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  1. Numerical Architecture.Eric Mandelbaum - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):367-386.
    The idea that there is a “Number Sense” (Dehaene, 1997) or “Core Knowledge” of number ensconced in a modular processing system (Carey, 2009) has gained popularity as the study of numerical cognition has matured. However, these claims are generally made with little, if any, detailed examination of which modular properties are instantiated in numerical processing. In this article, I aim to rectify this situation by detailing the modular properties on display in numerical cognitive processing. In the process, I review literature (...)
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  • Conscious Control Over the Content of Unconscious Cognition.Wilfried Kunde, Andrea Kiesel & Joachim Hoffmann - 2003 - Cognition 88 (2):223-242.
  • On the Masking and Disclosure of Unconscious Elaborate Processing. A Reply to Van Opstal, Reynvoet, and Verguts (2005).Wilfried Kunde, Andrea Kiesel & Joachim Hoffmann - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):99-105.
  • Unconscious Modulation of the Conscious Experience of Voluntary Control.Katrin Linser & Thomas Goschke - 2007 - Cognition 104 (3):459-475.
    How does the brain generate our experience of being in control over our actions and their effects? Here, we argue that the perception of events as self-caused emerges from a comparison between anticipated and actual action-effects: if the representation of an event that follows an action is activated before the action, the event is experienced as caused by one’s own action, whereas in the case of a mismatch it will be attributed to an external cause rather than to the self. (...)
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  • Interocular Suppression Prevents Interference in a Flanker Task.Qiong Wu, Jonathan T. H. Lo Voi, Thomas Y. Lee, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Yanhong Wu & Jin Fan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Influence of Unconscious Perceptual Processing on Decision-Making: A New Perspective From Cognitive Neuroscience Applied to Generation Z.Dolores Lucía Sutil-Martín & Juan José Rienda-Gómez - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Automatic Lexical Access in Visual Modality: Eye-Tracking Evidence.Ekaterina Stupina, Andriy Myachykov & Yury Shtyrov - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Comparing Repetition Priming Effects in Words and Arithmetic Equations: Robust Priming Regardless of Color or Response Hand Change.Ailsa Humphries, Zhe Chen & Ewald Neumann - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • The Effects of Alerting Signals in Masked Priming.Rico Fischer, Franziska Plessow & Andrea Kiesel - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children.Elizabeth S. Spelke Maria Dolores de Hevia - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):198.
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  • Attentional Modulation of Masked Repetition and Categorical Priming in Young and Older Adults.Ludovic Fabre, Patrick Lemaire & Jonathan Grainger - 2007 - Cognition 105 (3):513-532.
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  • Probing Representations of Gymnastics Movements: A Visual Priming Study.Claire Calmels, Marc Elipot & Lionel Naccache - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1529-1551.
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  • The Semantic Origin of Unconscious Priming: Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Evidence During Category Congruency Priming From Strongly and Weakly Related Masked Words.Juan J. Ortells, Markus Kiefer, Alejandro Castillo, Montserrat Megías & Alejandro Morillas - 2016 - Cognition 146:143-157.
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  • Unconscious Task Set Priming with Phonological and Semantic Tasks.Sébastien Weibel, Anne Giersch, Stanislas Dehaene & Caroline Huron - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):517-527.
    Whether unconscious stimuli can modulate the preparation of a cognitive task is still controversial. Using a backward masking paradigm, we investigated whether the modulation could be observed even if the prime was made unconscious in 100% of the trials. In two behavioral experiments, subjects were instructed to initiate a phonological or semantic task on an upcoming word, following an explicit instruction and an unconscious prime. When the SOA between prime and instruction was sufficiently long , primes congruent with the task (...)
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  • The Epistemology of Geometry I: The Problem of Exactness.Anne Newstead & Franklin James - 2010 - Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science 2009.
    We show how an epistemology informed by cognitive science promises to shed light on an ancient problem in the philosophy of mathematics: the problem of exactness. The problem of exactness arises because geometrical knowledge is thought to concern perfect geometrical forms, whereas the embodiment of such forms in the natural world may be imperfect. There thus arises an apparent mismatch between mathematical concepts and physical reality. We propose that the problem can be solved by emphasizing the ways in which the (...)
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  • Numerical Representation in the Parietal Lobes: Abstract or Not Abstract?Roi Cohen Kadosh & Vincent Walsh - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):313-328.
    The study of neuronal specialisation in different cognitive and perceptual domains is important for our understanding of the human brain, its typical and atypical development, and the evolutionary precursors of cognition. Central to this understanding is the issue of numerical representation, and the question of whether numbers are represented in an abstract fashion. Here we discuss and challenge the claim that numerical representation is abstract. We discuss the principles of cortical organisation with special reference to number and also discuss methodological (...)
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  • Intentionality and Perception: A Study of John Searle’s Philosophy.Anar Jafarov - 2019 - Dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
    My aim in this research is to study the philosophical problems of intentionality and perception by critically analyzing the relevant ideas from John Searle’s works, and also to attempt to give solutions to some of these problems. I try to elucidate Searle's theory of intentionality and his way of assimilating the problems of perception into this theory, and investigate the plausibility of his corresponding ideas in the context of ongoing debates.
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  • Stimulus–Response Bindings in Priming.Richard N. Henson, Doris Eckstein, Florian Waszak, Christian Frings & Aidan J. Horner - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (7):376-384.
  • Brain Neural Activity Patterns Yielding Numbers Are Operators, Not Representations.Walter J. Freeman & Robert Kozma - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):336.
  • Concrete Magnitudes: From Numbers to Time.Christine Falter, Valdas Noreika, Julian Kiverstein & Bruno Mölder - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):335-336.
    Cohen Kadosh & Walsh (CK&W) present convincing evidence indicating the existence of notation-specific numerical representations in parietal cortex. We suggest that the same conclusions can be drawn for a particular type of numerical representation: the representation of time. Notation-dependent representations need not be limited to number but may also be extended to other magnitude-related contents processed in parietal cortex (Walsh 2003).
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  • Neural Mechanisms for Access to Consciousness.Stanislas Dehaene & Jean-Pierre Changeux - 2004 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press. pp. 1145-1157.
  • The Fata Morgana of Unconscious Perception.Marjan Persuh - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Unconscious Task Application.Filip Van Opstal, Wim Gevers, Magda Osman & Tom Verguts - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):999-1006.
    The nature of unconscious information processing is a heavily debated issue in cognitive science, and neuroscience. Traditionally, it has been thought that unconscious cognitive processing is restricted to knowledge that is strongly prepared by conscious processes. In three experiments, we show that the task that is performed consciously can also be applied unconsciously to items outside the current task set. We found that a same–different judgment of two target stimuli was also performed on two subliminally presented prime stimuli. This was (...)
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  • Varieties of Consciousness.Paolo Bartolomeo & Gianfranco Dalla Barba - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):331-332.
    In agreement with some of the ideas expressed by Perruchet & Vinter (P&V), we believe that some phenomena hitherto attributed to processing may in fact reflect a fundamental distinction between direct and reflexive forms of consciousness. This dichotomy, developed by the phenomenological tradition, is substantiated by examples coming from experimental psychology and lesion neuropsychology.
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  • Immediate and Long-Term Priming Effects Are Independent of Prime Awareness.Jolien C. Francken, Simon van Gaal & Floris P. de Lange - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1793-1800.
    Subliminal primes are assumed to produce weaker and short-lived effects on subsequent behavior compared to clearly visible primes. However, this difference in priming effect may be due to differences in signal strength, rather than level of awareness. In the present study we manipulated prime discriminability by using metacontrast masks and pseudomasks, while keeping the prime strength equal. This manipulation resulted in large differences in discriminability of the primes. However, both immediate response priming and long-term response priming was equal for the (...)
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  • Guess What? Implicit Motivation Boosts the Influence of Subliminal Information on Choice.Maxim Milyavsky, Ran R. Hassin & Yaacov Schul - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1232-1241.
    When is choice affected by subliminal messages? This question has fascinated scientists and lay people alike, but it is only recently that reliable empirical data began to emerge. In the current paper we bridge the literature on implicit motivation and that on subliminal persuasion. We suggest that motivation in general, and implicit motivation more specifically, plays an important role in subliminal persuasion: It sensitizes us to subliminal cues. To examine this hypothesis we developed a new paradigm that allows powerful tests (...)
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  • Levels of Processing During Non-Conscious Perception: A Critical Review of Visual Masking.Sid Kouider & Stanislas Dehaene - 2007 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 362 (1481):857-875.
  • Subliminal Gestalt Grouping: Evidence of Perceptual Grouping by Proximity and Similarity in Absence of Conscious Perception.Pedro R. Montoro, Dolores Luna & Juan J. Ortells - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 25:1-8.
    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were presented as (...)
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  • Unconscious Vision and Executive Control: How Unconscious Processing and Conscious Action Control Interact.Ulrich Ansorge, Wilfried Kunde & Markus Kiefer - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:268-287.
  • Unconscious Manipulation of Free Choice by Novel Primes.Brenda Ocampo - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 34:4-9.
  • Open and Closed Cortico-Subcortical Loops: A Neuro-Computational Account of Access to Consciousness in the Distractor-Induced Blindness Paradigm.Christian Ebner, Henning Schroll, Gesche Winther, Michael Niedeggen & Fred H. Hamker - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 35:295-307.
  • Global Shape Integration and Illusory Form Perception in the Absence of Awareness.Mikel Jimenez, Pedro R. Montoro & Dolores Luna - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 53:31-46.
  • Can False Memory for Critical Lures Occur Without Conscious Awareness of List Words?Daniel D. Sadler, Sharon M. Sodmont & Lucas A. Keefer - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 58:136-157.
  • Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion: Reply to My Critics. [REVIEW]William Fish - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):57-66.
    This book provides the first full-length treatment of disjunctivism about visual experiences in the service of defending a naive realist theory of veridical visual perception. It includes detailed theories of hallucination and illusion that show how such states can be indistinguishable from veridical experiences without sharing any common character.
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  • Digestive Enzyme Secretion, Intuition, and the History of Science: Part II. [REVIEW]Lois Isenman - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (4):331-349.
    A companion paper explored the role of intuition in the genesis of an alternative theory for the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, looking through the lens of three philosophers/historians of science. Gerald Holton, the last scholar, proposed that scientific imagination is shaped by a number of thematic presuppositions, which function largely below awareness. They come in pairs of opposites that alternately gain cultural preeminence. The current paper examines three thematic presuppositions inherent to both the generally accepted model for digestive enzyme (...)
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  • Automatic Processing of Unattended Lexical Information in Visual Oddball Presentation: Neurophysiological Evidence.Yury Shtyrov, Galina Goryainova, Sergei Tugin, Alexey Ossadtchi & Anna Shestakova - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  • Masked Response Priming in Expert Typists.Alexander Heinemann, Andrea Kiesel, Carsten Pohl & Wilfried Kunde - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):399-407.
    In masked priming tasks responses are usually faster when prime and target require identical rather than different responses. Previous research has extensively manipulated the nature and number of response-affording stimuli. However, little is known about the constraints of masked priming regarding the nature and number of response alternatives. The present study explored the limits of masked priming in a six-choice reaction time task, where responses from different fingers of both hands were required. We studied participants that were either experts for (...)
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  • Limited Transfer of Subliminal Response Priming to Novel Stimulus Orientations and Identities.Katrin Elsner, Wilfried Kunde & Andrea Kiesel - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):657-671.
    Recently, priming effects of unconscious stimuli that were never presented as targets have been taken as evidence for the processing of the stimuli’s semantic categories. The present study explored the necessary conditions for a transfer of priming to novel primes. Stimuli were digits and letters which were presented in various viewer-related orientations . The transfer of priming to novel stimulus orientations and identities was remarkably limited: in Experiment 1, in which all conscious targets stood upright, no transfer to unconscious primes (...)
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  • Dismissing Subliminal Perception Because of its Famous Problems is Classic “Baby with the Bathwater”.Matthew Finkbeiner & Max Coltheart - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):27-27.
  • Invisible is Better: Decrease of Subliminal Priming With Increasing Visibility.Doris Eckstein, Dennis Norris, Matthew Davis & Richard Henson - 2009 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 15 (2).
    Comparisons of indirect measures with direct measures can help elucidate the relationship between nonconscious and conscious perception. We report three experiments on masked word priming in which we observed a negative correlation between prime discriminability and priming , i.e. where priming decreased with increasing prime visibility. While such observations are rare , they may indicate a conflict between conscious and nonconscious processing when primes are shown close to the subjective visibility threshold for the priming-relevant information. For instance, such a conflict (...)
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  • Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing.S. Dehaene, A. G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams & L. Naccache - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  • Contrasting Two Ways of Making Psychology: Brentano and Freud.Maria Gyemant - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (5):491-501.
    Brentano’s views on psychology influenced the way philosophy was made at the beginning of the 20th century. But did this influence spread as far as to give place to Freud’s revolutionary discovery of the psychoanalytical unconscious? There are reasons to believe that Brentano had a profound influence on Freud. An attentive analysis of Freud’s vocabulary as well as his arguments against “philosophical” objections supports this point rather convincingly. However, Freud was not a philosopher and Brentano’s historical influence does not suffice (...)
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  • Priming of Semantic Classifications by Novel Subliminal Prime Words☆.Karl Christoph Klauer, Andreas B. Eder, Anthony G. Greenwald & Richard L. Abrams - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):63-83.
    Four experiments demonstrate category congruency priming by subliminal prime words that were never seen as targets in a valence-classification task and a gender-classification task . In Experiment 1, overlap in terms of word fragments of one or more letters between primes and targets of different valences was larger than between primes and targets of the same valence. In Experiments 2 and 3, the sets of prime words and target words were completely disjoint in terms of used letters. In Experiment 4, (...)
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  • EEG Oscillatory States as Neuro-Phenomenology of Consciousness as Revealed From Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States.Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):149-169.
    The value of resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in revealing neural constitutes of consciousness (NCC) was examined. We quantified the dynamic repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG microstates in eyes-closed rest in relation to the degree of expression of clinical self-consciousness. For NCC a model was suggested that contrasted normal, severely disturbed state of consciousness and state without consciousness. Patients with disorders of consciousness were used. Results suggested that the repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG microstates in resting condition quantitatively (...)
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  • Abstract or Not? Insights From Priming.Bert Reynvoet & Karolien Notebaert - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):349 - 350.
    Cohen Kadosh & Walsh (CK&W) argue that numerical representation is primarily non-abstract. However, in their target article they failed to consider recent behavioral priming experiments. These priming experiments provide evidence for an abstract numerical representation under automatic conditions.
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  • Sensitivity of Different Measures of the Visibility of Masked Primes: Influences of Prime–Response and Prime–Target Relations.Shah Khalid, Peter König & Ulrich Ansorge - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1473-1488.
    Visual masking of primes lowers prime visibility but spares processing of primes as reflected in prime–target congruence and prime–response compatibility effects. However, the question is how to appropriately measure prime visibility. Here, we tested the influence of three procedural variables on prime visibility measures: prime–target similarity, prime–response similarity, and the variability of prime–response mappings. Our results show that a low prime–target similarity is a favorable condition for a prime visibility measure because it increases the sensitivity of this measure in comparison (...)
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  • Influences of Visibility, Intentions, and Probability in a Peripheral Cuing Task.U. Ansorge - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):528-545.
    According to the concept of direct parameter specification, nonconsciously registered information can be processed to the extent that it matches currently active intentions of a person. This prediction was tested and confirmed in the current study. Masked visual information provided by peripheral cues led to reaction time effects only if the information specified one of the required responses . Information delivered by the same masked cues that did not match the intentions was not used. However, the same information influenced RT (...)
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  • Unconscious Processing of Multiple Nonadjacent Letters in Visually Masked Words.Richard L. Abrams - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):585-601.
    The claim that visually masked, unidentifiable words are analyzed at the level of whole word meaning has been challenged by recent findings indicating that instead, analysis occurs mainly at the subword level. The present experiments examined possible limits on subword analysis. Experiment 1 obtained semantic priming from pleasant- and unpleasant-meaning subliminal words in which no individual letter contained diagnostic information about a word’s evaluative valence; thus analysis must operate on information more complex than that contained in individual letters. Experiments 2 (...)
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  • Variability in Response Criteria Affects Estimates of Conscious Identification and Unconscious Semantic Priming☆.Jesse J. Bengson & Keith A. Hutchison - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):785-796.
    Three experiments examined the role of response criteria in a masked semantic priming paradigm using an exclusion task. Experiment 1 used on-line prime-report and exclusion instructions in which participants were told to avoid completing a word stem with a word related to a prime flashed for 0, 38 or 212 ms. Semantic priming was significant in the items analysis, but was moderated by peoples’ ability to report the prime in the participant analysis. Prime-report thresholds in Experiment 2 were made more (...)
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  • How to Trigger Elaborate Processing? A Comment on Kunde, Kiesel, and Hoffmann.Filip Van Opstal, Bert Reynvoet & Tom Verguts - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):89-97.