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Semantic Information Processing

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  1. Artificial Intelligence & Games: Should Computational Psychology Be Revalued?Marco Ernandes - 2005 - Topoi 24 (2):229-242.
    The aims of this paper are threefold: To show that game-playing (GP), the discipline of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with the development of automated game players, has a strong epistemological relevance within both AI and the vast area of cognitive sciences. In this context games can be seen as a way of securely reducing (segmenting) real-world complexity, thus creating the laboratory environment necessary for testing the diverse types and facets of intelligence produced by computer models. This paper aims to promote (...)
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  • Behaviorism at Fifty.B. F. Skinner - 1974 - New York: J. Norton Publishers.
    Each of us is uniquely subject to certain kinds of stimulation from a small part of the universe within our skins. Mentalistic psychologies insist that other kinds of events, lacking the physical dimensions of stimuli, are accessible to the owner of the skin within which they occur. One solution often regarded as behavioristic, granting the distinction between public and private events and ruling the latter out of consideration, has not been successful. A science of behavior must face the problem of (...)
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  • An Alternative to Working on Machine Consciousness.Aaron Sloman - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):1-18.
  • Minds, Machines and Self-Reference.Peter Slezak - 1984 - Dialectica 38 (1):17-34.
    SummaryJ.R. Lucas has argued that it follows from Godel's Theorem that the mind cannot be a machine or represented by any formal system. Although this notorious argument against the mechanism thesis has received considerable attention in the literature, it has not been decisively rebutted, even though mechanism is generally thought to be the only plausible view of the mind. In this paper I offer an analysis of Lucas's argument which shows that it derives its persuasiveness from a subtle confusion. In (...)
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  • Logical Foundations for Belief Representation.William Rapaport - 1986 - Cognitive Science 10 (4):371-422.
    This essay presents a philosophical and computational theory of the representation of de re, de dicto, nested, and quasi-indexical belief reports expressed in natural language. The propositional Semantic Network Processing System (SNePS) is used for representing and reasoning about these reports. In particular, quasi-indicators (indexical expressions occurring in intentional contexts and representing uses of indicators by another speaker) pose problems for natural-language representation and reasoning systems, because--unlike pure indicators--they cannot be replaced by coreferential NPs without changing the meaning of the (...)
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  • What Does It Mean to Understand Language?Terry Winograd - 1980 - Cognitive Science 4 (3):209-241.
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  • Information Processing, Computation, and Cognition.Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino - 2011 - Journal of Biological Physics 37 (1):1-38.
    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In (...)
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  • The Behaviorist Concept of Mind.David M. Rosenthal - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):643.
  • Information, Causality, and Intentionality.David Kelley - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):147-147.
  • Intentionality and Information Theory.David P. Ellerman - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):143-144.
  • Human, Machines, and the Interpretation of Formal Systems.Porfírio Silva - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (2):157-169.
  • From AI to Cybernetics.Keizo Sato - 1991 - AI and Society 5 (2):155-161.
    Well-known critics of AI such as Hubert Dreyfus and Michael Polanyi tend to confuse cybernetics with AI. Such a confusion is quite misleading and should not be overlooked. In the first place, cybernetics is not vulnerable to criticism of AI as cognitivistic and behaviouristic. In the second place, AI researchers are recommended to consider the cybernetics approach as a way of overcoming the limitations of cognitivism and behaviourism.
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  • Theory Construction in Psychology: The Interpretation and Integration of Psychological Data.Gordon M. Becker - 1981 - Theory and Decision 13 (3):251.
  • Naturalizing Intentions.R. J. Nelson - 1984 - Synthese 61 (2):173 - 203.
  • Collective Referential Intentionality in the Semantics of Dialogue.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 36 (1):143-159.
    The concept of a dialogue is considered in general terms from the standpoint of its referential presuppositions. The semantics of dialogue implies that dialogue participants must generally have a collective intentionality of agreed-upon references that is minimally sufficient for them to be able to disagree about other things, and ideally for outstanding disagreements to become clearer at successive stages of the dialogue. These points are detailed and illustrated in a fictional dialogue, in which precisely these kinds of referential confusions impede (...)
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  • Information Processing: The Language and Analytical Tools for Cognitive Psychology in the Information Age.Aiping Xiong & Robert W. Proctor - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Cuatro problemas irresolubles de la IA simbólica.Manuel Carabantes López - 2015 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 40 (1):81-104.
    Within the strong branch of artificial intelligence, which is aimed at creating thinking machines with intellectual powers like those of man, the most explored research program is symbolic aI, defined as the attempt to use electronic computers to replicate the human mind, either assuming a structural and functional similarity between them, or trying to replicate the behavior produced by the human mind through computational processes that also have an intentional structure but are only instrumentally equivalent. In this paper we show (...)
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  • Moral Dimension of Man and Artificial Intelligence.Adam Drozdek - 1992 - AI and Society 6 (3):271-280.
    Steady technological and economic progress gives science and the scientific method a distinguished position in today's culture. Therefore, there may be an impression that areas not belonging to science may hamper this progress of humanity. The views of Dean E. Wooldridge exemplify this position. The only hope is seen in the rational dimension of man in which there is no room for ethical considerations. This rational dimension is also the sole representation of man in the image created by artificial intelligence. (...)
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  • Intentionally: A Problem of Multiple Reference Frames, Specificational Information, and Extraordinary Boundary Conditions on Natural Law.M. T. Turvey - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):153-155.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness.Drew McDermott - 2007 - In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 117--150.
  • From Expert Systems to Knowledge-Based Companies: How the AI Industry Negotiated a Market for Knowledge.Janet Vaux - 2001 - Social Epistemology 15 (3):231 – 245.
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  • Embodying Social Practice: Dynamically Co-Constituting Social Agency.Brian W. Dunst - unknown
    Theories of cognition and theories of social practices and institutions have often each separately acknowledged the relevance of the other; but seldom have there been consistent and sustained attempts to synthesize these two areas within one explanatory framework. This is precisely what my dissertation aims to remedy. I propose that certain recent developments and themes in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, when understood in the right way, can explain the emergence and dynamics of social practices and institutions. Likewise, the (...)
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  • Minds, Machines and Self‐Reference.Peter Slezak - 1984 - Dialectica 38 (1):17-34.
    SummaryJ.R. Lucas has argued that it follows from Godel's Theorem that the mind cannot be a machine or represented by any formal system. Although this notorious argument against the mechanism thesis has received considerable attention in the literature, it has not been decisively rebutted, even though mechanism is generally thought to be the only plausible view of the mind. In this paper I offer an analysis of Lucas's argument which shows that it derives its persuasiveness from a subtle confusion. In (...)
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  • Transdisciplinary Knowledge Integration : Cases From Integrated Assessment and Vulnerability Assessment.J. Hinkel - unknown
    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of climate change. Even though knowledge integration is fundamental in such transdisciplinary assessments, the actual process of integrating knowledge is rarely addressed explicitly and methodically. Here, knowledge integration is conceptualised into the subsequent phases of the elaboration of a shared language and the design of a methodology. Three devices for (...)
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  • Computers, Postmodernism and the Culture of the Artificial.Colin Beardon - 1994 - AI and Society 8 (1):1-16.
    The term ‘the artificial’ can only be given a precise meaning in the context of the evolution of computational technology and this in turn can only be fully understood within a cultural setting that includes an epistemological perspective. The argument is illustrated in two case studies from the history of computational machinery: the first calculating machines and the first programmable computers. In the early years of electronic computers, the dominant form of computing was data processing which was a reflection of (...)
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  • Anatomia da Linguagem: Podemos Compreender Jogos de Linguagem a Partir de Redes Corticais?Inês Hipólito - 2017 - Kairos 18 (1):84-109.
    There is today much interest in research of neuronal substrata in metaphor processing. It has been suggested that the right hemisphere yields a key role in the comprehension of figurative language and, particularly, in metaphors. Figurative language is included in pragmatics, a branch of linguistics that researches the use of language, in opposition to the study of the system of language. There lingers, though, an open debate in respect to the identification of the specific aspects concerning semantics, as opposed to (...)
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  • Solving the Black Box Problem: A Normative Framework for Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Carlos Zednik - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):265-288.
    Many of the computing systems programmed using Machine Learning are opaque: it is difficult to know why they do what they do or how they work. Explainable Artificial Intelligence aims to develop analytic techniques that render opaque computing systems transparent, but lacks a normative framework with which to evaluate these techniques’ explanatory successes. The aim of the present discussion is to develop such a framework, paying particular attention to different stakeholders’ distinct explanatory requirements. Building on an analysis of “opacity” from (...)
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  • Against Direct Perception.Shimon Ullman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):333-81.
    Central to contemporary cognitive science is the notion that mental processes involve computations defined over internal representations. This view stands in sharp contrast to the to visual perception and cognition, whose most prominent proponent has been J.J. Gibson. In the direct theory, perception does not involve computations of any sort; it is the result of the direct pickup of available information. The publication of Gibson's recent book (Gibson 1979) offers an opportunity to examine his approach, and, more generally, to contrast (...)
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  • Behaviorism at Fifty.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):615.
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  • Behaviorism at Seventy.Daniel N. Robinson - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):641-643.
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  • Intentionality and Information Processing: An Alternative Model for Cognitive Science.Kenneth M. Sayre - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):121-38.
    This article responds to two unresolved and crucial problems of cognitive science: (1) What is actually accomplished by functions of the nervous system that we ordinarily describe in the intentional idiom? and (2) What makes the information processing involved in these functions semantic? It is argued that, contrary to the assumptions of many cognitive theorists, the computational approach does not provide coherent answers to these problems, and that a more promising start would be to fall back on mathematical communication theory (...)
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  • An AI Model of Case-Based Legal Argument From a Jurisprudential Viewpoint.Kevin D. Ashley - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):163-218.
    This article describes recent jurisprudential accountsof analogical legal reasoning andcompares them in detail to the computational modelof case-based legal argument inCATO. The jurisprudential models provide a theoryof relevance based on low-levellegal principles generated in a process ofcase-comparing reflective adjustment. Thejurisprudential critique focuses on the problemsof assigning weights to competingprinciples and dealing with erroneously decidedprecedents. CATO, a computerizedinstructional environment, employs ArtificialIntelligence techniques to teach lawstudents how to make basic legal argumentswith cases. The computational modelhelps students test legal hypotheses againsta database of (...)
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  • L'homme machine.Manfred Tietzel - 1984 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 15 (1):34-71.
    Summary The idea of man imitating by his own inventions capacities, considered genuinely human, like talking, making music or thinking, has fascinated man's phantasy at all times.
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  • Author's Response.John Haugeland - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):634-635.
  • The Conceptual Range of “Cognitivism”.Joseph R. Royce - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):634-634.
  • Perception, Information, and Computation.S. Ullman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):408-415.
  • What Are the Contributions of the Direct Perception Approach?Carl B. Zuckerman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):407-408.
  • The Computational/Representational Paradigm as Normal Science: Further Support.Steven W. Zucker - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):406-407.
  • Percepts, Intervening Variables, and Neural Mechanisms.Wally Welker - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):405-406.
  • Logical Atomism and Computation Do Not Refute Gibson.Walter B. Welmer - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):405-405.
  • In Defense of Invariances and Higher-Order Stimuli.K. von Fieandt - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):404-405.
  • What Kind of Indirect Process is Visual Perception?Aaron Sloman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):401-404.
  • Abstract Machine Theory and Direct Perception.Robert Shaw & James Todd - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):400-401.
  • There is More to Psychological Meaningfulness Than Computation and Representation.Sverker Runeson - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):399-400.
  • Difficulties with a Direct Theory of Perception.Irvin Rock - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):398-399.
  • Information Pickup is the Activity of Perceiving.Edward S. Reed - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):397-398.
  • Animal-Environment Mutuality and Direct Perception.Sandra S. Prindle, Claudia Carello & M. T. Turvey - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):395-397.
  • How Wrong is Gibson?K. Prazdny - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):394-395.
  • Are Mediating Representations the Ghosts in the Machine?Alan K. Mackworth - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):393-394.
  • Perceptual Activity and Direct Perception.William M. Mace - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):392-393.