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  1. Should Digital Contact Tracing Technologies be used to Control COVID-19? Perspectives from an Australian Public Deliberation.Chris Degeling, Julie Hall, Jane Johnson, Roba Abbas, Shopna Bag & Gwendolyn L. Gilbert - 2022 - Health Care Analysis 30 (2):97-114.
    Mobile phone-based applications can promote faster targeted actions to control COVID-19. However, digital contact tracing systems raise concerns about data security, system effectiveness, and their potential to normalise privacy-invasive surveillance technologies. In the absence of mandates, public uptake depends on the acceptability and perceived legitimacy of using technologies that log interactions between individuals to build public health capacity. We report on six online deliberative workshops convened in New South Wales to consider the appropriateness of using the COVIDSafe app to enhance (...)
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  • Ethics of Digital Contact Tracing Wearables.G. Owen Schaefer & Angela Ballantyne - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):611-615.
    The success of digital COVID-19 contact tracing requires a strategy that successfully addresses the digital divide—inequitable access to technology such as smartphones. Lack of access both undermines the degree of social benefit achieved by the use of tracing apps, and exacerbates existing social and health inequities because those who lack access are likely to already be disadvantaged. Recently, Singapore has introduced portable tracing wearables to address the equity gap and promote public health. We argue that governments have an ethical obligation (...)
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  • Digital Contact Tracing and Exposure Notification: Ethical Guidance for Trustworthy Pandemic Management.Robert Ranisch, Niels Nijsingh, Angela Ballantyne, Anne van Bergen, Alena Buyx, Orsolya Friedrich, Tereza Hendl, Georg Marckmann, Christian Munthe & Verina Wild - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):285-294.
    There is growing interest in contact tracing apps for pandemic management. It is crucial to consider ethical requirements before, while, and after implementing such apps. In this paper, we illustrate the complexity and multiplicity of the ethical considerations by presenting an ethical framework for a responsible design and implementation of CT apps. Using this framework as a starting point, we briefly highlight the interconnection of social and political contexts, available measures of pandemic management, and a multi-layer assessment of CT apps. (...)
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  • Tracing App Technology: An Ethical Review in the COVID-19 Era and Directions for Post-COVID-19. [REVIEW]Ehsan Hajiramezanali, Shahriar Esmaeili, Kambiz Rasoulkhani, Ali Akbari, Ali Mostafavi, Amir Esmalian & Saleh Afroogh - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    We conducted a systematic literature review on the ethical considerations of the use of contact tracing app technology, which was extensively implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid and extensive use of this technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, while benefiting the public well-being by providing information about people’s mobility and movements to control the spread of the virus, raised several ethical concerns for the post-COVID-19 era. To investigate these concerns for the post-pandemic situation and provide direction for future events, we (...)
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  • Digital Phenotyping and the (Data) Shadow of Alzheimer's Disease.Natassia Brenman, Alessia Costa & Richard Milne - 2022 - Big Data and Society 9 (1).
    In this paper, we examine the practice and promises of digital phenotyping. We build on work on the ‘data self’ to focus on a medical domain in which the value and nature of knowledge and relations with data have been played out with particular persistence, that of Alzheimer's disease research. Drawing on research with researchers and developers, we consider the intersection of hopes and concerns related to both digital tools and Alzheimer's disease using the metaphor of the ‘data shadow’. We (...)
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  • Framing Ethical Issues Associated with the UK COVID-19 Contact Tracing App: Exceptionalising and Narrowing the Public Ethics Debate.F. Lucivero & G. Samuel - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    This paper explores ethical debates associated with the UK COVID-19 contact tracing app that occurred in the public news media and broader public policy, and in doing so, takes ethics debate as an object for sociological study. The research question was: how did UK national newspaper news articles and grey literature frame the ethical issues about the app, and how did stakeholders associated with the development and/or governance of the app reflect on this? We examined the predominance of different ethical (...)
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  • Ecologies of public trust: The nhs covid-19 contact tracing app.Gabrielle Samuel, Frederica Lucivero, Stephanie Johnson & Heilien Diedericks - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (4):595-608.
    In April 2020, close to the start of the first U.K. COVID-19 lockdown, the U.K. government announced the development of a COVID-19 contact tracing app, which was later trialled on the U.K. island, the Isle of Wight, in May/June 2020. United Kingdom surveys found general support for the development of such an app, which seemed strongly influenced by public trust. Institutions developing the app were called upon to fulfil the commitment to public trust by acting with trustworthiness. Such calls presuppose (...)
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  • Book review: Luca Possati (2021): “The algorithmic unconscious: how psychoanalysis helps in understanding AI”. [REVIEW]Marc Cheong - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
  • Ethics as a Service: A Pragmatic Operationalisation of AI Ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the (...)
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  • Innovation Under Pressure: Implications for Data Privacy During the Covid-19 Pandemic.Gil Scheitlin, Rehana Harasgama, Eduard Fosch Villaronga, Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux, Christoph Lutz & Gemma Newlands - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (2).
    The global Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in social and economic disruption unprecedented in the modern era. Many countries have introduced severe measures to contain the virus, including travel restrictions, public event bans, non-essential business closures and remote work policies. While digital technologies help governments and organizations to enforce protection measures, such as contact tracing, their rushed deployment and adoption also raises profound concerns about surveillance, privacy and data protection. This article presents two critical cases on digital surveillance technologies implemented during (...)
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  • Trump, Parler, and Regulating the Infosphere as Our Commons.Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):1–⁠5.
    Following the storming of the US Capitol building, Donald Trump became digitally toxic, and was deplatformed from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube—as well as a host of other social media networks. Subsequent debate has centred on the questions of whether these companies did the right thing and the possible ramifications of their actions for the future of digital societies along with their democratic organisation. This article seeks to answer this question through examining complex, and seemingly contradictory notions (legality and the (...)
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  • Blind-Sided by Privacy? Digital Contact Tracing, the Apple/Google API and Big Tech’s Newfound Role as Global Health Policy Makers.Tamar Sharon - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):45-57.
    Since the outbreak of COVID-19, governments have turned their attention to digital contact tracing. In many countries, public debate has focused on the risks this technology poses to privacy, with advocates and experts sounding alarm bells about surveillance and mission creep reminiscent of the post 9/11 era. Yet, when Apple and Google launched their contact tracing API in April 2020, some of the world’s leading privacy experts applauded this initiative for its privacy-preserving technical specifications. In an interesting twist, the tech (...)
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  • Ethics as a service: a pragmatic operationalisation of AI ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (2):239–256.
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence, in particular machine learning, has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the theory of (...)
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  • Mit Kontaktdaten gegen die Pandemie: Zur Ethik von Corona Warn-Apps.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (3):387-400.
    Zu Beginn der Pandemie im Frühjahr 2020, und nach einem weitreichenden Lockdown, ruhten große Erwartungen auf Corona-Warn-Apps, um einen erneuten Lockdown zu verhindern. Diese Erwartungen haben sich nicht erfüllt; stattdessen wurden in Deutschland als Reaktion auf erneute Wellen von COVID-19 weitere Kontaktbeschränkungen verordnet. Wie hätte die digitale Kontaktverfolgung wirksamer gestaltet werden können? Wir argumentieren, dass es ein Spannungsfeld zwischen der Datensparsamkeit und einer wirksamen Bekämpfung der Pandemie besteht. Im Gegensatz zur deutschen Corona-Warn-App wäre eine Variante der App, in der pseudonymisierte (...)
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  • The meaning of Freedom after Covid-19.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-5.
    Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for (...)
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  • The Fight for Digital Sovereignty: What It is, and Why It Matters, Especially for the EU.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):369-378.
    Digital sovereignty, and the question of who ultimately controls AI seems, at first glance, to be an issue that concerns only specialists, politicians and corporate entities. And yet the fight for who will win digital sovereignty has far-reaching societal implications. Drawing on five case studies, the paper argues that digital sovereignty affects everyone, whether digital users or not, and makes the case for a hybrid system of control which has the potential to offer full democratic legitimacy as well as innovative (...)
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  • The Ethical Governance of the Digital During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (2):171-176.
  • Mind the App—Considerations on the Ethical Risks of COVID-19 Apps.Floridi Luciano - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):167-172.
    In the past months, there has been a lively debate about so-called COVID-19 apps developed to deal with the pandemic (Morley et al. 2020b). Some of the best solutions use the Bluetooth connection of mobile phones to determine contacts between people and therefore the probability of contagion, and then suggested related measures. In theory, it may seem simple. In practice, there are several ethical problems (Morley et al. 2020a), not only legal and technical ones. To understand them, it is useful (...)
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  • Effective Contact Tracing for COVID-19 Using Mobile Phones: An Ethical Analysis of the Mandatory Use of the Aarogya Setu Application in India.Saurav Basu - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):262-271.
    Several digital contact tracing smartphone applications have been developed worldwide in the effort to combat COVID-19 that warn users of potential exposure to infectious patients and generate big data that helps in early identification of hotspots, complementing the manual tracing operations. In most democracies, concerns over a breach in data privacy have resulted in severe opposition toward their mandatory adoption. This paper examines India as a noticeable exception, where the compulsory installation of such a government-backed application, the “Aarogya Setu” has (...)
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