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  1. Measuring Strategic Control in Implicit Learning: How and Why?Elisabeth Norman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Implicit Sequence Learning and Conscious Awareness.Qiufang Fu, Xiaolan Fu & Zoltán Dienes - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):185-202.
    This paper uses the Process Dissociation Procedure to explore whether people can acquire unconscious knowledge in the serial reaction time task [Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. . Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350; Wilkinson, L., & Shanks, D. R. . Intentional control and implicit sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 354–369]. Experiment 1 showed that people generated legal sequences above baseline levels under exclusion (...)
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  • Decomposing Intuitive Components in a Conceptual Problem Solving Task☆.Rolf Reber, Marie-Antoinette Ruch-Monachon & Walter J. Perrig - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):294-309.
    Research into intuitive problem solving has shown that objective closeness of participants’ hypotheses were closer to the accurate solution than their subjective ratings of closeness. After separating conceptually intuitive problem solving from the solutions of rational incremental tasks and of sudden insight tasks, we replicated this finding by using more precise measures in a conceptual problem-solving task. In a second study, we distinguished performance level, processing style, implicit knowledge and subjective feeling of closeness to the solution within the problem-solving task (...)
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  • Can Unconscious Knowledge Allow Control in Sequence Learning?Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):462-474.
    This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...)
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  • Distorted Estimates of Implicit and Explicit Learning in Applications of the Process-Dissociation Procedure to the SRT Task.Christoph Stahl, Marius Barth & Hilde Haider - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 37:27-43.
  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious.Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
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  • Implicit Learning of Sequential Bias in a Guessing Task: Failure to Demonstrate Effects of Dopamine Administration and Paranormal Belief☆.John Palmer, Christine Mohr, Peter Krummenacher & Peter Brugger - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):498-506.
    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets on trial t tended to be displaced 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise from those on t − 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias and counter-bias (...)
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  • Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry.Xiaoli Ling, Fengying Li, Fuqiang Qiao, Xiuyan Guo & Zoltan Dienes - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Trusting Your Gut, Among Other Things: Digestive Enzyme Secretion, Intuition, and the History of Science. [REVIEW]Lois Isenman - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (4):315-329.
    The role of intuition in scientific endeavor is examined through the lens of three philosophers/historians of science—Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, and Gerald Holton. All three attribute an important role to imagination/intuition in scientific endeavor. As a case study, the article examines the controversy between the generally accepted Vesicular Sequestration/Exocytosis Model of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion and an alternative view called the Equilibrium Model. It highlights the intertwining of intuition and reason in the genesis of the Equilibrium Model developed in response (...)
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  • Learning Without Consciously Knowing: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in Sequence Learning.Qiufang Fu, Guangyu Bin, Zoltan Dienes, Xiaolan Fu & Xiaorong Gao - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):22-34.
    This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited (...)
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  • Gradations of Awareness in a Modified Sequence Learning Task.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price, Simon C. Duff & Rune A. Mentzoni - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):809-837.
    We argue performance in the serial reaction time task is associated with gradations of awareness that provide examples of fringe consciousness [Mangan, B. . Taking phenomenology seriously: the “fringe” and its implications for cognitive research. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 89–108, Mangan, B. . The conscious “fringe”: Bringing William James up to date. In B. J. Baars, W. P. Banks & J. B. Newman , Essential sources in the scientific study of consciousness . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.], and address limitations (...)
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  • Measuring Strategic Control in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Emma Jones - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1920-1929.
    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning , we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars , or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. (...)
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  • Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning.Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
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  • Mindfulness Reduces Habitual Responding Based on Implicit Knowledge: Evidence From Artificial Grammar Learning.Stephen Whitmarsh, Julia Uddén, Henk Barendregt & Karl Magnus Petersson - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):833-845.
    Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to correlate negatively (...)
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  • An Externalist Approach to Creativity: Discovery Versus Recombination.Andrea Lavazza & Riccardo Manzotti - 2013 - Mind and Society 12 (1):61-72.
    What is the goal of creativity? Is it just a symbolic reshuffling or a moment of semantic extension? Similar to the contrast between syntax and semantics, creativity has an internal and an external aspect. Contrary to the widespread view that emphasises the problem-solving role of creativity, here we consider whether creativity represents an authentic moment of ontological discovery and semantic openness like Schopenhauer and Picasso suggested. To address the semantic aspect of creativity, we take advantage of recent externalist models of (...)
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  • Digestive Enzyme Secretion, Intuition, and the History of Science: Part II. [REVIEW]Lois Isenman - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (4):331-349.
    A companion paper explored the role of intuition in the genesis of an alternative theory for the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, looking through the lens of three philosophers/historians of science. Gerald Holton, the last scholar, proposed that scientific imagination is shaped by a number of thematic presuppositions, which function largely below awareness. They come in pairs of opposites that alternately gain cultural preeminence. The current paper examines three thematic presuppositions inherent to both the generally accepted model for digestive enzyme (...)
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