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Interpreting scientific and engineering practices: Integrating the cognitive, social, and cultural dimensions

In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 17--56 (2005)

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  1. Creativity and Emotion: Reformulating the Romantic Theory of Art.Joseph L. Flanders - forthcoming - Cognitio: Matter and Mind.
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  • Visual Cognition: Where Cognition and Culture Meet.David C. Gooding - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):688-698.
    Case studies of diverse scientific fields show how scientists use a range of resources to generate new interpretative models and to establish their plausibility as explanations of a domain. They accomplish this by manipulating imagistic representations in particular ways. I show that scientists in different domains use the same basic transformations. Common features of these transformations indicate that general cognitive strategies of interpretation, simplification, elaboration, and argumentation are at work. Social and historical studies of science emphasize the diversity of local (...)
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  • Mathematical Representations in Science: A Cognitive–Historical Case History.Ryan D. Tweney - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):758-776.
  • How Do Engineering Scientists Think? Model‐Based Simulation in Biomedical Engineering Research Laboratories.Nancy J. Nersessian - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):730-757.
  • Visualizing Scientific Inference.David C. Gooding - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):15-35.
  • Diversity as Asset.Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (4):677-688.
    We begin our commentary by summarizing the commonalities and differences in cognitive phenomena across cultures, as found by the seven papers of this topic. We then assess the commonalities and differences in how our various authors have approached the study of cognitive diversity, and speculate on the need for, and potential of, cross-disciplinary collaboration.
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  • Building Cognition: The Construction of Computational Representations for Scientific Discovery.Sanjay Chandrasekharan & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (8):1727-1763.
    Novel computational representations, such as simulation models of complex systems and video games for scientific discovery, are dramatically changing the way discoveries emerge in science and engineering. The cognitive roles played by such computational representations in discovery are not well understood. We present a theoretical analysis of the cognitive roles such representations play, based on an ethnographic study of the building of computational models in a systems biology laboratory. Specifically, we focus on a case of model-building by an engineer that (...)
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  • The Distribution of Representation.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2006 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 36 (2):141–160.
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  • Science and Experience: A Deweyan Pragmatist Philosophy of Science.Matthew J. Brown - 2009 - Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    I resolve several pressing and recalcitrant problems in contemporary philosophy of science using resources from John Dewey's philosophy of science. I begin by looking at Dewey's epistemological and logical writings in their historical context, in order to understand better how Dewey's philosophy disappeared from the limelight, and I provide a reconstruction of his views. Then, I use that reconstruction to address problems of evidence, the social dimensions of science, and pluralism. Generally, mainstream philosophers of science with an interest in Dewey (...)
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  • Where is the Understanding?Adam Toon - 2015 - Synthese 192 (12):3859-3875.
    Recent work in epistemology and philosophy of science has argued that understanding is an important cognitive state that philosophers should seek to analyse. This paper offers a new perspective on understanding by looking to work in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Understanding is normally taken to be inside the head. I argue that this view is mistaken. Often, understanding is a state that criss-crosses brain, body and world. To support this claim, I draw on extended cognition, a burgeoning framework (...)
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  • Dimensions of Integration in Embedded and Extended Cognitive Systems.Richard Heersmink - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):577-598.
    The complementary properties and functions of cognitive artifacts and other external resources are integrated into the human cognitive system to varying degrees. The goal of this paper is to develop some of the tools to conceptualize this complementary integration between agents and artifacts. It does so by proposing a multidimensional framework, including the dimensions of information flow, reliability, durability, trust, procedural transparency, informational transparency, individualization, and transformation. The proposed dimensions are all matters of degree and jointly they constitute a multidimensional (...)
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  • The Foundational Problem for Cognition.Fred Keijzer & Pamela Christine Lyon - unknown
    What is cognition? Despite the existence of a science of cognition there is no clear agreement on what makes certain phenomena cognitive, and others not. Within cognitivism the issue was neglected. Human intelligence was used as a standard, and any process—natural or artificial—that fitted this standard sufficiently could be considered ‘cognitive’. For post-cognitivist psychology the situation is different. It cannot rely on the ‘human standard’ in the same way. One might even say that the need for a post-cognitivist psychology arose (...)
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  • Representations at Work.Martin M. Nielsen - 2003 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 5 (2):69-77.
    This paper argues that “distributed cognition” facilitates a framework for studying aspects of organizations as socio-technical systems. An approach studying tool use and workflows is laid out and utilized in an analysis of information processing at a post office. Finally, some implications are presented – for organizational as well as cognitive studies. Research on performative representations is called for and, consequently, a widening of the cognition-as-computation framework is suggested.
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  • On the Poietic Character of Technology.Federica Russo - 2016 - Humana Mente 9 (30).
    Large part of contemporary science is in fact technoscience, in the sense that it crucially depends on several technologies for the generation, collection, and analysis of data. This prompts a re-examination of the relations between science and technologies. In this essay, I advance the view that we’d better move beyond the ‘subordination view’ and the ‘instrumental’ view. The first aims to establish the primacy of science over technology, and the second uses technology instrumentally to support a realist position about theoretical (...)
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  • Towards a Philosophy of Interdisciplinarity.Jan Schmidt - 2007 - Poiesis and Praxis 5 (1):53-69.
    This paper aims to contribute to the expanding discourse on inter- and transdisciplinarity. Referring to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, the paper argues in favor of a plurality of four different dimensions: Interdisciplinarity with regard to objects, knowledge/theories, methods/practices, and further, problem perception/problem solving. Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. The philosophical framework of the four different dimensions will be illustrated by some of the most popular examples of research programs that are labeled interdisciplinary (...)
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  • Beyond the Scientific Method: Model‐Based Inquiry as a New Paradigm of Preference for School Science Investigations.Mark Windschitl, Jessica Thompson & Melissa Braaten - 2008 - Science Education 92 (5):941-967.
  • Distributed Cognition in Scientific Contexts.Hyundeuk Cheon - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):23-33.
    Even though it has been argued that scientific cognition is distributed, there is no consensus on the exact nature of distributed cognition. This paper aims to characterize distributed cognition as appropriate for philosophical studies of science. I first classify competing characterizations into three types: the property approach, the task approach, and the system approach. It turns out that the property approach and the task approach are subject to criticism. I then argue that the most preferable way to understand distributed cognition (...)
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  • Modelling Experiments as Mediating Models.D. C. Gooding & T. R. Addis - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):17-35.
    Syntactic and structural models specify relationships between their constituents but cannot show what outcomes their interaction would produce over time in the world. Simulation consists in iterating the states of a model, so as to produce behaviour over a period of simulated time. Iteration enables us to trace the implications and outcomes of inference rules and other assumptions implemented in the models that make up a theory. We apply this method to experiments which we treat as models of the particular (...)
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  • Interdisciplinarities in Action: Cognitive Ethnography of Bioengineering Sciences Research Laboratories.Nancy J. Nersessian - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (4):553-581.
    The paper frames interdisciplinary research as creating complex, distributed cognitive-cultural systems. It introduces and elaborates on the method of cognitive ethnography as a primary means for investigating interdisciplinary cognitive and learning practices in situ. The analysis draws from findings of nearly 20 years of investigating such practices in research laboratories in pioneering bioengineering sciences. It examines goals and challenges of two quite different kinds of integrative problem-solving practices: biomedical engineering and integrative systems biology. Practical lessons for facilitating research and learning (...)
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  • Situating Distributed Cognition.Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-16.
    We historically and conceptually situate distributed cognition by drawing attention to important similarities in assumptions and methods with those of American ?functional psychology? as it emerged in contrast and complement to controlled laboratory study of the structural components and primitive ?elements? of consciousness. Functional psychology foregrounded the adaptive features of cognitive processes in environments, and adopted as a unit of analysis the overall situation of organism and environment. A methodological implication of this emphasis was, to the extent possible, the study (...)
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  • Friends at Last? Distributed Cognition and the Cognitive/Social Divide.Adam Toon - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-14.
    Distributed cognition (d-cog) claims that many cognitive processes are distributed across groups and the surrounding material and cultural environment. Recently, Nancy Nersessian, Ronald Giere, and others have suggested that a d-cog approach might allow us to bring together cognitive and social theories of science. I explore this idea by focusing on the specific interpretation of d-cog found in Edwin Hutchins' canonical text Cognition in the wild. First, I examine the scope of a d-cog approach to science, showing that there are (...)
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  • A Taxonomy of Cognitive Artifacts: Function, Information, and Categories.Richard Heersmink - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):465-481.
    The goal of this paper is to develop a systematic taxonomy of cognitive artifacts, i.e., human-made, physical objects that functionally contribute to performing a cognitive task. First, I identify the target domain by conceptualizing the category of cognitive artifacts as a functional kind: a kind of artifact that is defined purely by its function. Next, on the basis of their informational properties, I develop a set of related subcategories in which cognitive artifacts with similar properties can be grouped. In this (...)
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  • The Cognitive Integration of Scientific Instruments: Information, Situated Cognition, and Scientific Practice.Richard Heersmink - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):1-21.
    Researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences, particularly those working in laboratories, use a variety of artifacts to help them perform their cognitive tasks. This paper analyses the relationship between researchers and cognitive artifacts in terms of integration. It first distinguishes different categories of cognitive artifacts used in biological practice on the basis of their informational properties. This results in a novel classification of scientific instruments, conducive to an analysis of the cognitive interactions between researchers and artifacts. It then uses (...)
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  • Distributed Cognition and the Task of Science.P. D. Magnus - 2007 - Social Studies of Science 37 (2):297--310.
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  • Understanding Scientific Methodology in the Historical and Experimental Sciences Via Language Analysis.Jeff Dodick, Shlomo Argamon & Paul Chase - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (8):985-1004.
  • Joint Acceptance and Scientific Change: A Case Study.Hanne Andersen - 2010 - Episteme 7 (3):248-265.
    Recently, several scholars have argued that scientists can accept scientific claims in a collective process, and that the capacity of scientific groups to form joint acceptances is linked to a functional division of labor between the group members. However, these accounts reveal little about how the cognitive content of the jointly accepted claim is formed, and how group members depend on each other in this process. In this paper, I shall therefore argue that we need to link analyses of joint (...)
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