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  1. Abstract Considerations: Disciplines and the Incoherence of Newton’s Natural Philosophy.Rob Iliffe - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (3):427-454.
    Historians have long sought putative connections between different areas of Newton’s scientific work, while recently scholars have argued that there were causal links between even more disparate fields of his intellectual activity. In this paper I take an opposite approach, and attempt to account for certain tensions in Newton’s ‘scientific’ work by examining his great sensitivity to the disciplinary divisions that both conditioned and facilitated his early investigations in science and mathematics. These momentous undertakings, exemplified by research that he wrote (...)
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  • Einstein, the Reality of Space, and the Action-Reaction Principle.Dennis Lehmkuhl, P. Ghose & Harvey Brown - unknown
    Einstein regarded as one of the triumphs of his 1915 theory of gravity - the general theory of relativity - that it vindicated the action-reaction principle, while Newtonian mechanics as well as his 1905 special theory of relativity supposedly violated it. In this paper we examine why Einstein came to emphasise this position several years after the development of general relativity. Several key considerations are relevant to the story: the connection Einstein originally saw between Mach's analysis of inertia and both (...)
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  • The Computable Universe: From Prespace Metaphysics to Discrete Quantum Mechanics.Martin Leckey - 1997 - Dissertation, Monash University
    The central motivating idea behind the development of this work is the concept of prespace, a hypothetical structure that is postulated by some physicists to underlie the fabric of space or space-time. I consider how such a structure could relate to space and space-time, and the rest of reality as we know it, and the implications of the existence of this structure for quantum theory. Understanding how this structure could relate to space and to the rest of reality requires, I (...)
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  • Novedad empírica y creación de conceptos.Roberto Torretti - 2016 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 8:269.
    Debido a la historicidad de la razón, más que inventariar sus principales conceptos en un momento dado nos interesa estudiar el proceso de su formación y fijación. En este artículo se ilustra ese proceso con ejemplos tomados de la historia de la física. El primer ejemplo concierne a la subordinación en el siglo XVII de los fenómenos archiconocidos de la caída libre y el movimiento de los planetas a un concepto nuevo; los restantes, tomados de la electrodinámica del siglo XIX (...)
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  • The Universities and the Scientific Revolution: The Case of Newton and Restoration Cambridge.John Gascoigne - 1985 - History of Science 23 (4):391-434.
  • Gravity’s Cause and Substance Counting: Contextualizing the Problems.Hylarie Kochiras - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):167-184.
    This paper considers Newton’s position on gravity’s cause, both conceptually and historically. With respect to the historical question, I argue that while Newton entertained various hypotheses about gravity’s cause, he never endorsed any of them, and in particular, his lack of confidence in the hypothesis of robust and unmediated distant action by matter is explained by an inclination toward certain metaphysical principles. The conceptual problem about gravity’s cause, which I identified earlier along with a deeper problem about individuating substances, is (...)
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  • Pendulums, Pedagogy, and Matter: Lessons From the Editing of Newton's Principia.Zvi Biener & Chris Smeenk - 2004 - Science & Education 13 (4-5):309-320.
    Teaching Newtonian physics involves the replacement of students’ ideas about physical situations with precise concepts appropriate for mathematical applications. This paper focuses on the concepts of ‘matter’ and ‘mass’. We suggest that students, like some pre-Newtonian scientists we examine, use these terms in a way that conflicts with their Newtonian meaning. Specifically, ‘matter’ and ‘mass’ indicate to them the sorts of things that are tangible, bulky, and take up space. In Newtonian mechanics, however, the terms are defined by Newton’s Second (...)
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  • Newton's Principia.Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser - 2014 - In Jed Z. Buchwald & R. Fox (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 109-165.
    The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics brings together cutting-edge writing by more than twenty leading authorities on the history of physics from the seventeenth century to the present day. By presenting a wide diversity of studies in a single volume, it provides authoritative introductions to scholarly contributions that have tended to be dispersed in journals and books not easily accessible to the general reader. While the core thread remains the theories and experimental practices of physics, the Handbook contains (...)
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  • Newton's Regulae Philosophandi.Zvi Biener - 2018 - In Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Isaac Newton. Oxford University Press.
    Newton’s Regulae philosophandi—the rules for reasoning in natural philosophy—are maxims of causal reasoning and induction. This essay reviews their significance for Newton’s method of inquiry, as well as their application to particular propositions within the Principia. Two main claims emerge. First, the rules are not only interrelated, they defend various facets of the same core idea: that nature is simple and orderly by divine decree, and that, consequently, human beings can be justified in inferring universal causes from limited phenomena, if (...)
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  • Isaac Newton (1642–1727).Zvi Biener - 2017 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Isaac Newton is best known as a mathematician and physicist. He invented the calculus, discovered universal gravitation and made significant advances in theoretical and experimental optics. His master-work on gravitation, the Principia, is often hailed as the crowning achievement of the scientific revolution. His significance for philosophers, however, extends beyond the philosophical implications of his scientific discoveries. Newton was an able and subtle philosopher, working at a time when science was not yet recognized as an activity distinct from philosophy. He (...)
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  • Putting the Ghost Back in the Machine: An Exploration of Somatic Dualism.Matthew Davidson - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
    In this paper, I explore various views on which mind-body dualism is true, but the soul is located in the body. I argue that this sort of dualism (which I call 'somatic dualism') once was a not-uncommon view in the philosophy of mind. I also argue that it has the resources to reply to some of the problems thought to affect Cartesian dualism.
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  • The Definition of Mach’s Principle.Julian Barbour - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1263-1284.
    Two definitions of Mach’s principle are proposed. Both are related to gauge theory, are universal in scope and amount to formulations of causality that take into account the relational nature of position, time, and size. One of them leads directly to general relativity and may have relevance to the problem of creating a quantum theory of gravity.
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  • Interpreting Heisenberg Interpreting Quantum States.Simon Friederich - 2012 - Philosophia Naturalis 50 (1):85-114.
    The paper investigates possible readings of the later Heisenberg's remarks on the nature of quantum states. It discusses, in particular, whether Heisenberg should be seen as a proponent of the epistemic conception of states – the view that quantum states are not descriptions of quantum systems but rather reflect the state assigning observers' epistemic relations to these systems. On the one hand, it seems plausible that Heisenberg subscribes to that view, given how he defends the notorious "collapse of the wave (...)
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  • Space-Time Physics and the Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]Roberto Torretti - 1984 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (3):280-292.
  • Newton, Hermes and Berkeley.M. Hughes - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1):1-19.
  • The Lessons of the Hole Argument.Robert Rynasiewicz - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):407-436.
  • Why the Parts of Absolute Space Are Immobile.Nick Huggett - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):391-407.
    Newton's arguments for the immobility of the parts of absolute space have been claimed to licence several proposals concerning his metaphysics. This paper clarifies Newton, first distinguishing two distinct arguments. Then, it demonstrates, contrary to Nerlich ([2005]), that Newton does not appeal to the identity of indiscernibles, but rather to a view about de re representation. Additionally, DiSalle ([1994]) claims that one argument shows Newton to be an anti-substantivalist. I agree that its premises imply a denial of a kind of (...)
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  • Conditions of Rationality for Scientific Research.Paul Weingartner - 2019 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):67-118.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss conditions of rationality for scientific research (SR) where “conditions” are understood as “necessary conditions”. This will be done in the following way: First, I shall deal with the aim of SR since conditions of rationality (for SR) are to be understood as necessary means for reaching the aim (goal) of SR. Subsequently, the following necessary conditions will be discussed: Rational Communication, Methodological Rules, Ideals of Rationality and its Realistic Aspects, Methodological and Ontological (...)
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  • La metodología de Newton y la demonstración de la realidad de la fuerza.Sebastián Molina Betancur - 2014 - Estudios de Filosofía 50:131-154.
    Algunos especialistas de Newton han sostenido que la metodología con la que éste demuestra la existencia de la fuerza se fundamenta en el tratamiento matemático de los fenómenos del movimiento, lo que se ha convertido en la lectura clásica del asunto. No obstante, esta interpretación presenta amplias limitaciones si se examina a la luz de la lectura que intérpretes como Guicciardini y Guerlac proponen. Este artículo muestra las limitaciones de la lectura clásica a la luz de esta lectura más reciente, (...)
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  • Kant’s Dynamical Theory of Matter in 1755, and its Debt to Speculative Newtonian Experimentalism.Michela Massimi - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):525-543.
    This paper explores the scientific sources behind Kant’s early dynamic theory of matter in 1755, with a focus on two main Kant’s writings: Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens and On Fire. The year 1755 has often been portrayed by Kantian scholars as a turning point in the intellectual career of the young Kant, with his much debated conversion to Newton. Via a careful analysis of some salient themes in the two aforementioned works, and a reconstruction of the (...)
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  • The Increasing Corruption of Newton's Diagrams.Johannes A. Lohne - 1967 - History of Science 6 (1):69-89.
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  • Aristotle’s Notion of ‘Place’ in the Context of Present-Day Physics.Elena Mamchur - 2016 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 30 (4):319-326.
    The article deals with Aristotle’s conception of ‘place’, which is of cruсial importance for his theory of motion. It is shown that in the physics of Aristotle there is no concept of spасe; instead, there is the notion of ‘place’ of a body. Aristotle considered ‘place’ as the first boundary of a body embracing the body in question. The author shows the incommensurability between the spatial ideas of the Stagirite and the similar ideas of Newtonian physics. The article states that (...)
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  • Can Science Advance Effectively Through Philosophical Criticism and Reflection?Roberto Torretti - unknown
    Prompted by Hasok Chang’s conception of the history and philosophy of science (HPS) as the continuation of science by other means, I examine the possibility of obtaining scientific knowledge through philosophical criticism and reflection, in the light of four historical cases, concerning (i) the role of absolute space in Newtonian dynamics, (ii) the purported contraction of rods and retardation of clocks in Special Relativity, (iii) the reality of the electromagnetic ether, and (iv) the so-called problem of time’s arrow. In all (...)
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  • Getting Rid of the Ether. Could Physics Have Achieved It Sooner, with Better Assistance From Philosophy?Roberto Torretti - 2009 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 22 (3):353-374.
    The history of the luminiferous ether is sketched with a view to ascertaining what factors may have kept this idea alive until 1905, when Einstein declared it superfluous.
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  • Seventh Quadrennial Fellows Conference of the Center for Philosophy of Science.-Preprint Volume- - unknown
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  • Horwich On The Leibnizian Ratio Against Absolute Space And Motion.Fernando Birman - 2011 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 7 (1):11-24.
  • Newton on Matter and Space in De Gravitatione Et Aequipondio Fluidorum.H. Kochiras - unknown
    This is a preprinted excerpt from: Kochiras, “By ye Divine Arm: God and Substance in De gravitatione”, Religious Studies (Sept. 2013), 49(3): 327-356 (available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/religious-studies/article/by-ye-divine-arm-god-and-substance -in-de-gravitatione/08D21B2C2611624FA11A0D6B115849AD ). In this preprinted excerpt, I explicate the concepts of matter and space that Newton develops in De gravitatione. As I interpret Newton’s account of created substances, bodies are constructed from qualities alone, as configured by God. Although regions of space and then “determined quantities of extension” appear to replace the Aristotelian substrate by functioning (...)
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  • Absolute, True and Mathematical Time in Newton’s Principia.Katherine Brading - unknown
    I discuss the three distinctions “absolute and relative”, “true and apparent”, and “mathematical and common”, for the specific case of time in Newton’s Principia. I argue that all three distinctions are needed for the project of the Principia and can be understood within the context of that project without appeal to Newton’s wider metaphysical and theological commitments. I argue that, within the context of the Principia, the three claims that time is absolute rather than relative, true rather than apparent, and (...)
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  • The Methodological Origins of Newton’s Queries.Peter R. Anstey - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (2):247-269.
    This paper analyses the different ways in which Isaac Newton employed queries in his writings on natural philosophy. It is argued that queries were used in three different ways by Newton and that each of these uses is best understood against the background of the role that queries played in the Baconian method that was adopted by the leading experimenters of the early Royal Society. After a discussion of the role of queries in Francis Bacon’s natural historical method, Newton’s queries (...)
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  • Newton's Principia From a Logical Point of View'.Toshio Ishigaki - 1994 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 8 (4):221-36.
  • By Ye Divine Arm: God and Substance in De Gravitatione.Hylarie Kochiras - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (3):327-356.
    This article interprets Newton's De gravitatione as presenting a reductive account of substance, on which divine and created substances are identified with their characteristic attributes, which are present in space. God is identical to the divine power to create, and mind to its characteristic power. Even bodies lack parts outside parts, for they are not constructed from regions of actual space, as some commentators suppose, but rather consist in powers alone, maintained in certain configurations by the divine will. This interpretation (...)
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  • Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century.S. Schaffer - 1983 - History of Science 21 (1):1-43.
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  • The Reception of Newton's Theory of Cometary Tail Formation.Tofigh Heidarzadeh - 2006 - Centaurus 48 (1):50-65.
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  • Gravity’s Cause and Substance Counting: Contextualizing the Problems.Hylarie Kochiras - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):167-184.
    This paper considers Newton’s position on gravity’s cause, both conceptually and historically. With respect to the historical question, I argue that while Newton entertained various hypotheses about gravity’s cause, he never endorsed any of them, and in particular, his lack of confidence in the hypothesis of robust and unmediated distant action by matter is explained by an inclination toward certain metaphysical principles. The conceptual problem about gravity’s cause, which I identified earlier along with a deeper problem about individuating substances, is (...)
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  • Newton and Descartes: Theology and Natural Philosophy.Andrew Janiak - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):414-435.
    Scholars have long recognized that Newton regarded Descartes as his principal philosophical interlocutor when composing the first edition of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687. The arguments in the Scholium on space and time, for instance, can profitably be interpreted as focusing on the conception of space and motion in part two of Descartes's Principles of Philosophy (1644). What is less well known, however, is that this Cartesian conception, along with Descartes's attempt to avoid Galileo's fate in 1633, serves as (...)
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  • The Disenchanted World and Beyond: Toward an Ecological Perspective on Science.Michael Ben-Chaim - 1998 - History of the Human Sciences 11 (1):101-127.
    Positivism and, especially, Max Weber's vision of the modern disen chantment of the world are incoherent because they separate human culture from the environment in which human agents pursue their life- projects. The same problem is manifested, more blatantly, in current social studies of science, which take the project of disenchantment further by disenchanting science itself. A different image of science is traced to classical empiricism, whose paradigm of learning is belief and, more specifically, the practical nature of the believer's (...)
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  • Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy in Descartes and Newton.Andrew Janiak - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):403-417.
    This paper compares Newton’s and Descartes’s conceptions of the complex relationship between physics and metaphysics.
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  • Deduction Versus Discourse: Newton and the Cosmic Phenomena. [REVIEW]Pierre Kerszberg - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):529-544.
    Deduction Versus Discourse: Newton and the Cosmic Phenomena Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-16 DOI 10.1007/s10699-011-9283-2 Authors Pierre Kerszberg, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France Journal Foundations of Science Online ISSN 1572-8471 Print ISSN 1233-1821.
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  • Kant on Newton, Genius, and Scientific Discovery.Bryan Hall - 2014 - Intellectual History Review 24 (4):539-556.
  • Newton and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gravitation as the Balance of the Heavens.Peter Machamer, J. E. Mcguire & Hylarie Kochiras - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):370-388.
    We argue that Isaac Newton really is best understood as being in the tradition of the Mechanical Philosophy and, further, that Newton saw himself as being in this tradition. But the tradition as Newton understands it is not that of Robert Boyle and many others, for whom the Mechanical Philosophy was defined by contact action and a corpuscularean theory of matter. Instead, as we argue in this paper, Newton interpreted and extended the Mechanical Philosophy's slogan “matter and motion” in reference (...)
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