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  1. An Ethical Exploration of Increased Average Number of Authors Per Publication.Mohammad Hosseini, Jonathan Lewis, Hub Zwart & Bert Gordijn - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-24.
    This article explores the impact of an Increase in the average Number of Authors per Publication on known ethical issues of authorship. For this purpose, the ten most common ethical issues associated with scholarly authorship are used to set up a taxonomy of existing issues and raise awareness among the community to take precautionary measures and adopt best practices to minimize the negative impact of INAP. We confirm that intense international, interdisciplinary and complex collaborations are necessary, and INAP is an (...)
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  • Rethinking Science as a Vocation: One Hundred Years of Bureaucratization of Academic Science.John P. Walsh & You-Na Lee - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (5):1057-1085.
    One hundred years ago, in his lecture Science as a Vocation, Max Weber prefigured a transition from science as a calling to science as bureaucratically organized work. He argued that a calling for science is critical for sustaining scientific work. Using Weber’s arguments for science as a vocation as a lens, in this paper, we discuss whether a calling for science may become difficult to maintain in increasingly bureaucratized scientific work—and also whether such a calling is necessary for the advance (...)
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  • On the Fundamental Worldview of the Integral Culture: Integrating Science, Religion, and Art: Part Two.Attila Grandpierre - 2003 - World Futures 59 (7):535-556.
    In the present essay I suggest that the main reason why history failed to develop societies in harmony with Nature, including our internal nature as well, is that we failed to evaluate the exact basis of the factor ultimately governing our thoughts. We failed to realise that it is the worldview that ultimately governs our thoughts and through our thoughts, our actions. In this work I consider the ultimate foundations of philosophy, science, religion, and art, pointing out that they were (...)
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  • Risk, Trust and 'The Beyond' of the Environment: A Brief Look at the Recent Case of Mad Cow Disease in the United States.Michael S. Carolan - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (2):233-252.
    The epistemologically distant nature of many of today's environmental risks greatly problematises conventional risk analyses that emphasise objectivity, materiality, factual specificity and certainty. Such analyses fail to problematise issues of ontology and epistemology, assuming a reality that is readily 'readable' and a corresponding knowledge of that reality that is asocial, objective and certain. Under the weight of modern, invisible, manufactured environmental risks, however, these assumptions begin to crack, revealing their tenuous nature. As this paper argues, statements of risk are ultimately (...)
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  • On the Suppression of Medical Evidence.Alexander Christian - 2017 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 48 (3):395-418.
    Financial conflicts of interest in medical research foster deviations from research standards and evidentially lead to the suppression of research findings that are at odds with commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies. Questionable research practices prevent data from being created, made available, or given suitable recognition. They run counter to codified principles of responsible conduct of research, such as honesty, openness or respect for the law. Resulting in ignorance, misrepresentation and suspension of scientific self-correction, suppression of medical evidence in its various (...)
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  • How to Distinguish Medicalization From Over-Medicalization?Emilia Kaczmarek - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):119-128.
    Is medicalization always harmful? When does medicine overstep its proper boundaries? The aim of this article is to outline the pragmatic criteria for distinguishing between medicalization and over-medicalization. The consequences of considering a phenomenon to be a medical problem may take radically different forms depending on whether the problem in question is correctly or incorrectly perceived as a medical issue. Neither indiscriminate acceptance of medicalization of subsequent areas of human existence, nor criticizing new medicalization cases just because they are medicalization (...)
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  • AFHVS 2017 Presidential Address: The Purpose-Driven University: The Role of University Research in the Era of Science Commercialization.Leland L. Glenna - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (4):1021-1031.
    As efforts to commercialize university research outputs continue, critics charge that universities and university scientists are failing to live up to their public-interest purpose. In this paper, I discuss the distinctions between public-interest and private-interest research institutions and how commercialization of university science may be undermining the public interest. I then use Jürgen Habermas’s concept of communicative action as the foundation for efforts to establish public spaces for ethical deliberation among scientists and university administrators. Such ethical deliberation is necessary to (...)
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  • Should We All Be Scientists? Re-Thinking Laboratory Research as a Calling.Louise Bezuidenhout & Nathaniel A. Warne - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1161-1179.
    In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science—and scientists—are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies are increasingly eroding notions of the “otherness” of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist—when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can—or (...)
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  • The Ghost of Wittgenstein: Forms of Life, Scientific Method, and Cultural Critique.William T. Lynch - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):139-174.
    In developing an "internal" sociology of science, the sociology of scientific knowledge drew on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy to reinterpret traditional epistemological topics in sociological terms. By construing scientific reasoning as rule following within a collective, sociologists David Bloor and Harry Collins effectively blocked outside criticism of a scientific field, whether scientific, philosophical, or political. Ethnomethodologist Michael Lynch developed an alternative, Wittgensteinian reading that similarly blocked philosophical or political critique, while also disallowing analytical appeals to historical or institutional contexts. I criticize (...)
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  • Parallel Path: Poliovirus Research in the Vaccine Era.Michele S. Garfinkel & Daniel Sarewitz - 2003 - Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (3):319-338.
    One goal of the scientific research enterprise is to improve the lives of individuals and the overall health of societies. This goal is achieved through a combination of factors, including the composition of research portfolios. In turn, this composition is determined by a variety of scientific and societal needs. The recent history of polio research highlights the complex relations between research policy, scientific progress and societal benefits. Here, we briefly review the circumstances leading to the possibility of eradication of poliovirus, (...)
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  • Consolidating RRI and Open Science: Understanding the Potential for Transformative Change.Rune Nydal, Mads Dahl Gjefsen & Clare Shelley-Egan - 2020 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 16 (1):1-14.
    In European research and innovation policy, Responsible Research and Innovation and Open Science encompass two co-existing sets of ambitions concerning systemic change in the practice of research and innovation. This paper is an exploratory attempt to uncover synergies and differences between RRI and OS, by interrogating what motivates their respective transformative agendas. We offer two storylines that account for the specific contexts and dynamics from which RRI and OS have emerged, which in turn offer entrance points to further unpacking what (...)
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  • What Strong Sociologists Can Learn From Critical Realism: Bloor on the History of Aerodynamics.Christopher Norris - 2014 - Journal of Critical Realism 13 (1):3-37.
    This essay presents a long, detailed, in many ways critical but also appreciative account, of David Bloor’s recent book The Enigma of the Aerofoil. I take that work as the crowning statement of ideas and principles developed over the past four decades by Bloor and other exponents of the ‘strong programme’ in the sociology of scientific knowledge. It therefore offers both a test-case of that approach and a welcome opportunity to review, clarify and extend some of the arguments brought against (...)
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  • Public Conceptions of Scientific Consensus.Matthew H. Slater, Joanna K. Huxster & Emily R. Scholfield - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    Despite decades of concerted efforts to communicate to the public on important scientific issues pertaining to the environment and public health, gaps between public acceptance and the scientific consensus on these issues remain stubborn. One strategy for dealing with this shortcoming has been to focus on the existence of scientific consensus on the relevant matters. Recent science communication research has added support to this general idea, though the interpretation of these studies and their generalizability remains a matter of contention. In (...)
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  • Inference to the Best Explanation.Peter Lipton - 2004 - In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 193.
    Science depends on judgments of the bearing of evidence on theory. Scientists must judge whether an observation or the result of an experiment supports, disconfirms, or is simply irrelevant to a given hypothesis. Similarly, scientists may judge that, given all the available evidence, a hypothesis ought to be accepted as correct or nearly so, rejected as false, or neither. Occasionally, these evidential judgments can be made on deductive grounds. If an experimental result strictly contradicts a hypothesis, then the truth of (...)
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  • Twenty-First Century Perspectivism: The Role of Emotions in Scientific Inquiry.Mark Alfano - 2017 - Studi di Estetica 7 (1):65-79.
    How should emotions figure in scientific practice? I begin by distinguishing three broad answers to this question, ranging from pessimistic to optimistic. Confirmation bias and motivated numeracy lead us to cast a jaundiced eye on the role of emotions in scientific inquiry. However, reflection on the essential motivating role of emotions in geniuses makes it less clear that science should be evacuated of emotion. I then draw on Friedrich Nietzsche’s perspectivism to articulate a twenty-first century epistemology of science that recognizes (...)
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  • Moral Progress and Human Agency.Michele M. Moody-Adams - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (1):153-168.
    The idea of moral progress is a necessary presupposition of action for beings like us. We must believe that moral progress is possible and that it might have been realized in human experience, if we are to be confident that continued human action can have any morally constructive point. I discuss the implications of this truth for moral psychology. I also show that once we understand the complex nature and the complicated social sources of moral progress, we will appreciate why (...)
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  • Business Research, Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, and the Inherent Responsibility of Scholars.Michaël Gonin - 2007 - Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (1):33-58.
    Business research and teaching institutions play an important role in shaping the way businesses perceive their relations to the broader society and its moral expectations. Hence, as ethical scandals recently arose in the business world, questions related to the civic responsibilities of business scholars and to the role business schools play in society have gained wider interest. In this article, I argue that these ethical shortcomings are at least partly resulting from the mainstream business model with its taken-for granted basic (...)
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  • Conflicts of Interest in Science.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Perspectives on Science 6 (4):381-408.
    : This essay provides an analysis of conflicts of interest in science. It gives an overview of some current conflict of interest policies and distinguishes between real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest. The essay argues that scientists should disclose real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest and that they should avoid conflicts that threaten scientific objectivity or trustworthiness. The essay also uses several hypothetical scenarios to illustrate some of the key points made in the analysis and suggests some strategies (...)
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  • Science Made Up: Constructivist Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.D. Stump - unknown
    Part of the work for this paper was done during the tenure of a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. I am grateful for financial support provided by the National Science Foundation, Grant #BNS-8011494, and for the assistance of the staff of the Center. I also want to thank David Bloor, Stephen Downes, David Hull and Andy Pickering for offering good advice and criticism, some of which I have heeded.
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  • Scientific ethos and ethical dimensions of education.Sergey B. Kulikov - forthcoming - International Journal of Ethics Education:1-18.
    This research examines the ethical dimensions of ethical thought aimed at reflecting fundamentals or leading principles of the production and reproduction of knowledge in science and tertiary education. To achieve research goals, the author of this article evaluates the key assumption that statements in the ethics of science and education are transcendental but do not require a reference to a transcendental or metaphysical subject. The author adheres to the stances by Wittgenstein and Moore and defines ethics in terms of the (...)
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  • Book Reviews : Selectionism Dominant: An Essay Review The Evolution of Technology, by George Basalla. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 248 Pp. $32.50 (Cloth); $10.95 (Paper). Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach, by Ronald N. Giere. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, 321 Pp. $34.95 (Cloth). Science as a Process: An EvolutionaryAccount of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science, by David L. Hull. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, 586 Pp. $39.95 (Cloth. [REVIEW]James Fleck - 1992 - Science, Technology and Human Values 17 (2):237-248.
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  • Is the Market Perceived to be Civilizing or Destructive? Scientists’ Universalism Values and Their Attitudes Towards Patents.Jared L. Peifer, David R. Johnson & Elaine Howard Ecklund - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 170 (2):253-267.
    Is the market civilizing or destructive? The increased salience of science commercialization is forcing scientists to address this question. Benefiting from the sociology of morality literature’s increased attention to specific kinds of morality and engaging with economic sociology’s moral markets literature, we generate competing hypotheses about scientists’ value-driven attitudes toward patenting. The Civilizing Market thesis suggests scientists who prioritize universalism will tend to support patenting. The Destructive Market thesis, by contrast, suggests universalism will be correlated with opposition to patenting. We (...)
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  • Distributing Discovery' Between Watt and Cavendish: A Reassessment of the Nineteenth-Century 'Water Controversy.David Philip Miller - 2002 - Annals of Science 59 (2):149-178.
    Contention about who discovered the compound nature of water occurred in two phases. During the first phase, in the 1780s, the claimants to the discovery produced the work on which their claims were based. This phase of controversy was relatively short and did not generate much heat, although it was part of the larger debates surrounding the 'chemical revolution'. The second phase of controversy, in the 1830s and 1840s, saw heated exchanges in Britain between advocates of Watt on the one (...)
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  • DNA Patents and Scientific Discovery and Innovation: Assessing Benefits and Risks.David B. Resnik - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):29-62.
    This paper focuses on the question of whether DNA patents help or hinder scientific discovery and innovation. While DNA patents create a wide variety of possible benefits and harms for science and technology, the evidence we have at this point in time supports the conclusion that they will probably promote rather than hamper scientific discovery and innovation. However, since DNA patenting is a relatively recent phenomena and the biotechnology industry is in its infancy, we should continue to gather evidence about (...)
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  • Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  • Rules Versus Standards: What Are the Costs of Epistemic Norms in Drug Regulation?David Teira & Mattia Andreoletti - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 44 (6):1093-1115.
    Over the last decade, philosophers of science have extensively criticized the epistemic superiority of randomized controlled trials for testing safety and effectiveness of new drugs, defending instead various forms of evidential pluralism. We argue that scientific methods in regulatory decision-making cannot be assessed in epistemic terms only: there are costs involved. Drawing on the legal distinction between rules and standards, we show that drug regulation based on evidential pluralism has much higher costs than our current RCT-based system. We analyze these (...)
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  • The Undertreatment of Pain: Scientific, Clinical, Cultural, and Philosophical Factors.David B. Resnik & Marsha Rehm - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):277-288.
    This essay provides an explanation and interpretation of the undertreatment of pain by discussing some of the scientific, clinical, cultural, and philosophical aspects of this problem. One reason why pain continues to be a problem for medicine is that pain does not conform to the scientific approach to health and disease, a philosophy adopted by most health care professionals. Pain does not fit this philosophical perspective because (1) pain is subjective, not objective; (2) the causal basis of pain is often (...)
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  • The Professionalization of Science Studies: Cutting Some Slack. [REVIEW]David L. Hull - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):61-91.
    During the past hundred years or so, those scholars studying science have isolated themselves as much as possible from scientists as well as from workers in other disciplines who study science. The result of this effort is history of science, philosophy of science and sociology of science as separate disciplines. I argue in this paper that now is the time for these disciplinary boundaries to be lowered or at least made more permeable so that a unified discipline of Science Studies (...)
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  • Neoliberalism and the History of STS Theory: Toward a Reflexive Sociology.David J. Hess - 2013 - Social Epistemology 27 (2):177 - 193.
    In the sociology of science and sociology of scientific knowledge, the decline of functionalism during the 1970s opened the field to a wide range of theoretical possibilities. However, a Marxist-influenced alternative to functionalism, interests analysis, quickly disappeared, and feminist-multicultural frameworks failed to achieved a dominant position in the field. Instead, functionalism was replaced by a variety of agency-based frameworks that focused on constructive or performative processes. The shift in the sociology of science from Mertonian functionalism to the poststrong program, agency-based (...)
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  • Lessons in Conflict of Interest: The Construction of the Martyrdom of David Healy and The Dilemma of Bioethics.James Coyne - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):W3-W14.
    Bioethics journals have lagged behind medical and science journals in exploring the threat of conflict of interest (COI) to the integrity of publications. Some recent discussions of COI that have occurred in the bioethics literature are reviewed. Discussions of what has been termed the ?Healy affair? unintentionally demonstrate that the direct and indirect influence of undisclosed COI may come from those who call for protection from the undue influence of industry. Paradoxically, the nature and tone of current discussions may serve (...)
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  • Financial Interests and Research Bias.David B. Resnik - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (3):255-285.
    : In the last two decades, scientists, government officials, and science policy experts have expressed concerns about the increasing role of financial interests in research. Many believe that these interests are undermining research by causing bias and error, suppression of results, and even outright fraud. This paper seeks to shed some light on this view by (1) explicating the concept research bias, (2) describing some ways that financial interests can cause research biases, and (3) discussing some strategies for mitigating or (...)
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  • Changing Explanatory Frameworks in the U.S. Government’s Attempt to Define Research Misconduct.David H. Guston - 1999 - Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):137-154.
    Nearly two decades of debate have not settled the definition of research misconduct. The literature provides four explanatory frameworks for misconduct. The paper examines these frameworks and maps them onto efforts by the U.S. Public Health Service to define research misconduct and subsequent responses to these efforts by the scientific community. The changing frameworks suggest that closure will not be achieved without an authoritative effort, which may occur through the Research Integrity Panel’s recent attempt to create a government-wide definition.
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  • Del negacionismo climático al obstruccionismo: el argumentario de la inacción y su amplificación en YouTube.Teresa Moreno Olmeda - 2022 - Dilemata 38:119-134.
    The main implication of the scientific consensus on human causality of climate change is the need to implement urgent and transformative policies. However, inaction remains. Much of the academic research has concentrated on discourses that question the evidence of climate science under the umbrella term "climate change denial", but the focus has recently started to shift to the arguments of those who, while accepting the evidence, criticize the processes by which it is obtained and, especially, oppose ambitious measures, in many (...)
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  • International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the (...)
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  • Objectivity in Science: New Perspectives From Science and Technology Studies.Flavia Padovani, Alan Richardson & Jonathan Y. Tsou (eds.) - 2015 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, vol. 310. Springer.
    This highly multidisciplinary collection discusses an increasingly important topic among scholars in science and technology studies: objectivity in science. It features eleven essays on scientific objectivity from a variety of perspectives, including philosophy of science, history of science, and feminist philosophy. Topics addressed in the book include the nature and value of scientific objectivity, the history of objectivity, and objectivity in scientific journals and communities. Taken individually, the essays supply new methodological tools for theorizing what is valuable in the pursuit (...)
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  • Notes on a Pilgrimage to Science: A Fly on the Wall. [REVIEW]Professor David H. Smith - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (4):615-634.
    The paper is a set of reflections on the moral culture of modern biology built around the author’s experience as a participant observer in two university laboratories. I draw parallels between laboratory culture and organized religion and point out practical problems in conducting scientific research. The notion that good biologists must be atheists is questioned and failures of organized religion are noted. The paper concludes with a suggestion that research ethics should be rooted in laboratory practice and must include vigorous (...)
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  • Figures de la signature scientifique.David Pontille - 2000 - Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 109:283-316.
    L'étude de la collaboration scientifique à partir de la publication se développe depuis une quarantaine d'années. Souvent considérée comme un indicateur (notamment de productivité), elle est ici saisie en se focalisant sur les pratiques de signature et ce qu'elles révèlent. Considérant un corpus d'articles dans trois disciplines, l'analyse se déploie à un double niveau : interdisciplinaire, et international pour une même discipline. Ce travail, inscrit dans une perspective diachronique, tente de cerner les multiples dimensions qui lient les textes à leurs (...)
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  • The Impossibility of Finitism: From SSK to ESK?David Tyfield - 2008 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 1 (1):61-86.
    The dramatic and ongoing changes in the funding of sciencehave stimulated interest in an economics of scientific knowledge ,which would investigate the effects of these changes on the scientificenterprise. Hands has previously explored the lessons for suchan ESK from the existing precedent of the sociology of scientificknowledge . In particular, he examines the philosophical problemsof SSK and those that any ESK in its image would face. This paperexplores this argument further by contending that more recentliterature in SSK exposes even deeper (...)
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  • Notes on a Pilgrimage to Science: A Fly on the Wall.David H. Smith - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (4):615-634.
    The paper is a set of reflections on the moral culture of modern biology built around the author’s experience as a participant observer in two university laboratories. I draw parallels between laboratory culture and organized religion and point out practical problems in conducting scientific research. The notion that good biologists must be atheists is questioned and failures of organized religion are noted. The paper concludes with a suggestion that research ethics should be rooted in laboratory practice and must include vigorous (...)
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  • Scientific Autonomy and Public Oversight.David B. Resnik - 2008 - Episteme 5 (2):pp. 220-238.
    When scientific research collides with social values, science's right to self-governance becomes an issue of paramount concern. In this article, I develop an account of scientific autonomy within a framework of public oversight. I argue that scientific autonomy is justified because it promotes the progress of science, which benefits society, but that restrictions on autonomy can also be justified to prevent harm to people, society, or the environment, and to encourage beneficial research. I also distinguish between different ways of limiting (...)
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  • Openness Versus Secrecy in Scientific Research.David B. Resnik - 2006 - Episteme 2 (3):135-147.
    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientifi c inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for (...)
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  • Rethinking the Relationship Between Academia and Industry: Qualitative Case Studies of MIT and Stanford.Fengliang Zhu & Soaring Hawk - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1497-1511.
    As knowledge has become more closely tied to economic development, the interrelationship between academia and industry has become stronger. The result has been the emergence of what Slaughter and Leslie call academic capitalism. Inevitably, tensions between academia and industry arise; however, universities such as MIT and Stanford with long traditions of industry interaction have been able to achieve a balance between academic and market values. This paper describes the strategies adopted by MIT and Stanford to achieve this balance. The results (...)
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  • Method and Matter in the Social Sciences: Umbilically Tied to the Enlightenment.Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
    This commentary deals with the nonconformity of academics and the ethos of social science. Academics in all fields deviate from majority norms in politics and religion, and this deviance may be essential to the academic mind and to academic norms. The Enlightenment legacy inspires both methods and subject matter in academic work, and severing ties with it may be impossible.
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  • Science and Neoliberal Globalization: A Political Sociological Approach. [REVIEW]Kelly Moore, Daniel Lee Kleinman, David Hess & Scott Frickel - 2011 - Theory and Society 40 (5):505-532.
  • Biomedical Conflicts of Interest: A Defence of the Sequestration Thesis--Learning From the Cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy.A. Schafer - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):8-24.
    No discussion of academic freedom, research integrity, and patient safety could begin with a more disquieting pair of case studies than those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. The cumulative impact of the Olivieri and Healy affairs has caused serious self examination within the biomedical research community. The first part of the essay analyses these recent academic scandals. The two case studies are then placed in their historical context—that context being the transformation of the norms of science through increasingly close (...)
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  • David Hull.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):749-753.
  • Understanding Conceptual Impact of Scientific Knowledge on Policy: The Role of Policymaking Conditions.Jakob Edler, Maria Karaulova & Katharine Barker - 2022 - Minerva 60 (2):209-233.
    This paper presents a framework to understand the impact of scientific knowledge on the policy-making process, focusing on the conceptual impact. We note the continuing dissatisfaction with the quality and effects of science-policy interactions in both theory and practice. We critique the current literature’s emphasis on the efforts of scientists to generate policy impact, because it neglects the role of ‘user’ policymaking organisations. The framework offered in the paper develops an argument about the essential role of institutional conditions of policy (...)
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  • Is forensic science in crisis?Michał Sikorski - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-34.
    The results of forensic science are believed to be reliable, and are widely used in support of verdicts around the world. However, due to the lack of suitable empirical studies, we actually know very little about the reliability of such results. In this paper, I argue that phenomena analogous to the main culprits for the replication crisis in psychology are also present in forensic science. Therefore forensic results are significantly less reliable than is commonly believed. I conclude that in order (...)
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  • Revisiting the ‘Darwin–Marx Correspondence’: Multiple Discovery and the Rhetoric of Priority.Joel Barnes - 2022 - History of the Human Sciences 35 (2):29-54.
    Between the 1930s and the mid 1970s, it was commonly believed that in 1880 Karl Marx had proposed to dedicate to Charles Darwin a volume or translation of Capital but that Darwin had refused. The detail was often interpreted by scholars as having larger significance for the question of the relationship between Darwinian evolutionary biology and Marxist political economy. In 1973–4, two scholars working independently—Lewis Feuer, professor of sociology at Toronto, and Margaret Fay, a graduate student at Berkeley—determined simultaneously that (...)
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  • China’s Research Evaluation Reform: What are the Consequences for Global Science?Fei Shu, Sichen Liu & Vincent Larivière - forthcoming - Minerva:1-19.
    In the 1990s, China created a research evaluation system based on publications indexed in the Science Citation Index and on the Journal Impact Factor. Such system helped the country become the largest contributor to the scientific literature and increased the position of Chinese universities in international rankings. Although the system had been criticized by many because of its adverse effects, the policy reform for research evaluation crawled until the breakout of the COVID-19 pandemic, which accidently accelerates the process of policy (...)
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