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  1. The Political Perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Critical Research Agenda.Glen Whelan - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (4):709-737.
    I here advance a critical research agenda for the political perspective of corporate social responsibility. I argue that whilst the ‘Political’ CSR literature is notable for both its conceptual novelty and practical importance, its development has been hamstrung by four ambiguities, conflations and/or oversights. More positively, I argue that ‘Political’ CSR should be conceived as one potential form of globalization, and not as a consequence of ‘globalization’; that contemporary Western MNCs should be presumed to engage in CSR for instrumental reasons; (...)
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  • Signing in the Flesh: Notes on Pragmatist Hermeneutics.Dmitri N. Shalin - 2007 - Sociological Theory 25 (3):193 - 224.
    This article offers an alternative to classical hermeneutics, which focuses on discursive products and grasps meaning as the play of difference between linguistic signs. Pragmatist hermeneutics reconstructs meaning through an indefinite triangulation, which brings symbols, icons, and indices to bear on each other and considers a meaningful occasion as an embodied semiotic process. To illuminate the word-body-action nexus, the discussion identifies three basic types of signifying media: (1) the symbolic-discursive, (2) the somatic-affective, and (3) the behavioral-performative, each one marked by (...)
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  • Global Rules and Private Actors: Toward a New Role of the Transnational Corporation in Global Governance.Andreas Georg Scherer, Guido Palazzo & Dorothée Baumann - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):505-532.
    : We discuss the role that transnational corporations should play in developing global governance, creating a framework of rules and regulations for the global economy. The central issue is whether TNCs should provide global rules and guarantee individual citizenship rights, or instead focus on maximizing profits. First, we describe the problems arising from the globalization process that affect the relationship between public rules and private firms. Next we consider the position of economic and management theories in relation to the social (...)
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  • Global Rules and Private Actors: Toward A New Role of The Transnational Corporation In Global Governance.Andreas Georg Scherer, Guido Palazzo & Dorothée Baumann - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):505-532.
    We discuss the role that transnational corporations should play in developing global governance, creating a frameworkof rules and regulations for the global economy. The central issue is whether TNCs should provide global rules and guarantee individual citizenship rights, or instead focus on maximizing profits. First, we describe the problems arising from the globalization process that affect the relationship between public rules and private firms. Next we consider the position of economic and management theories in relation to the social responsibility of (...)
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  • Post-Westphalia and Its Discontents: Business, Globalization, and Human Rights in Political and Moral Perspective.Michael A. Santoro - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):285-297.
    This article examines the presuppositions and theoretical frameworks of the “new-wave” “Post-Westphalian” approach to international business ethics and compares it to the more philosophically oriented moral theory approach that has predominated in the field. I contrast one author’s Post-Westphalian political approach to the human rights responsibilities of transnational corporations with my own “Fair Share” theory of moral responsibility for human rights. I suggest how the debate about the meaning of corporate human rights “complicity” might be informed by the fair share (...)
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  • American Media and Deliberative Democratic Processes.Deana A. Rohlinger - 2007 - Sociological Theory 25 (2):122-148.
    Despite the importance of mass media to deliberative democratic processes, few scholars have focused on how market forces, occupational norms, and competition among outlets affect the quality of media discourse in mainstream and political outlets. Here, I argue that field theory, as outlined by new institutionalism and Pierre Bourdieu, provides a useful theoretical framework for assessing the quality of media discourse in different kinds of media outlets. The value of field theory is that it simultaneously highlights the importance of homogeneity (...)
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  • Does Deliberative Democracy Need Deliberative Democrats? Revisiting Habermas’ Defence of Discourse Ethics.Nick O'Donovan - 2013 - Contemporary Political Theory 12 (2):123-144.
    Many political theorists today appeal to, or assume the existence of, a political culture in which the public values of Western liberal democracies are embedded – a political culture that is necessary to render their ideas plausible and their proposals feasible. This article contrasts this approach with the more ambitious arguments advanced by Jürgen Habermas in his original account of discourse ethics – a moral theory to which, he supposed, all human beings were demonstrably and ineluctably bound by the communicative (...)
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  • A Christian or a Laic Europe? Christian Values and European Identity.Agustin Jose Menendez - 2005 - Ratio Juris 18 (2):179-205.
    . European constitutional traditions share a commitment to freedom of conscience and religion, but differ on their interpretation of whether such freedoms do or do not require a clear cut separation of state and church. Weiler has advocated that the writing of a Constitution for the European Union is a very apt moment to reconsider the conceptualization of freedom of conscience and religion. On constitutional and historical grounds, he has advocated that a reference to Christian values should be made in (...)
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  • Reformulation of the Kantian Project.Øystein Lundestad & Kjartan Koch Mikalsen - 2011 - Journal of International Political Theory 7 (1):40-62.
    The article sets out to explore the international legal dimension in Jürgen Habermas' latest publications on philosophy of law. It is our view that Habermas deals with the examination of just relations beyond the nation-state first and foremost from a legal perspective, and that the key to a Habermasian reading of international justice is not through an application of discourse-theoretical models of communicative or moral action as such, but primarily through proper legal institutionalisation of the rule of law. In asserting (...)
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  • The Shared Perception of Social Contexts and Its Conditions for Possibility.Alessio Lo Giudice - 2009 - Ratio Juris 22 (3):395-415.
    Pragmatist reinterpretations of both deliberative-communicative theory and legal positivism point out the mentalist fallacy entailed by these prevalent models. I argue that pragmatist approaches imply analogous erroneous beliefs since they presuppose as given the shared perception of social contexts. Therefore they take for granted the shared interpretation of social problems and shared selection of common goals. Hence I advance the necessity of inquiring into the possibility conditions for a shared perception of social contexts. This would entail the organization of institutional (...)
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  • Nudges, Recht und Politik: Institutionelle Implikationen.Robert Lepenies & Magdalena Malecka - 2016 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 3 (1): 487–530.
    In diesem Beitrag argumentieren wir, dass eine umfassende Implementierung sogenannter Nudges weitreichende Auswirkungen für rechtliche und politische Institutionen hat. Die wissenschaftliche Diskussion zu Nudges ist derzeit hauptsächlich von philosophischen Theorien geprägt, die im Kern einen individualistischen Ansatz vertreten. Unsere Analyse bezieht sich auf die Art und Weise, in der sich Anhänger des Nudging neuster Erkenntnisse aus den Verhaltenswissenschaften bedienen – immer in der Absicht, diese für effektives Regieren einzusetzen. Wir unterstreichen, dass die meisten Nudges, die derzeit entweder diskutiert werden oder (...)
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  • When Organization Theory Met Business Ethics: Toward Further Symbioses.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens & Andreas Georg Scherer - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (4):643-672.
    Organization theory and business ethics are essentially the positive and normative sides of the very same coin, reflecting on how human cooperative activities are organized and how they ought to be organized respectively. It is therefore unfortunate that—due to the relatively impermeable manmade boundaries segregating the corresponding scholarly communities into separate schools and departments, professional associations, and scientific journals—the potential symbiosis between the two fields has not yet fully materialized. In this essay we make a modest attempt at establishing further (...)
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  • Whose Sovereignty? Empire Versus International Law.Jean L. Cohen - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (3):1-24.
    Where there is an imperial project afoot to develop a version of global right to justify its self-interested interventions, it is dangerous to abandon the default position of sovereignty and the principle of nonintervention in international law.
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  • The Normative Justification of Integrative Stakeholder Engagement: A Habermasian View on Responsible Leadership.Moritz Patzer, Christian Voegtlin & Andreas Georg Scherer - 2018 - Business Ethics Quarterly 28 (3):325-354.
    ABSTRACT:The transition from modern to postmodern society leads to changing expectations about the purpose and responsibility of leadership. Habermas’s social theory provides a useful analytical tool for understanding current societal transition processes and exploring their implications for the responsibility of business vis-à-vis society. We argue that integrative responsible leadership, in particular, can contribute to the reconciliation of business with societal goals. Integrative responsible leadership understood in a Habermasian way is not only a strategic endeavor but also a communicative endeavor. An (...)
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  • On Seizing the Source: Toward a Phenomenology of Religious Violence.Michael Staudigl - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (5):744-782.
    In this paper I argue that we need to analyze ‘religious violence’ in the ‘post-secular context’ in a twofold way: rather than simply viewing it in terms of mere irrationality, senselessness, atavism, or monstrosity – terms which, as we witness today on an immense scale, are strongly endorsed by the contemporary theater of cruelty committed in the name of religion – we also need to understand it in terms of an ‘originary supplement’ of ‘disengaged reason’. In order to confront its (...)
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  • Authority and the Struggle for Recognition.Eleonora Piromalli - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (2):205-222.
    In this essay I examine authority from the viewpoint of the paradigm of recognition: this theoretical framework, as I wish to demonstrate, is particularly suitable for both a clear definition and a consistent practical-normative analysis of authority. In section I propose a definition of authority which, resting on the normative meaning intrinsic to the concept of recognition, allows to systematically differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate forms of authority. After delineating the characteristics of a legitimate political authority, I focus on authority (...)
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  • From Normative Spheres to Normative Practices: New Prospects for Normative Theory After Habermas.Roberto Frega - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (5):680-712.
    In this paper I argue against Jürgen Habermas’s theoretical dualism between ethics and morality. I do this by showing how his account of normativity is vitiated by an unnecessary superposition of a social-evolutionary and a theoretical-linguistic account of normativity, and that this brings about theoretical problems that in the end cannot be overcome. I also show that Rainer Forst’s attempt at salvaging Habermas’s distinction is equally doomed to failure, but that his attempt nevertheless invites new and more fruitful avenues for (...)
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  • The Colonization Thesis: Habermas on Reification.Timo Jütten - 2011 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 19 (5):701 - 727.
    Abstract According to Habermas' colonization thesis, reification is a social pathology that arises when the communicative infrastructure of the lifeworld is 'colonized' by money and power. In this paper I argue that, thirty years after the publication of the Theory of Communicative Action, this thesis remains compelling. However, while Habermas offers a functionalist explanation of reification, his normative criticism of it remains largely implicit: he never explains what is wrong with reification from the perspective of the people whose social relations (...)
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  • The Dominance of Big Pharma: Power. [REVIEW]Andrew Edgar - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):295-304.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a normative model for the assessment of the exercise of power by Big Pharma. By drawing on the work of Steven Lukes, it will be argued that while Big Pharma is overtly highly regulated, so that its power is indeed restricted in the interests of patients and the general public, the industry is still able to exercise what Lukes describes as a third dimension of power. This entails concealing the conflicts of interest (...)
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  • Civil Disobedience and Social Power: Reflections on Habermas.William Smith - 2008 - Contemporary Political Theory 7 (1):72-89.
    In this article, I assess Jürgen Habermas’s defence of civil disobedience as ’the guardian of legitimacy’ in democratic societies. I suggest that, despite its appeal, the defence as it stands is incomplete. The problem relates to his account of the justification of this mode of protest. Although Habermas wants to defend civil disobedience as a response to inadequacies in deliberative democratic procedures, he does not provide us with a clear and compelling account of these inadequacies. In order to provide such (...)
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  • The Relevance of Nomadic Forager Studies to Moral Foundations Theory: Moral Education and Global Ethics in the Twenty-First Century.Douglas P. Fry & Geneviève Souillac - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):346-359.
    Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This study draws upon ethnographic data on nomadic forager societies to evaluate MFT. Moral foundations theory receives support only regarding the Caring/harm and Fairness/cheating foundations but not regarding the proposed Loyalty/betrayal and Authority/subversion foundations. These (...)
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  • Business Research, Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, and the Inherent Responsibility of Scholars.Michaël Gonin - 2007 - Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (1):33-58.
    Business research and teaching institutions play an important role in shaping the way businesses perceive their relations to the broader society and its moral expectations. Hence, as ethical scandals recently arose in the business world, questions related to the civic responsibilities of business scholars and to the role business schools play in society have gained wider interest. In this article, I argue that these ethical shortcomings are at least partly resulting from the mainstream business model with its taken-for granted basic (...)
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  • Virginia’s Slavery Deliberations.Georgia Warnke - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (2):218-236.
    For many deliberative theorists, the importance of a public exchange of reasons lies in its capacity to improve the quality of democratic decision making. The 1831-1832 debate over abolishing slavery in Virginia in the state’s House of Delegates raises the question of whether it can do so on its own. The bigotry of those opposing the abolition of Virginian slavery was matched only by the prejudice of those advocating for its end. This paper examines James Bohman’s sophisticated defense of deliberative (...)
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  • Democratic Politics and Survey Research.Lynn M. Sanders - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (2):248-280.
    Democratically inspired critics identify a number of problems with the contemporaryidentification of survey research and public opinion. Surveys are said tonormalize or rationalize opinion, to promote state or corporate rather thandemocratic interests, to constrain authentic forms of participation, and to forcean individualized conception of public opinion. Some of these criticisms arerelatively easily answered by survey researchers. But the criticisms contain acomplaint that survey researchers have largely failed to address: that surveyresearch discourages the public, visible, and face-to-face generation of opinion.Public opinion (...)
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  • Motivated Reasoning in Political Information Processing: The Death Knell of Deliberative Democracy?Mason Richey - 2012 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (4):511-542.
    In this article, I discuss what motivated reasoning research tells us about the prospects for deliberative democracy. In section I, I introduce the results of several political psychology studies examining the problematic affective and cognitive processing of political information by individuals in nondeliberative, experimental environments. This is useful because these studies are often neglected in political philosophy literature. Section II has three stages. First, I sketch how the study results from section I question the practical viability of deliberative democracy. Second, (...)
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  • Justification and Application: The Revival of the Rawls-Habermas Debate.Jørgen Pedersen - 2012 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (3):399-432.
    The Rawls–Habermas debate is having a revival. In this article I argue that both philosophers develop different freestanding conceptions of political legitimacy, and show how they diverge when it comes to how political legitimacy can be justified. Habermas is looking for a deeper justification than Rawls will allow for. I then proceed to show how the different meta-ethical positions yield two different versions of democratic theory, focusing in particular on rights and popular sovereignty. I demonstrate how both conceive of the (...)
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  • Sociological Not Political: Rawls and the Reconstructive Social Sciences.Terrence Kelly - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (1):3-19.
    Like many critics of Rawls, Habermas believes that the Original Position (OP) implicitly utilizes normative (and unargued for) assumptions. The author defends the OP by arguing that its basic concepts are the product of a rational reconstruction of the everyday know-how, or common sense, employed by citizens in democratic practices. The author identifies this reconstruction in Rawls's work but suggests that while this answers the charge of circularity, it raises the problem of contextual relativism. It is concluded that Rawls can (...)
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  • Democracy Without Participation: A New Politics for a Disengaged Era.Phil Parvin - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (1):31-52.
    Changing patterns of political participation observed by political scientists over the past half-century undermine traditional democratic theory and practice. The vast majority of democratic theory, and deliberative democratic theory in particular, either implicitly or explicitly assumes the need for widespread citizen participation. It requires that all citizens possess the opportunity to participate and also that they take up this opportunity. But empirical evidence gathered over the past half-century strongly suggests that many citizens do not have a meaningful opportunity to participate (...)
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  • Deliberative Law-Making: A Case Study of the Process of Enacting of a ‘Constitution of the Third Sector’ in the Polish Sejm.Piotr W. Juchacz - 2020 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 33 (1):77-100.
    The main objective of the paper is to present a model of the good practices of deliberative cooperation in a parliamentary setting. This goal is achieved through applying the three functions of the deliberative system—epistemic, ethical and democratic —to an analysis of cooperation between different stakeholders during the work of a Polish Parliamentary Subcommittee. They are used as an evaluative tool for analysing the cooperation of MPs, members of the public and representatives of the government. The paper analyses a concrete (...)
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  • A Vindication of Transnational Democratic Education – Replies to Michael Festl, Martin Beckstein and Michael Geiss.Julian Culp - 2020 - Ethics and Global Politics 13 (3):155-174.
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  • Cosmopolitan Democratic and Communicative Rights: The Danish Cartoons Controversy and the Right to Be Heard, Even Across Borders.Alexander Brown & Sune Lægaard - forthcoming - Human Rights Review:1-21.
    During the Danish cartoons controversy in 2005–2006, a group of ambassadors to Denmark representing eleven predominantly Muslim countries requested a meeting with the Danish Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, to protest against the cartoons. Rasmussen interpreted their viewpoint as one of demanding limits to freedom of speech and he ignored their request for a meeting. Drawing on this case study, the article argues that it is an appropriate, and potentially effective, moral criticism of anyone who is in a position of (...)
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  • Security and democratic equality.Brian Milstein - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-22.
    After a recent spate of terrorist attacks in European and American cities, liberal democracies are reintroducing emergency securitarian measures that curtail rights and/or expand police powers. Political theorists who study ESMs are familiar with how such measures become instruments of discrimination and abuse, but the fundamental conflict ESMs pose for not just civil liberty but also democratic equality still remains insufficiently explored. Such phenomena are usually explained as a function of public panic or fear-mongering in times of crisis, but I (...)
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  • Democracy and Transparency.Axel Gosseries - 2006 - Swiss Political Science Review 12 (3):83-90.
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  • Authority, Legitimacy, and Democracy: Narrowing the Gap Between Normativism and Realism.Alessandro Ferrara - forthcoming - Constellations.
  • Populism or Pragmatism? Two Ways of Understanding Political Articulation.Justo Serrano Zamora & Matteo Santarelli - forthcoming - Constellations.
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  • Animal Rights and the Deliberative Turn in Democratic Theory.Robert Garner - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 18 (3):147488511663093.
    Deliberative democracy has been castigated by those who regard it as exclusive and elitist because of its failure to take into account a range of structural inequalities existing within contemporar...
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  • Habermas and Taylor on Religious Reasoning in a Liberal Democracy.Andrew Tsz Wan Hung - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (5):549-565.
    This article compares Habermas’s and Taylor’s approach to the role of religious language in a liberal democracy. It shows that the difference in their approach is not simply in their theories of religious language. The contrast lies deeper, in their incompatible moral theories: Habermas’s universal discourse ethics vs Taylor’s communitarian substantive ethics. I also explore William Rehg’s defence of discourse ethics by conceding that it is based on a metavalue of rational consensus. However, I argue that Habermas’s and Rehg’s discourse (...)
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  • Religion in Habermas’s Two-Track Political Theory.Adil Usturali - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (5):566-582.
    This article argues that Habermas’s position on the relationship between religion and politics reaffirms his two-track political theory of the secular state and civic duty. His “hard-core” theory of secularism coupled with an ethics of citizenship seeks new ways of including religious citizens in modern pluralistic societies. The analysis of secularism both as a concept and as a guiding principle in Habermas’s work shows that most critics have misinterpreted his specific use of the term. The result of this is that (...)
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  • Habermas’s Theological Turn and European Integration.Peter J. Verovšek - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (5):528-548.
    Jürgen Habermas’s recent work is defined by two trends: an engagement with the realm of the sacred and a concern for the future of the European Union. Despite the apparent lack of connection between these themes, I argue that the early history of European integration has important implications for Habermas’s conclusions about the place of faith in public life. Although Habermas’s work on religion suggests that the sacred contains important normative resources for postsecular democracies, he continues to bar explicitly religious (...)
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  • Accountable to Whom? Rethinking the Role of Corporations in Political CSR.Waheed Hussain & Jeffrey Moriarty - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (3):519-534.
  • What Goes Wrong in Habermas’s Pragmatic Justification of (U)?Juvénal Ndayambaje - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (1):89-110.
    In his moral theory, named ‘discourse ethics,’ Jürgen Habermas holds that a norm is morally valid only when it is universalizable. He establishes the principle of universalization as the procedural principle for testing the moral validity of norms in moral discourse. He argues that this principle can be derived from the pragmatic presuppositions of argumentation in general. By explicating the fiduciary status of pragmatic presuppositions of argumentation, and by distinguishing perspectival from comprehensive universalization, I argue that Habermas fails to justify (...)
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  • Socio-Historical Foundations of Citizenship Practice: After Social Revolution in Portugal.Manuel Cabral & Robert Fishman - 2016 - Theory and Society 45 (6):531-553.
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  • Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.Paul Walker & Terry Lovat - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (4):571-580.
    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives (...)
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  • The Fourth Estate: The Construction and Place of Silence in the Public Sphere.Ejvind Hansen - 2018 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 44 (10):1071-1089.
    The main narratives of prevailing ideas of the Fourth Estate were articulated in the era of traditional mass media, and these traditional narratives are challenged by the changing media landscapes. This raises the question whether traditional narratives of the Fourth Estate should be maintained. We will argue – through a close reading of Derrida’s reflections on the relationship between communicative significance and silence, combined with a deliberative ideal for democracy – that the new structures of communication call for a Fourth (...)
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  • Obedience and Disobedience in Plato’s Crito and the Apology : Anticipating the Democratic Turn of Civil Disobedience.Andreas Marcou - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics:1-21.
    Faced with a choice between escaping without consequences and submitting to a democratic decision, Socrates chooses the latter. So immense is Socrates’ duty to obey law, we are led to believe, that even the threat of death is insufficient to abrogate it. Crito proposes several arguments purporting to ground Socrates’ strong duty to obey, with the appeal to the Athenian system’s democratic credentials carrying most of the normative weight. A careful reading of the dialogue, in conjunction with the ‘Apology’, reveals, (...)
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  • Aesthetic Freedom and Democratic Ethical Life: A Hegelian Account of the Relationship Between Aesthetics and Democratic Politics.Joerg Schaub - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):75-97.
    This paper presents a novel Hegelian view of the relationship between aesthetics and democratic politics. My account avoids the drawbacks associated with approaches that reconceive all of the political in aesthetic terms or reduce the aesthetic to art. Instead, I maintain that the aesthetic is best understood as a distinct relationship of individual freedom. My argument proceeds by highlighting shortcomings of Honneth’s account of democratic Sittlichkeit and then addressing these impasses by integrating aesthetic freedom into the picture. The first two (...)
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  • Environmental Ethics: Driving Factors Beneath Behavior, Discourse and Decision-Making.João P. A. Fernandes & N. Guiomar - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (3):507-540.
    This paper tries to characterize the factors determining human relations with its environment and to identify the drives of those behavioral patterns and “praxis”. One scrutinizes the physiological and psychological factors that influence those drives, and tries to determine ways of overriding instinctive drives in favor of rational, sustainable ones. It focuses its attention on the way the different ecosystemic, economic and socio-cultural systems work, and pin-points the critical issues in view of the development of sustainable behavioral patterns. Also the (...)
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  • “Critique” Immanent in “Practice”: New Frankfurt School and American Pragmatism. [REVIEW]Shijun Tong - 2006 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):295-316.
    As a result of a new understanding of the relation between theory and practice, the "New Frankfurt School," with Jürgen Habermas as its major representative, highly values the philosophical tradition of American pragmatism, in contrast to the first generation Critical Theorists represented by Max Horkheimer. In Habermas, the idea of"critique" is, both substantially and methodologically, closely connected with the idea of "praxis" in the following senses: communicative action, rational argumentation, public discussion and political culture. "Critique" is thus found to be (...)
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  • A Theory of Legislation From a Systems Perspective.Peter Harrison - unknown
    In this thesis I outline a view of primary legislation from a systems perspective. I suggest that systems theory and, in particular, autopoietic theory, as modified by field theory, is a mechanism for understanding how society operates. The description of primary legislation that I outline differs markedly from any conventional definition in that I argue that primary legislation is not, and indeed cannot be, either a law or any of the euphemisms that are usually accorded to an enactment by a (...)
     
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  • Breaking the Filter Bubble: Democracy and Design.Engin Bozdag & Jeroen van den Hoven - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (4):249-265.
    It has been argued that the Internet and social media increase the number of available viewpoints, perspectives, ideas and opinions available, leading to a very diverse pool of information. However, critics have argued that algorithms used by search engines, social networking platforms and other large online intermediaries actually decrease information diversity by forming so-called “filter bubbles”. This may form a serious threat to our democracies. In response to this threat others have developed algorithms and digital tools to combat filter bubbles. (...)
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