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  1. Non Discrimination as a Moral Obligation in Human Resources Management.Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):83-101.
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  • Green Microfinance: Characteristics of Microfinance Institutions Involved in Environmental Management.Marion Allet & Marek Hudon - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (3):395-414.
    In recent years, development practice has seen that microfinance institutions are starting to consider their environmental bottom line in addition to their financial and social objectives. Yet, little is known about the characteristics of institutions involved in environmental management. This paper empirically identifies the characteristics of these MFIs for the first time using a sample of 160 microfinance institutions worldwide. Basing our analysis on various econometric tests, we find that larger MFIs and MFIs registered as banks tend to perform better (...)
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  • Is the Red Dragon Green? An Examination of the Antecedents and Consequences of Environmental Proactivity in China.Kent Walker, Na Ni & Weidong Huo - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (1):1-17.
    China is the world’s second largest economy and the largest emitter of carbon dioxide, yet we know little about environmental proactivity in the most populated country in the world. We address this gap through a survey of 161 Chinese companies with two respondents per firm (N = 322), where we seek to identify the antecedents and consequences of environmental proactivity. We identify two categorizations of environmental proactivity: Environmental operational improvements and environmental reporting. We find that ecological motivations and regulatory stakeholder (...)
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  • Does Corporate Social Responsibility Influence Firm Performance of Indian Companies?Supriti Mishra & Damodar Suar - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):571 - 601.
    This study examines whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) towards primary stakeholders influences the financial and the non-financial performance (NFP) of Indian firms. Perceptual data on CSR and NFP were collected from 150 senior-level Indian managers including CEOs through questionnaire survey.Hard data on financial performance (FP) of the companies were obtained from secondary sources. A questionnaire for assessing CSR was developed with respect to six stakeholder groups - employees, customers, investors, community, natural environment, and suppliers. A composite measure of CSR was (...)
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  • The Worth of Values – a Literature Review on the Relation Between Corporate Social and Financial Performance.Pieter van Beurden & Tobias Gössling - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):407-424.
    One of the older questions in the debate about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is whether it is worthwhile for organizations to pay attention to societal demands. This debate was emotionally, normatively, and ideologically loaded. Up to the present, this question has been an important trigger for empirical research in CSR. However, the answer to the question has apparently not been found yet, at least that is what many researchers state. This apparent ambivalence in CSR consequences invites a literature study that (...)
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  • Investing in Socially Responsible Companies is a Must for Public Pension Funds – Because There is No Better Alternative.S. Prakash Sethi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (2):99 - 129.
    >With assets of over US$1.0 trillion and growing, public pension funds in the United States have become a major force in the private sector through their holding of equity positions in large publicly traded corporations. More recently, these funds have been expanding their investment strategy by considering a corporations long-term risks on issues such as environmental protection, sustainability, and good corporate citizenship, and how these factors impact a companys long-term performance. Conventional wisdom argues that the fiduciary responsibility of the pension (...)
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  • Hives and Horseshoes, Mintzberg or MacIntyre: What Future for Corporate Social Responsibility?Geoff Moore - 2003 - Business Ethics 12 (1):41-53.
    A horseshoe is regarded as a lucky, perhaps even romantic, symbol of our industrial heritage. Why is it, then, that much of English literature, from Mandeville's ‘Grumbling Hive’ on, portrays business in a murky light? The paper begins with an analysis of this phenomenon and concludes that it is the institutionalisation and legitimisation of avarice and its consequential effects that gives rise to such a portrayal. A horseshoe has also been used as a convenient means of conceptualising an answer to (...)
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  • Proactive CSR: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of its Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions on the Association Between Capabilities and Performance. [REVIEW]Nuttaneeya Ann Torugsa, Wayne O’Donohue & Rob Hecker - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):383-402.
    Proactive corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves business practices adopted voluntarily by firms that go beyond regulatory requirements in order to actively support sustainable economic, social and environmental development, and thereby contribute broadly and positively to society. This empirical study examines the role of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of proactive CSR on the association between three specific capabilities—shared vision, stakeholder management and strategic proactivity—and financial performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Using quantitative data collected from a sample of (...)
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  • Capabilities, Proactive CSR and Financial Performance in SMEs: Empirical Evidence From an Australian Manufacturing Industry Sector. [REVIEW]Nuttaneeya Ann Torugsa, Wayne O’Donohue & Rob Hecker - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):483-500.
    Proactive corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves business strategies and practices adopted voluntarily by firms that go beyond regulatory requirements in order to manage their social responsibilities, and thereby contribute broadly and positively to society. Proactive CSR has been less researched in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) compared to large firms; and, whether SMEs are ideally placed to gain competitive advantage through such activity therefore remains a point of debate. This study examines empirically the association between three specified capabilities (shared vision, (...)
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  • The Role of CSR in the Corporate Identity of Banking Service Providers.Andrea Pérez & Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (2):145-166.
    The study here is a qualitative research based on multiple case studies of banking service providers to analyze the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the definition of the corporate identity of these kinds of organizations. The results show that, although companies increasingly integrate CSR into their business strategies, there are some aspects of its management such as its communication or the measurement of its results that detract from its success. These results have important implications for those managers pursuing (...)
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  • From an Implicit Christian Corporate Culture to a Structured Conception of Corporate Ethical Responsibility in a Retail Company: A Case-Study in Hermeneutic Ethics. [REVIEW]Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (S3):387-404.
    This article presents a qualitative research about the way in which business leaders of a retail company gradually clarify the ethical responsibilities of their company – in an ongoing discussion of particular cases. It is based on 12 years of experience as an external member of the ethics committee. The aim of the article is not so much as to evaluate the different single decisions that were made and implemented to make the company meet high ethical standards, but rather to (...)
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  • The Effect of R&D Intensity on Corporate Social Responsibility.Robert C. Padgett & Jose I. Galan - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (3):407-418.
    This study examines the impact that research and development (R&D) intensity has on corporate social responsibility (CSR). We base our research on the resource-based view (RBV) theory, which contributes to our analysis of R&D intensity and CSR because this perspective explicitly recognizes the importance of intangible resources. Both R&D and CSR activities can create assets that provide firms with competitive advantage. Furthermore, the employment of such activities can improve the welfare of the community and satisfy stakeholder expectations, which might vary (...)
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  • The Harm of Symbolic Actions and Green-Washing: Corporate Actions and Communications on Environmental Performance and Their Financial Implications. [REVIEW]Kent Walker & Fang Wan - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):227-242.
    We examine over 100 top performing Canadian firms in visibly polluting industries as we seek to answer four research questions: What specific environmental issues are firms addressing? How do these issues differ between industries? Are both symbolic and substantive actions financially beneficial? Does green-washing, measured as the difference between symbolic and substantive action, and/or green-highlighting, measured as the combined effect of symbolic and substantive actions, pay? We find that substantive actions of environmental issues (green walk) neither harm nor benefit firms (...)
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  • How Important Are CEOs to CSR Practices? An Analysis of the Mediating Effect of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.José-Luis Godos-Díez, Roberto Fernández-Gago & Almudena Martínez-Campillo - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (4):531-548.
    Drawing on the Agency-Stewardship approach, which suggests that manager profile may range from the agent model to the steward model, this article aims to examine how important CEOs are to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Specifically, this exploratory study proposes the existence of a relationship between manager profile and CSR practices and that this relation is mediated by the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility. After applying a mediated regression analysis using survey information collected from 149 CEOs in Spain, results (...)
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  • Ambition Versus Conscience, Does Corporate Social Responsibility Pay Off? The Application of Matching Methods.Chung-Hua Shen & Yuan Chang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):133 - 153.
    In this article, we examine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on firms' financial performance (CSR-effect). Two competing hypotheses, social impact hypothesis and shift of focus hypothesis, are proposed to investigate this issue, where the former suggests that CSR has a positive relation with performance and the latter are opposite. In order to ensure the CSR-effect is not contaminated by other faeton or samples are randomly drawn, we employ four matching methods, Nearest, Caliper, Mahala and Mahala Caliper to match (...)
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  • Labor-Friendly Corporate Practices: Is What is Good for Employees Good for Shareholders? [REVIEW]Olubunmi Faleye & Emery A. Trahan - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):1 - 27.
    As corporate managers interact with nonshareholder stakeholders, potential tradeoffs emerge and questions arise as to how these interactions impact shareholder value. We argue that this shareholder—stakeholder debate is an important issue within the overall corporate governance and corporate policy domain and examine one such stakeholder group - employees - by studying labor-friendly corporate practices. We find that announcements of labor-friendly policies are associated with positive abnormal stock returns. Labor-friendly firms also outperform otherwise similar firms, both in terms of long-run stock (...)
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  • The Relevance of Nationality and Industry for Stakeholder Salience: An Investigation Through Integrated Reports.Cristina Gianfelici, Andrea Casadei & Federica Cembali - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (2):541-558.
    The aim of this research is to investigate the web of business-stakeholder relationships emerging from first integrated reports. Drawn from the stakeholder salience theory, the analysis focuses on some factors that may cause specific stakeholders to be crucial for some organizations and their ability to create value over time. More precisely, findings highlight the importance of industry membership, while entities’ nationality seems not to be a differentiating element. This study contributes to the corporate disclosure literature by analyzing an emerging reporting (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Productivity: Evidence From the Chemical Industry in the United States.Li Sun & Marty Stuebs - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):251-263.
    Prior research suggests that participating in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities can lead to higher future productivity. However, the empirical evidence is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between CSR and future firm productivity in the U.S. chemical industry. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between CSR in year t and firm productivity in year (t + 1), (t + 2), and (t + 3). We use Data Envelopment Analysis, a non-parametric method, to measure (...)
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  • The Social Responsibility Performance of Ethical and Solidarity Funds: An Approach to the Case of Spain.Maria Jesus Munoz-Torres, Maria Angeles Fernandez-Izquierdo & Maria Rosario Balaguer-Franch - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (2-3):200-218.
  • The Influence of Environmental Management Systems on Financial Performance: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis.Taiwen Feng & Dan Wang - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (2):265-278.
    This study utilizes hierarchical regression analysis to explore how environmental management systems influence financial performance through customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, and the moderating effects of switching cost. The originality of the present research is to unpack the “black box” through which a firm can profit from EMSs. The empirical results indicate that EMSs have positive and significant impacts on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and financial performance. In addition, switching cost negatively and significantly moderates the relationship between EMSs and customer (...)
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  • When CEO Career Horizon Problems Matter for Corporate Social Responsibility: The Moderating Roles of Industry-Level Discretion and Blockholder Ownership.Won-Yong Oh, Young Kyun Chang & Zheng Cheng - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (2):279-291.
    This paper examines the influence of CEO career horizon problems on corporate social responsibility. We assume that as CEOs are getting older, they tend to disengage in CSR due to their shorter career horizons. We further argue that high levels of industry-level discretion and blockholder ownership amplify the negative effects of CEO age on CSR. Using a panel sample of US-based firms over 2004–2009, we do not find the main effect of CEO age on CSR, but find support for the (...)
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  • A Rose by Any Other Name: Are Family Firms Named After Their Founding Families Rewarded More for Their New Product Introductions?Saim Kashmiri & Vijay Mahajan - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (1):81-99.
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility: Review and Roadmap of Theoretical Perspectives.Jędrzej George Frynas & Camila Yamahaki - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (3):258-285.
    Based on a survey and content analysis of 462 peer-reviewed academic articles over the period 1990–2014, this article reviews theories related to the external drivers of corporate social responsibility and the internal drivers of CSR that have been utilized to explain CSR. The article discusses the main tenets of the principal theoretical perspectives and their application in CSR research. Going beyond previous reviews that have largely failed to investigate theory applications in CSR scholarship, this article stresses the importance of theory-driven (...)
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  • Criteria for Responsible Business Practice in SMEs: An Exploratory Case of U.K. Fair Trade Organisations.Geoff Moore, Richard Slack & Jane Gibbon - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):173-188.
    This paper develops a set of 16 criteria, divided into four groupings, for responsible business practice (RBP) in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) drawn from the existing SME/RBP literature. The current lack of a general set of criteria against which such activity can be judged is noted and this deficit is redressed. In order to make an initial assessment in support of the criteria so derived, an exploratory feasibility study of RBP in U.K. Fair Trade organisations was conducted. The findings (...)
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  • The Effect of Corporate Social Performance on Financial Performance: The Moderating Effect of Ownership Concentration.Chih-Wei Peng & Mei-Ling Yang - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (1):171-182.
  • Market Orientation, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Business Performance.Anis Ben Brik, Belaid Rettab & Kamel Mellahi - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (3):307-324.
    This study examines the moderating effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the association between market orientation and firm performance in the context of an emerging economy. The results from a sample of firms that operate in Dubai indicate that CSR has a synergistic effect on the impact of market orientation on business performance. The results of our research on the moderating effects of CSR on market orientation subsets reveal that although CSR moderates the association between customer orientation and business (...)
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  • Implementing Supplier Codes of Conduct in Global Supply Chains: Process Explanations From Theoretic and Empirical Perspectives.Bin Jiang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):77-92.
    Western buying companies impose Supplier Codes of Conduct (SCC) on their suppliers in developing countries; however, many suppliers cannot fully comply with SCC and some of them even cheat in SCC. In this research, we link contract characteristics - price pressure, production complexity, contract duration - to the likelihood of supplier's commitment to SCC through a mediating process: how the buying companies govern their suppliers. Our structural equation model analysis shows that the hierarchy/relational norms governance is a perfect mediator of (...)
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  • Complementary Resources and Capabilities for an Ethical and Environmental Management: A Qual/Quan Study.María Dolores López-Gamero, Enrique Claver-Cortés & José Francisco Molina-Azorín - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):701-732.
    Managers’ commitment to contribute to sustainable development holds the key to their long-term business success and may be a source of competitive advantage. The managerial perception of business ethics is influenced by the level of moral development and personal characteristics of managers. These perceptions are also shaped by forces existing in the environment of the firm, including available resources, societal expectations, sector, and regulations. The resource-based perspective can thus contribute to the analysis of ethical issues offering important insights on how (...)
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  • Public Visibility as a Determinant of the Rate of Corporate Charitable Donations.David Campbell & Richard Slack - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (1):19-28.
  • Board Composition and Corporate Social Responsibility: An Empirical Investigation in the Post Sarbanes-Oxley Era. [REVIEW]Jason Q. Zhang, Hong Zhu & Hung-bin Ding - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):381-392.
    Although the composition of the board of directors has important implications for different aspects of firm performance, prior studies tend to focus on financial performance. The effects of board composition on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance remain an under-researched area, particularly in the period following the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This article specifically examines two important aspects of board composition (i.e., the presence of outside directors and the presence of women directors) and their relationship with CSR (...)
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  • Reexamining the Expected Effect of Available Resources and Firm Size on Firm Environmental Orientation: An Empirical Study of UK Firms.Khaled Elsayed - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (3):297-308.
    An emergent body of literature examined why some firms apply some environmental initiatives while other firms do not take responsibility for their natural environment? Thus, firm environmental orientation (responsiveness and performance) are linked in the literature to several variables. Unfortunately, the relationship between firm environmental orientation and either available resources or firm size showed mixed results and inconclusive evidence. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show empirically how available resources and firm size can explain differences in firm environmental (...)
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  • Exploring the Relationship Between Board Characteristics and CSR: Empirical Evidence From Korea.Young Kyun Chang, Won-Yong Oh, Jee Hyun Park & Myoung Gyun Jang - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (2):225-242.
    Previous studies in Western contexts have examined the relationships between various board characteristics and CSR, yet the relationships need to be re-examined in non-Western contexts given differential theoretical premises across contexts. We specifically propose that the effects of board characteristics on CSR in Korea should be patterned distinctively from Western-based existing literature, focusing on three important board characteristics, such as a board’s independence, social ties, and diversity. Using a panel dataset from large Korean firms, we found that various relationships between (...)
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  • Corporate Philanthropy and Risk Management: An Investigation of Reinsurance and Charitable Giving in Insurance Firms.Mike Adams, Stefan Hoejmose & Zafeira Kastrinaki - 2017 - Business Ethics Quarterly 27 (1):1-37.
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  • Thoughts on the Evaluation of Corporate Social Performance Through Projects.José Salazar, Bryan W. Husted & Markus Biehl - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):175-186.
    Corporate social performance (CSP) has become a widely applied concept, discussed in most large firms’ corporate reports and the academic literature alike. Unfortunately, CSP has largely been employed as a way of demonstrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) in practice, or to justify the business case for CSR in academia by relating some measure of CSP to some measure of financial performance. In this article, we discuss multiple shortcomings to these approaches. We argue that (1) CSR activities need to be managed (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility of the Most Highly Reputed European and North American Firms.Ladislao Luna Sotorrío & José Luis Fernández Sánchez - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):379-390.
    The objective of this article is double: first, to analyze, using a descriptive analysis, the main differences in the level and components of social behaviour between European and North American firms and, second, to contrast empirically, using a multiple linear regression model, whether the motives behind corporate social behaviour are different depending on the region or country of the firm. With this aim, an indicator of social behaviour (termed effort in sustainability) has been constructed by aggregating the firm's social effort (...)
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  • The Creation of Value Through Corporate Reputation.José Luis Fernández Sánchez & Ladislao Luna Sotorrío - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (3):335-346.
    The relationship between social and financial performance (CSP – FP) has been a main objective in the literature on business management, as it would provide an economic justification for the social investment insofar as it contributes to the creation of value. This relationship has been empirically tested by several authors though without using a theoretical model that sustains this relationship. The aim of this article is to propose a theoretical model of the process of the creation of value from the (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility: Views From the Frontline.Lisa Whitehouse - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (3):279-296.
    This paper offers an evaluation of corporate policy and practice in respect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) deriving from an analysis of qualitative data, obtained during semi-structured interviews with the representatives of 16 companies from a variety of UK sectors including retail, mining, financial services and mobile telephony. The findings of the empirical survey are presented in five sections that trace chronologically the process of CSR policy development. The first identifies the meaning attributed to CSR by the respondent companies followed (...)
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  • Corporate Behavior, Social Cynicism, and Their Effect on Individuals’ Perceptions of the Company.Claudio Aqueveque & Catherine Encina - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S2):311-324.
    In recent years, a growing number of companies in Latin American have initiated specific programs oriented to socially respond to the communities in which they are established. Notwithstanding the importance of these programs and its benefits, it is interesting to note that Latin American countries are different from developed countries in which the trend for corporate social accountability has been initiated and developed. Noting this, the present study develops and tests several hypotheses regarding the effects of corporate social responsibility and (...)
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  • The Role of CEO’s Personal Incentives in Driving Corporate Social Responsibility.Michele Fabrizi, Christine Mallin & Giovanna Michelon - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):311-326.
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  • Understanding Complexity: The Curvilinear Relationship Between Environmental Performance and Firm Performance.Ramakrishnan Ramanathan - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (2):383-393.
    The nature of the relationship between environmental performance and firm performance of corporations is a long standing and contentious issue in the literature. This study is intended to advance this debate by arguing for the existence of curvilinear relationship and empirically testing the same using survey data on UK manufacturing firms. FP is captured in terms of growth in sales and market share. Our results show evidence for a quadratic relationship—as firms improve their EP, they seem to achieve much higher (...)
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  • Orientation Toward Key Non-Family Stakeholders and Economic Performance in Family Firms: The Role of Family Identification with the Firm.Mª de la Cruz Déniz-Déniz, Mª Katiuska Cabrera-Suárez & Josefa D. Martín-Santana - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.
    Based on the literature on stakeholder management and family firm dynamics, this research analyses the relationship between three constructs: the identification of business families with their family firms, FFs’ orientation toward key non-family stakeholders, and the achievement of better economic performance. Data analyses from 374 family and non-family members of 173 Spanish FFs show that a high level of family identification with their firms affects the orientation of FFs toward key non-family stakeholders in setting corporate goals and that this orientation (...)
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  • Investing in Socially Responsible Companies is a Must for Public Pension Funds? Because There is No Better Alternative.S. Prakash Sethi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (2):99-129.
    With assets of over US$1.0 trillion and growing, public pension funds in the United States have become a major force in the private sector through their holding of equity positions in large publicly traded corporations. More recently, these funds have been expanding their investment strategy by considering a corporation's long-term risks on issues such as environmental protection, sustainability, and good corporate citizenship, and how these factors impact a company's long-term performance. Conventional wisdom argues that the fiduciary responsibility of the pension (...)
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  • The Worth of Values: A Literature Review on the Relation Between Corporate Social and Financial Performance.Pieter van Beurden & Tobias Gössling - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):407 - 424.
    One of the older questions in the debate about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is whether it is worthwhile for organizations to pay attention to societal demands. This debate was emotionally, normatively, and ideologically loaded. Up to the present, this question has been an important trigger for empirical research in CSR. However, the answer to the question has apparently not been found yet, at least that is what many researchers state. This apparent ambivalence in CSR consequences invites a literature study that (...)
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  • What Corporate Social Responsibility Activities Are Valued by the Market?Ron Bird, Anthony D. Hall, Francesco Momentè & Francesco Reggiani - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (2):189-206.
    Corporate management is torn between either focusing solely on the interests of stockholders or taking into account the interests of a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of course, there need be no conflict where taking the wider view is also consistent with maximising stockholder wealth. In this paper, we examine the extent to which a conflict actually exists by examining the relationship between a company's positive and negative corporate social responsibility activities and equity performance. In general, we find little evidence to (...)
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  • The Reciprocal and Non-Linear Relationship of Sustainability and Financial Performance.Marcus Wagner & Joris Blom - 2011 - Business Ethics 20 (4):418-432.
    The goal of this paper is to describe the link between financial performance and the level of sustainability. In a novel approach, the paper classifies firms based on past financial success to address a potentially reciprocal relationship. For the groups of better and worse performing firms and for the entire sample, the above link is then tested, also accounting for non-linearity in the relationship. We show that environmental management system (EMS) implementation as a proxy for a firm's sustainability level is (...)
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  • Distinctions in Descriptive and Instrumental Stakeholder Theory: A Challenge for Empirical Research.Niklas Egels-Zandén & Joakim Sandberg - 2010 - Business Ethics: A European Review 19 (1):35-49.
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  • Fostering Corporate Social Responsibility Through Public Initiative: From the EU to the Spanish Case. [REVIEW]Marta de la Cuesta González & Carmen Valor Martinez - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):275 - 293.
    Should CSR be approached only on a voluntary basis or should it be complemented with a compulsory regulatory framework? What type of government intervention is more effective in fostering CSR among companies? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions, reviewing the debate between proponents of the voluntary case and the obligatory case for CSR, and critically analysing current international government-led initiatives to foster CSR among companies, and national government-led initiatives in the EU area. Finally, the paper focuses on (...)
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  • Stakeholder Approach: What Effects Should We Take Into Account in Contemporary Societies? [REVIEW]Jose Maria Lopez-De-Pedro & Eva Rimbau-Gilabert - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (2):147-158.
    In recent years, the stakeholder approach has been widely applied in the debate on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Although many authors of this approach have reviewed many elements of the model, they have unconditionally accepted several criteria assumed by Freeman ( 1984 ) to identify stakeholders. In general, stakeholder authors have assumed that (a) the company establishes dyadic relationships with other agents, and (b) decisions made by a company only have foreseen and direct effects on other agents. These criteria have (...)
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  • The Reciprocal and Non-Linear Relationship of Sustainability and Financial Performance.Marcus Wagner & Joris Blom - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (4):418-432.
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  • The Social Responsibility Performance of Ethical and Solidarity Funds: An Approach to the Case of Spain.Maria Jesus Munoz-Torres, Maria Angeles Fernandez-Izquierdo & Maria Rosario Balaguer-Franch - 2004 - Business Ethics: A European Review 13 (2-3):200-218.
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