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Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science

Harvard University Press (2011)

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  1. Risk, Prudence and Moral Formation in the Laboratory.Paul Scherz - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):304-315.
    Sociologists of science have noted that the institutional cultures and practices of research tend to de-emphasize the risks produced in the lab, resulting in injuries and deaths in recent lab accidents and increased dangers for surrounding communities. In response to these accidents, science ethics and policy increasingly focus on risk management. One strategy to confront these problems is to implement more procedural safeguards, but ethnographies of science suggest that procedural forms can have the unintended effect of contributing to complacency. What (...)
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  • Transition to Science 2.0: “Remoralizing” the Economy of Science.David Tyfield - 2013 - Spontaneous Generations 7 (1):29-48.
    The present is a moment of crisis and transition, both generally and specifically in “knowledge” and its institutions. Acknowledging this elicits the key questions: where are we? Where are we headed? What, if anything, can be done about this? And what can the “economics of science” contribute to this? This paper assumes a “cultural political economy of research & innovation” perspective to explore the current upheaval and transition in the system of academic knowledge production, at the confluence of accelerating commercialisation (...)
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  • Formal Models of the Scientific Community and the Value-Ladenness of Science.Vincenzo Politi - unknown
    In the past few years, several formal models of the social organisation of science have been developed. While their robustness and representational adequacy has been analysed at length, the function of these models has begun to be discussed in more general terms only recently. This paper is a contribution to the general philosophical debate on the formal models of the social organisation of science. Its aim is to understand which view of science these models end up supporting as a consequence (...)
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  • Governing Occupational Exposure Using Thresholds: A Policy Biased Toward Industry.Emmanuel Henry - 2021 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 46 (5):953-974.
    Strongly grounded in scientific knowledge, the instrument known as occupational exposure limits or threshold limit values has changed government modalities of exposure to hazardous chemicals in workplaces, transforming both the substance of the problem at hand and the power dynamics between the actors involved. Some of the characteristics of this instrument favor the interests of industries at the expense of employees, their representatives, and the authorities in charge of regulating these risks. First, this instrument can be analyzed as a boundary (...)
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  • COVID-19, Digital Health Technology and the Politics of the Unprecedented.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Dillon Wamsley - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    The COVID-19 global pandemic has stretched the capacities of public health institutions and health systems around the world, opening the door to a range of technologically-driven solutions. In this article, we seek to historicize the expanding role of digital health technologies and examine the political-economic context from which they have emerged. Drawing on critical insights from science and technology studies, we maintain that the rise of digital health technologies has been catalyzed by broad shifts in global health governance that have (...)
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  • Assessing Biases, Relaxing Moralism: On Ground-Truthing Practices in Machine Learning Design and Application.Florian Jaton - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    This theoretical paper considers the morality of machine learning algorithms and systems in the light of the biases that ground their correctness. It begins by presenting biases not as a priori negative entities but as contingent external referents—often gathered in benchmarked repositories called ground-truth datasets—that define what needs to be learned and allow for performance measures. I then argue that ground-truth datasets and their concomitant practices—that fundamentally involve establishing biases to enable learning procedures—can be described by their respective morality, here (...)
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  • Re-invent Yourself! How Demands for Innovativeness Reshape Epistemic Practices.Ruth I. Falkenberg - forthcoming - Minerva:1-22.
    In the current research landscape, there are increasing demands for research to be innovative and cutting-edge. At the same time, concerns are voiced that as a consequence of neoliberal regimes of research governance, innovative research becomes impeded. In this paper, I suggest that to gain a better understanding of these dynamics, it is indispensable to scrutinise current demands for innovativeness as a distinct way of ascribing worth to research. Drawing on interviews and focus groups produced in a close collaboration with (...)
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  • The Allure and Impossibility of an Algorithmic Future: A Lesson From Patočka’s Supercivilisation.Ľubica Učník - forthcoming - Studies in East European Thought.
  • A Story of Nimble Knowledge Production in an Era of Academic Capitalism.Steve G. Hoffman - forthcoming - Theory and Society.
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  • AFHVS 2017 Presidential Address: The Purpose-Driven University: The Role of University Research in the Era of Science Commercialization.Leland L. Glenna - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (4):1021-1031.
    As efforts to commercialize university research outputs continue, critics charge that universities and university scientists are failing to live up to their public-interest purpose. In this paper, I discuss the distinctions between public-interest and private-interest research institutions and how commercialization of university science may be undermining the public interest. I then use Jürgen Habermas’s concept of communicative action as the foundation for efforts to establish public spaces for ethical deliberation among scientists and university administrators. Such ethical deliberation is necessary to (...)
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  • On the Commodification of Science: The Programmatic Dimension.Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2463-2483.
  • Beyond Commercialization: Science, Higher Education and the Culture of Neoliberalism.Daniel Lee Kleinman, Noah Weeth Feinstein & Greg Downey - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2385-2401.
  • Science in a New Mode: Good Old (Theoretical) Science Versus Brave New (Commodified) Knowledge Production?Tarja Knuuttila - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2443-2461.
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  • The Moral Limits of the Market: Science Commercialization and Religious Traditions.Jared L. Peifer, David R. Johnson & Elaine Howard Ecklund - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (1):183-197.
    Entrepreneurs of contested commodities often face stakeholders engaged in market excluding boundary work driven by ethical considerations. For example, the conversion of academic scientific knowledge into technologies that can be owned and sold is a growing global trend and key stakeholders have different ethical responses to this contested commodity. Commercialization of science can be viewed as a good thing because people believe it bolsters economic growth and broadly benefits society. Others view it as bad because they believe it discourages basic (...)
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  • Financializing Epistemic Norms in Contemporary Biomedical Innovation.Mark Robinson - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4391-4407.
    The rapid, recent emergence of new medical knowledge models has engendered a dizzying number of new medical initiatives, programs and approaches. Fields such as evidence-based medicine and translational medicine all promise a renewed relationship between knowledge and medicine. The question for philosophy and other fields has been whether these new models actually achieve their promises to bring about better kinds of medical knowledge—a question that compels scholars to analyze each model’s epistemic claims. Yet, these analyses may miss critical components that (...)
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  • The Rise of Computing Research in East Africa: The Relationship Between Funding, Capacity and Research Community in a Nascent Field.Matthew Harsh, Ravtosh Bal, Jameson Wetmore, G. Pascal Zachary & Kerry Holden - 2018 - Minerva 56 (1):35-58.
    The emergence of vibrant research communities of computer scientists in Kenya and Uganda has occurred in the context of neoliberal privatization, commercialization, and transnational capital flows from donors and corporations. We explore how this funding environment configures research culture and research practices, which are conceptualized as two main components of a research community. Data come from a three-year longitudinal study utilizing interview, ethnographic and survey data collected in Nairobi and Kampala. We document how administrators shape research culture by building academic (...)
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  • Governing with Ignorance: Understanding the Australian Food Regulator’s Response to Nano Food.Kristen Lyons & Naomi Smith - 2017 - NanoEthics 12 (1):27-38.
    This paper examines regulatory responses to the presence of previously undetected and unlabelled nanoparticles in the Australian food system. Until 2015, the Australian regulatory body Food Standards Australia New Zealand denied that nanoparticles were present in Australian food. However, and despite repeated claims from Australia’s food regulator, research commissioned by civil society group Friends of the Earth has demonstrated that nanoparticles are deliberately included as ingredients in an array of food available for sale in Australia. This paper critically examines how (...)
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  • Databall: Sabina Leonelli: Data-centric biology: A philosophical study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016, 275 pp., $35.00 PB.Philip Mirowski - 2018 - Metascience 27 (1):83-85.
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  • Blinded by Science: Paula Stephan: How Economics Shapes Science. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 2015, 384 Pp, $2195 PB.David Tyfield - 2017 - Metascience 26 (2):329-333.
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  • Education and Scholarship in the Twenty-First-Century Marketplace.Ivan Ascher & Will Roberts - 2015 - Contemporary Political Theory 14 (4):409-433.
  • A Cultural Political Economy of Research and Innovation in an Age of Crisis.David Tyfield - 2012 - Minerva 50 (2):149-167.
    Science and technology policy is both faced by unprecedented challenges and itself undergoing seismic shifts. First, policy is increasingly demanding of science that it fixes a set of epochal and global crises. On the other hand, practices of scientific research are changing rapidly regarding geographical dispersion, the institutions and identities of those involved and its forms of knowledge production and circulation. Furthermore, these changes are accelerated by the current upheavals in public funding of research, higher education and technology development in (...)
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  • “The Ennobling Unity of Science and Technology”: Materials Sciences and Engineering, the Department of Energy, and the Nanotechnology Enigma. [REVIEW]Matthew N. Eisler - 2013 - Minerva 51 (2):225-251.
    The ambiguous material identity of nanotechnology is a minor mystery of the history of contemporary science. This paper argues that nanotechnology functioned primarily in discourses of social, not physical or biological science, the problematic knowledge at stake concerning the economic value of state-supported basic science. The politics of taxonomy in the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the 1990s reveals how scientists invoked the term as one of several competing and equally valid candidates for reframing (...)
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  • Innovation and the Commons: Lessons From the Governance of Genetic Resources in Potato Breeding.Koen Beumer, Dirk Stemerding & Jac A. A. Swart - 2021 - Agriculture and Human Values 38 (2):525-539.
    This article explores the relation between innovation and resources that are governed as commons by looking at the governance of potato genetic resources, especially in the context of the emergence of hybrid diploid potato breeding that will enable potato propagation through true seeds. As a new breeding tool, hybrid diploid potato breeding may not only revolutionize traditional potato breeding practices, it may also strongly affect current governance modes of potato genetic resources as a commons. Contrary to conventional accounts of the (...)
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  • National Science Foundation Patronage of Social Science, 1970s and 1980s: Congressional Scrutiny, Advocacy Network, and the Prestige of Economics. [REVIEW]Tiago Mata & Tom Scheiding - 2012 - Minerva 50 (4):423-449.
    Research in the social sciences received generous patronage in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Research was widely perceived as providing solutions to emerging social problems. That generosity came under increased contest in the late 1970s. Although these trends held true for all of the social sciences, this essay explores the various ways by which economists in particular reacted to and resisted the patronage cuts that were proposed in the first budgets of the Reagan administration. Economists’ response was three fold: (...)
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  • Commercialization and the Limits of Well-Ordered Science.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (2):173-191.
    In recent decades, philosophers of science have become increasingly concerned with the social dimensions of scientific knowledge. Philosophers such as Helen Longino, Philip Kitcher, Miriam Solomon, Heather Douglas, and Janet Kourany have sought to incorporate the social aspects of science, while retaining the normative commitments of philosophy of science. Some of the major theoretical approaches in social epistemology of science, however, tend to ignore or underestimate the role that the current state of science organization plays in the production of scientific (...)
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  • Should Anyone Care About Scientific Progress?Raphael Sassower - 2020 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 51 (1):58-90.
    Scientific progress has been understood as synonymous with the growth of knowledge and the advancement of humanity. In this brief survey, this concept is problematized both in rhetorical terms and within the neoliberal framework. Despite the sustained marketing of the scientific community and its funding agencies, the dangers associated with progress are explained and highlighted.
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  • The Bioeconomy as Political Project: A Polanyian Analysis.Vincenzo Pavone & Joanna Goven - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (3):302-337.
    The bioeconomy is becoming increasingly prominent in policy and scholarly literature, but critical examination of the concept is lacking. We argue that the bioeconomy should be understood as a political project, not simply or primarily as a technoscientific or economic one. We use a conceptual framework derived from the work of Karl Polanyi to elucidate the politically performative nature of the bioeconomy through an analysis of an influential Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development initiative, The Bioeconomy to 2030. We argue (...)
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  • The Refuge of the Academy: Response to Socrates Tenured.Raphael Sassower - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (1):63-70.
    In response to and as an elaboration on Robert Frodeman and Adam Briggle’s Socrates Tenured, I wish to recognize the notion of practical philosophers as both public intellectuals and as those who may find refuge in the academy in order to shed the pretense of expertise, on the one hand, and the esoteric engagement with topics irrelevant to the affairs of contemporary culture, on the other.
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  • Three Stages of Modern Science.Henry Bauer - 2013 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (3).
    The common view of science is a misunderstanding of today's science that does not recognize how "modern" science has changed since its inception in the 16th to 17th centuries. Science is generally taken to be objectively reliable because it uses "the scientific method" and because scientists work disinterestedly, publish openly, and keep one another honest through peer review. That common view was not too unrealistic in the early days and the glory days of modern science, but it is quite wrong (...)
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  • Reductionism in Epigenetics.Stephen T. Casper - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (1):132-135.
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  • Academic Capitalism.Edward J. Hackett - 2014 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 39 (5):635-638.
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  • Variants of Epistemic Capitalism: Knowledge Production and the Accumulation of Worth in Commercial Biotechnology and the Academic Life Sciences.Maximilian Fochler - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (5):922-948.
    Capitalist dynamics in knowledge production are not limited to situations in which economic interests influence researchers’ practices. Building on laboratory studies and the French “pragmatic” tradition in sociology, this article proposes an approach to tackle more pervasive capitalist logics at work in contemporary research and their consequences. It uses the term epistemic capitalism to denote the accumulation of capital, as worth made durable, through the act of doing research, in and beyond academia. In doing so, it conceptualizes capitalism primarily not (...)
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  • Feeding and Bleeding: The Institutional Banalization of Risk to Healthy Volunteers in Phase I Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials.Jill A. Fisher - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (2):199-226.
    Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans. The majority of these studies are conducted under controlled, inpatient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. This article draws on an ethnographic study of six phase I clinics in the United States, including 268 semistructured interviews with research staff and healthy volunteers. In it, I argue that an institutional banalization of risk structures the perceptions of research staff and healthy volunteers participating in (...)
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  • The Pharmaceutical Commons: Sharing and Exclusion in Global Health Drug Development.Catherine M. Montgomery & Javier Lezaun - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (1):3-29.
    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. (...)
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  • Not Just Neoliberalism: Economization in US Science and Technology Policy.Elizabeth Popp Berman - 2014 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 39 (3):397-431.
    Recent scholarship in science, technology, and society has emphasized the neoliberal character of science today. This article draws on the history of US science and technology policy to argue against thinking of recent changes in science as fundamentally neoliberal, and for thinking of them instead as reflecting a process of “economization.” The policies that changed the organization of science in the United States included some that intervened in markets and others that expanded their reach, and were promoted by some groups (...)
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  • Expert Judgment Versus Market Accounting in an Industrial Research Lab.Eric Giannella - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (3):402-437.
    Accounts of change in contemporary research in industry and the academy often note the increasing coexistence of market and academic norms and practices. This article suggests that, at least in industry, these conflicting norms and practices are often preserved by loose coupling between market pressures and the research organization. Based on a two-year case study, this article examines the imposition of tight coupling at an industry lab that had previously been able to maintain some of the norms and practices associated (...)
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  • Normalizing Complaint: Scientists and the Challenge of Commercialization.Kelly Joslin Holloway - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (5):744-765.
    In recent decades, academic science has increasingly been directed toward commercializable ends by neoliberal governments. In this article, I outline a concern that academic scientists have not been consulted about the transformation of science, but nevertheless, in some ways accept commercialization as the way things are done. I focus on the ways in which academic scientists attempt to exercise agency, albeit within the parameters of the neoliberal knowledge economy. In this economy, scientific inquiry has transformed to be focused more on (...)
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  • Portfolios of Worth: Capitalizing on Basic and Clinical Problems in Biomedical Research Groups.Sarah de Rijcke, Thomas Franssen & Alexander Rushforth - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 44 (2):209-236.
    How are “interesting” research problems identified and made durable by academic researchers, particularly in situations defined by multiple evaluation principles? Building on two case studies of research groups working on rare diseases in academic biomedicine, we explore how group leaders arrange their groups to encompass research problems that latch onto distinct evaluation principles by dividing and combining work into “basic-oriented” and “clinical-oriented” spheres of inquiry. Following recent developments in the sociology of valuation comparing academics to capitalist entrepreneurs in pursuit of (...)
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  • Intellectual Property and Agricultural Science and Innovation in Germany and the United States.Leland L. Glenna & Barbara Brandl - 2017 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 42 (4):622-656.
    In the 1950s and 1960s, prominent institutional economists in the United States offered what became the orthodox theory on the obstacles to commercializing scientific knowledge. According to this theory, scientific knowledge has inherent qualities that make it a public good. Since the 1970s, however, neoliberalism has emphasized the need to convert public goods to private goods to enhance economic growth, and this theory has had global impacts on policies governing the generation and diffusion of scientific research and innovation. We critique (...)
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  • Managing Ambiguities at the Edge of Knowledge: Research Strategy and Artificial Intelligence Labs in an Era of Academic Capitalism.Steve G. Hoffman - 2017 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 42 (4):703-740.
    Many research-intensive universities have moved into the business of promoting technology development that promises revenue, impact, and legitimacy. While the scholarship on academic capitalism has documented the general dynamics of this institutional shift, we know less about the ground-level challenges of research priority and scientific problem choice. This paper unites the practice tradition in science and technology studies with an organizational analysis of decision-making to compare how two university artificial intelligence labs manage ambiguities at the edge of scientific knowledge. One (...)
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  • Gift Versus Trade: On the Culture of Science Communication.Ilya Kasavin - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (6):453-472.
    This article aims at a critical reevaluation of the trading zone concept. It starts from a case study of the Faraday–Whewell collaboration in coming to terms with electrolysis experiments. The case is supposed to be an example of a trade zone of science/philosophy interaction though it demonstrates the unequal nature of the “trade.” This requires the analysis to log in some details concerning Galison’s metaphor of trading zones, which reveals its market-oriented connotations. The following criticism of the market metaphor for (...)
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  • Why Translational Medicine is, in Fact, “New,” Why This Matters, and the Limits of a Predominantly Epistemic Historiography.Mark Robinson - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-22.
    Is Translational Science and Medicine new? Its dramatic expansion has spelled a dizzying array of new disciplines, departments, buildings, and terminology. Yet, without novel theories or concepts, Translational Science and Medicine may appear to be nothing more than an old concept with a new brand. Yet, is this view true? As is illustrated herein, histories of TSM which treat it as merely an old product under a new name misunderstand its essential architecture. As an expressly economic transformation, modern translational approaches (...)
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  • How Peer-Review Constrains Cognition: On the Frontline in the Knowledge Sector.Stephen J. Cowley - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Critical Neuroscience Meets Medical Humanities.Jan Slaby - 2015 - Medical Humanities 41 (1):16-22.
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  • To Know or Better Not To: Agnotology and the Social Construction of Ignorance in Commercially Driven Research.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2017 - Science and Technology Studies 30 (2):53-72.
    With an innovative perspective on the social character of ignorance production, agnotology has been a fruitful approach for understanding the social and epistemological consequences of the interaction between industry and scientific research. In this paper, I argue that agnotology, or the study of ignorance, contributes to a better understanding of commercially driven research and its societal impact, showing the ways in which industrial interests have reshaped the epistemic aims of traditional scientific practices, turning them into mechanisms of ignorance production. To (...)
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  • Smaller is Better? Learning an Ethos and Worldview in Nanoengineering Education.Emily York - 2015 - NanoEthics 9 (2):109-122.
    In this article, I draw on ethnographic research to show how a particular ethos and worldview get produced in the context of “technical” education in a department of nanoengineering. Building on feminist science studies and communication theory, I argue that the curriculum introducing undergraduate students to scale implicitly teaches them an abstract and universal notion that smaller is better. I suggest that rather than smaller is better, a perspective that embraces context and specificity—such as the question “when, how, and for (...)
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  • The Demise of Capitalism?: Lessons From an Entropic Perspective on the Current Crises.David Tyfield - 2013 - Journal of Critical Realism 12 (1):112 - 128.
    How are we to understand the multiple overlapping crises of the present? In a superbly enlightening synthesis of Marxian (critique of) political economy and systems theory, Robert Biel presents a compelling case for the importance of an entropic perspective, regarding both thermodynamic and informational flows that constitute and transform social systems. This perspective offers an insightful analysis of neoliberalism as an attempt to harness the entropic benefits of spontaneous and complex emergence for the purposes of capitalist accumulation. The current crises (...)
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  • The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies.Reiner Grundmann - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):25-48.
    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be discussed with regard to influential theoretical frameworks, such as laboratory studies, regulatory science, lay expertise, post-normal science, and honest brokers. An alternative framework of expertise is introduced, showing (...)
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  • Seeking Immortality? Challenging the Drug-Based Medical Paradigm.Henry H. Bauer - 2012 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 26 (4).
    Chronic ailments — arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular problems, kidney and liver and other organ failures — arise in different ways and for different reasons than do infectious diseases. Drugs have been very successful in overcoming infectious diseases, but their application to chronic ailments is illogical and harmful. Is a treatment against cardiovascular disease beneficial? Does it prolong life and improve quality of life? Valid answers would be based on very large and lengthy clinical trials controlling for innumerable variables — essentially impossible. (...)
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  • Why Science's Crisis Should Not Become a Political Battling Ground.Andrea Saltelli - 2018 - Futures 104:85-90.
    A science war is in full swing which has taken science's reproducibility crisis as a battleground. While conservatives and corporate interests use the crisis to weaken regulations, their opponent deny the existence of a science's crisis altogether. Thus, for the conservative National Association of Scholars NAS the crisis is real and due to the progressive assault on higher education with ideologies such as neo-Marxism, radical feminism, historicism, post-colonialism, deconstructionism, post-modernism, liberation theology. In the opposite field, some commentators claim that there (...)
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