 255.
  • The Place of Knowledge A Methodological Survey.Adi Ophir & Steven Shapin - 1991 - Science in Context 4 (1):3-22.
    A generation ago scientific ideas floated free in the air, as historians gazed up at them in wonder and admiration. From time to time, historians agreed, the ideas that made up the body of scientific truth became incarnate: they were embedded into the fleshly forms of human culture and attached to particular times and places. How this incarnation occurred was a great mystery. How could spirit be made flesh? How did the transcendent and the timeless enter the forms of the (...)
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  • The Content of Science Debate in the Historiography of the Scientific Revolution.John Nnaji & José Luis Luján - 2016 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 30 (2):99-109.
    The issue of internalism and externalism in historiography of science was intensely debated two decades ago. The conclusions of such debate on the ‘context of science’ appear to be a reinstatement of the positivist view of the ‘content of science’ as comprising only ideas and concepts uninfluenced by extra-scientific factors. The description of the roles of politics, economy, and socio-cultural factors in science was limited only within the ‘context of science’. This article seeks to resituate the ‘content of science’ debate (...)
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  • Research Prioritization and the Potential Pitfall of Path Dependencies in Coral Reef Science.Mark William Neff - 2014 - Minerva 52 (2):213-235.
    Studies of how scientists select research problems suggest the process involves weighing a number of factors, including funding availability, likelihood of success versus failure, and perceived publishability of likely results, among others. In some fields, a strong personal interest in conducting science to bring about particular social and environmental outcomes plays an important role. Conservation biologists are frequently motivated by a desire that their research will contribute to improved conservation outcomes, which introduces a pair of challenging questions for managers of (...)
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  • Robert K. Merton: The Celebration and Defense of Science.Everett Mendelsohn - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):269-289.
    The ArgumentIn Merton's early work in the sociology of science three theses are identified: economic and military influence in shaping early modern science; the “Puritan spur” to scientific activity; the critical role of a democratic social order for the support of science. These themes are located in the contemporary economic crisis of the 1930s, the rise of Nazism and fascism, and the emerging radical and Marxist political activism of scientists in the United States and the United Kingdom. Merton's interaction with (...)
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  • Clerical legacies and secular snares: Patriarchal science and patriarchal science studies.Maureen McNeil - 1996 - The European Legacy 1 (5):1728-1739.
  • Science, reason, knowledge, and wisdom: A critique of specialism.Nicholas Maxwell - 1980 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):19 – 81.
    In this paper I argue for a kind of intellectual inquiry which has, as its basic aim, to help all of us to resolve rationally the most important problems that we encounter in our lives, problems that arise as we seek to discover and achieve that which is of value in life. Rational problem-solving involves articulating our problems, proposing and criticizing possible solutions. It also involves breaking problems up into subordinate problems, creating a tradition of specialized problem-solving - specialized scientific, (...)
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  • The fate of idealism in modern medicine.Aaron Manson - 1994 - Journal of Medical Humanities 15 (3):153-162.
    William Osler's description of the ideal physician remains the dominant character-ideal for modern physicians. He believed that the personality traits that resulted from a belief in ascetic Protestantism, what has been called the Puritan temper, were essential in the practice of medicine. However, this idealism has been weakened by modern psychological theories which view idealism as an illness. In a culture oriented to health, rather than virtue, as an ultimate ideal, physicians can help develop a science of limits.
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  • Science, Tradition, and the Science of Tradition.Joseph Mali - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):143-173.
    The ArgumentScience consists in progress by innovation. Scientists, however, are committed to all kinds of traditions that persist or recur in society regardless of intellectual and institutional changes. Merton's thesis about the origins of the scientific revolution in seventeenth-century England offers a sociohistorical confirmation of this revisionist view: the emergence of a highly rational scientific method out of the religious-ethical sentiments of the English Puritans implies that scientific knowledge does indeed grow out of – and not really against – customary (...)
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  • In a different vein? Scientific development in the Greek Orthodox East. [REVIEW]Vasilios N. Makrides - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Science 46 (2):335-340.
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  • Quantification in Science and Cognition Circa 1937 A Newly Discovered Text of Ludwik Fleck.Ilana Löwy - 1988 - Science in Context 2 (2):345-355.
    Although Ludwik Fleck is today recognized as one of the pioneers of the historical sociology of science, his historical and epistemological writings, most of them dating from the 1930s, long remained practically unknown. They were rediscovered following the mention of Fleck's principal work, the monograph Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact in the preface of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, and thanks to the efforts of W. Baldamus and his student T. Schnelle and of the editors of the (...)
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  • Capitalism and Metaphysics.Scott Lash - 2007 - Theory, Culture and Society 24 (5):1-26.
    Contemporary capitalism is becoming increasingly metaphysical. The article contrasts a ‘physical’ capitalism – of the national and manufacturing age – with a ‘metaphysical capitalism’ of the global information society. It describes physical capitalism in terms of extensity, equivalence, equilibrium and the phenomenal, which stands in contrast to metaphysical capitalism’s intensity, inequivalence, disequilibrium and the noumenal. Most centrally: if use-value or the gift in pre-capitalist society is grounded in concrete inequivalence, and exchange-value in physical capitalism presumes abstract equivalence, then value in (...)
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  • Psychical research and parapsychology interpreted: suggestions from the international historiography of psychical research and parapsychology for investigating its history in the Netherlands.Ingrid Kloosterman - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):2-22.
    One of the reasons the history of parapsychology and its ancestor psychical research is intriguing is because it addresses a central issue: the boundaries of science. This article provides an overview of the historiography of parapsychology and presents an approach to investigate the Dutch history of parapsychology contributing to the understanding of this central theme. In the first section the historical accounts provided by psychical researchers and parapsychologists themselves are discussed; next those studies of sociologists and historians understanding parapsychology as (...)
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  • Multiple Levels of Analysis and the Limitations of Methodological Individualisms.Ronald Jepperson & John W. Meyer - 2011 - Sociological Theory 29 (1):54 - 73.
    This article discusses relations among the multiple levels of analysis present in macro-sociological explanation—i.e., relations of individual, structural, and institutional processes. It also criticizes the doctrinal insistence upon single-level individualistic explanation found in some prominent contemporary sociological theory. For illustrative material the article returns to intellectual uses of Weber's "Protestant Ethic thesis," showing how an artificial version has been employed as a kind of proof text for the alleged scientific necessity of individualist explanation. Our alternative exposition renders the discussion of (...)
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  • The genesis of 'scientific community'.Struan Jacobs - 2002 - Social Epistemology 16 (2):157-168.
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  • The genesis of 'scientific community'.Struan Jacobs - 2001 - Social Epistemology 16 (2):157 – 168.
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  • Atomism and Eschatology: Catholicism and Natural Philosophy in the Interregnum.John Henry - 1982 - British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):211-239.
    In spite of vigorous opposition by a number of historians it has now become a commonplace that the rapid development of the ‘new philosophy’ sprang from the ideology of Puritanism. What began its career as the ‘Merton thesis’ has now been refined, developed, and so often repeated that it seems to be almost unassailable. However, the two foremost historians in the entrenchment of this new orthodoxy are willing, in principle, to concede that ‘in reality things were very mixed up’, and (...)
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  • Research on research evaluation.Sven Hemlin - 1996 - Social Epistemology 10 (2):209 – 250.
  • Science in the Church.J. L. Heilbron - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):9-28.
    The ArgumentA brief review of the Merton thesis shows that its restriction to England is arbitrary. An example from the historiography of modern physics suggests the possible payoff of an ecumenical Merton thesis and the means to explore it. A summary of the careers of men who practiced science literally in the church – men who built meridian lines in Italian cathedrals – indicates the range of social support of astronomical studies by Catholic institutions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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  • Transposing the Merton Thesis: Apostolic Spirituality and the Establishment of the Jesuit Scientific Tradition.Steven J. Harris - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):29-65.
    The ArgumentDespite more than fifty years of debate on the Merton thesis, there have been few attempts to substantiate Merton's argument through empirically based comparative studies. This study of the Jesuit scientific tradition is intended to serve as a test of some of Merton's central claims.Jesuit science is remarkable for its scope and longevity, and is distinguished by its markedly empirical and utilitarian orientation. In this paper I examine the ideological structure of the Society of Jesus and find at its (...)
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  • Innovation Without the Word: William F. Ogburn’s Contribution to the Study of Technological Innovation. [REVIEW]Benoît Godin - 2010 - Minerva 48 (3):277-307.
    The history of innovation as a category is dominated by economists and by the contribution of J. A. Schumpeter. This paper documents the contribution of a neglected but influential author, the American sociologist William F. Ogburn. Over a period of more than 30 years, Ogburn developed pioneering ideas on three dimensions of technological innovation: origins, diffusion, and effects. He also developed the first conceptual framework for innovation studies—based on the concept of cultural lags—which led to studying and forecasting the impacts (...)
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  • Science in the Medieval Jewish Culture of Southern France.Gad Freudenthal - 1995 - History of Science 33 (1):23-58.
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  • Secrets of God, nature, and life1.Keller Evelyn Fox - 1990 - History of the Human Sciences 3 (2):229-242.
  • The Discourse of Pious Science.Rivka Feldhay & Michael Heyd - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):109-142.
    The ArgumentThis paper, an attempt at an institutional history of ideas, compares patterns of reproduction of scientific knowledge in Catholic and Protestant educational institutions. Franciscus Eschinardus'Cursus Physico-Mathematicusand Jean-Robert Chouet'sSyntagma Physicumare examined for the strategies which allow for accommodation of new contents and new practices within traditional institutional frameworks. The texts manifest two different styles of inquiry about nature, each adapted to the peculiar constraints implied by its environment. The interpretative drive of Eschinardus and a whole group of “modern astronomers” is (...)
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  • The economics of science.Arthur M. Diamond - 1996 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 9 (2-3):6-49.
  • What Roles for Scientific Associations in Contemporary Science?Ana Delicado, Raquel Rego, Cristina Palma Conceição, Inês Pereira & Luís Junqueira - 2014 - Minerva 52 (4):439-465.
    This article aims to discuss the contemporary activities and roles that scientific associations play in science and society. It is based on a comprehensive study of scientific associations in Portugal, relying on a multi-method, quantitative and qualitative approach. After a brief review of the literature on associations in the social studies of science, we provide an outline of the expanding field of scientific associations in Portugal. We then proceed to present and discuss the five main roles of associations identified through (...)
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  • On the Ministerial Archive of Academic Acts.William Clark - 1996 - Science in Context 9 (4):421-486.
    The ArgumentUsing a pernicious Foucaultian reading of Weber's rationalization theories, I endeavor in this essay to illuminate academic acts as kept in the Brandenburg-Prussian state archive in Berlin, with some comparison to others, chiefly those in the Bavarian state archive in Munich. The essay concerns the microtechniques of marking, collecting and keeping records, and the form and content of archives of academic acts – interesting for the reason that paperwork circumscribes the state ministry's ability to recollect academic acts and hence (...)
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  • Sociality with Objects.Karin Knorr Cetina - 1997 - Theory, Culture and Society 14 (4):1-30.
  • Durkheim and mauss revisited: Classification and the sociology of knowledge.David Bloor - 1982 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 13 (4):267--97.
  • Durkheim and Mauss revisited: Classification and the sociology of knowledge.David Bloor - 1982 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 13 (4):267-297.
  • The invention of theory: A transnational case study of the changing status of Max Weber’s Protestant ethic thesis.Stefan Bargheer - 2017 - Theory and Society 46 (6):497-541.
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  • Scientific revolution and the evolution of consciousness.Robert Artigiani - 1988 - World Futures 25 (3):237-281.