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  1. Main Outcomes of an RCT to Pilot Test Reporting and Feedback to Foster Research Integrity Climates in the VA.Brian C. Martinson, David C. Mohr, Martin P. Charns, David Nelson, Emily Hagel-Campbell, Ann Bangerter, Hanna E. Bloomfield, Richard Owen & Carol R. Thrush - 2017 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 8 (3):211-219.
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  • Perceptions of Ethical Climate and Research Pressures in Different Faculties of a University: Cross-Sectional Study at the University of Split, Croatia.Mario Malički, Vedran Katavić, Domagoj Marković, Matko Marušić & Ana Marušić - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):231-245.
    We determined the prevailing ethical climate at three different schools of a single university, in order to explore possible differences in the ethical climate related to different research fields: the School of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Naval Architecture; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine. We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire to survey the staff at the three schools, and used the research integrity and organizational climate survey for early-stage researchers at the three schools. (...)
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  • Differences in Biases and Compensatory Strategies Across Discipline, Rank, and Gender Among University Academics.Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (6):1551-1579.
    The study of ethical behavior and ethical decision making is of increasing importance in many fields, and there is a growing literature addressing the issue. However, research examining differences in ethical decision making across fields and levels of experience is limited. In the present study, biases that undermine ethical decision making and compensatory strategies that may aid ethical decision making were identified in a series of interviews with 63 faculty members across six academic fields and three levels of rank as (...)
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  • Development and Validation of the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC).C. Martinson Brian, R. Thrush Carol & A. Lauren Crain - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):813-834.
    Development and targeting efforts by academic organizations to effectively promote research integrity can be enhanced if they are able to collect reliable data to benchmark baseline conditions, to assess areas needing improvement, and to subsequently assess the impact of specific initiatives. To date, no standardized and validated tool has existed to serve this need. A web- and mail-based survey was administered in the second half of 2009 to 2,837 randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows at 40 (...)
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  • Case-Based Ethics Instruction: The Influence of Contextual and Individual Factors in Case Content on Ethical Decision-Making.Zhanna Bagdasarov, Chase E. Thiel, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly, Lauren N. Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1305-1322.
    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include (...)
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  • Individual and Organizational Predictors of the Ethicality of Graduate Students’ Responses to Research Integrity Issues.Philip J. Langlais & Blake J. Bent - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):897-921.
    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master’s thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were (...)
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  • Some Ethical Implications of Individual Competitiveness.Peter E. Mudrack, James M. Bloodgood & William H. Turnley - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):347-359.
    This study examined some ethical implications of two different individual competitive orientations. Winning is crucially important in hypercompetitiveness , whereas a personal development (PD) perspective considers competition as a means to self-discovery and self-improvement. In a sample of 263 senior-level undergraduate business students, survey results suggested that hypercompetitiveness was generally associated with “poor ethics” and PD competitiveness was linked with “high ethics”. For example, hypercompetitive individuals generally saw nothing wrong with self-interested gain at the expense of others, but PD competitors (...)
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  • Environmental Factors Contributing to Wrongdoing in Medicine: A Criterion-Based Review of Studies and Cases.James M. DuBois, Emily E. Anderson, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Elena Kraus, Timothy Rubbelke & Meghan Vasher - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (3):163 - 188.
    In this article we describe our approach to understanding wrongdoing in medical research and practice, which involves the statistical analysis of coded data from a large set of published cases. We focus on understanding the environmental factors that predict the kind and the severity of wrongdoing in medicine. Through review of empirical and theoretical literature, consultation with experts, the application of criminological theory, and ongoing analysis of our first 60 cases, we hypothesize that 10 contextual features of the medical environment (...)
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  • Views on Potential Methods for Raising Environmental Awareness in Developing Countries: A Study on Social Responsibility Engagement in Liberia.Khalid M. Younis - 2015 - Global Bioethics 26 (2):128-144.
    Maintaining environmental standards is a challenging task that requires knowledge and an understanding of the impacts of unethical decisions on human well-being, especially in developing countries. Lack of knowledge, the pursuit of profits, and other factors are preventing leaders from making ethical decisions, which could have a direct and indirect influence on health, technology, and the economy – problems that are particularly acute in poor and developing countries. Some progress can act as a smokescreen for managers or leaders, who fail (...)
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  • The Effects of Note-Taking and Review on Sensemaking and Ethical Decision Making.James F. Johnson, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):299-323.
    The effectiveness of case-based learning in ethics education varies widely regarding how cases are presented. Case process instruction may impact case-based ethics education to promote sensemaking processes, ethical sensemaking strategy use, and ethical decision making (EDM) quality. This study examined two teaching techniques, notes and review, and participants completed note-taking and review activities examining a case-based scenario during an ethics education course. Results suggest that providing case notes in outline form improves sensemaking processes, strategy use, and EDM quality. In addition, (...)
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  • Forecasting and Ethical Decision Making: What Matters?Cheryl Stenmark - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):445-462.
    This study examined how the number and types of consequences considered are related to forecasting and ethical decision making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to forecast potential outcomes and make a decision about each problem. Performance pressure was manipulated by ostensibly making rewards contingent on good problem-solving performance. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical consequences of the problem (...)
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  • Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multilevel Approach.Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele & Logan L. Watts - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (1):37-60.
    Although education in the responsible conduct of research is considered necessary, evidence bearing on the effectiveness of these programs in improving research ethics has indicated that, although some programs are successful, many fail. Accordingly, there is a need for systematic evaluation of ethics education programs. In the present effort, we examine procedures for evaluation of ethics education programs from a multilevel perspective: examining both within-program evaluation and cross-program evaluation. With regard to within-program evaluation, we note requisite designs and measures for (...)
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  • Effects of Training and Environment on Graduate Students’ Self-Rated Knowledge and Judgments of Responsible Research Behavior.Philip J. Langlais & Blake J. Bent - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (2):133-153.
    Training programs, departmental/disciplinary norms, and individual factors have been hypothesized to influence ethical behavior. This exploratory study surveyed graduate students from a single university in the American Southeast. Relationships were examined among 496 participants’ individual characteristics, training, self-rated knowledge and decision-making skills in research conduct, and judgments of ethically questionable vignettes. Key findings include the increased likelihood of unethical action by students in online programs, a negative relationship between age and unethical actions, and a negative relationship between agreeableness and reports (...)
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  • Leader Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations: Strategies for Sensemaking. [REVIEW]Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren Harkrider, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (1):49-64.
    Organizational leaders face environmental challenges and pressures that put them under ethical risk. Navigating this ethical risk is demanding given the dynamics of contemporary organizations. Traditional models of ethical decision-making (EDM) are an inadequate framework for understanding how leaders respond to ethical dilemmas under conditions of uncertainty and equivocality. Sensemaking models more accurately illustrate leader EDM and account for individual, social, and environmental constraints. Using the sensemaking approach as a foundation, previous EDM models are revised and extended to comprise a (...)
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