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Inward Bound: Of Matter and Forces in the Physical World

Oxford University Press (1986)

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  1. Why Quantum Correlates of Consciousness Are Fine, but Not Enough.Ruediger Vaas - 2001 - Informacao E Cognicao 3 (1):64-107.
    The existence of quantum correlates of consciousness (QCC) is doubtful from a scientific perspective. But even if their existence were verified, philosophical problems would remain. On the other hand, there could be more to QCC than meets the sceptic's eye: • QCC might be useful or even necessary for a better understanding of conscious experience or quantum physics or both. The main reasons for this are: the measurement problem (the nature of observation, the mysterious collapse of the wave function, etc.), (...)
     
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  • Empirical Adequacy and the Availability of Reliable Records in Quantum Mechanics.Jeffrey A. Barrett - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (1):49-64.
    In order to judge whether a theory is empirically adequate one must have epistemic access to reliable records of past measurement results that can be compared against the predictions of the theory. Some formulations of quantum mechanics fail to satisfy this condition. The standard theory without the collapse postulate is an example. Bell's reading of Everett's relative-state formulation is another. Furthermore, there are formulations of quantum mechanics that only satisfy this condition for a special class of observers, formulations whose empirical (...)
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  • Calling Science Pseudoscience: Fleck's Archaeologies of Fact and Latour's ‘Biography of an Investigation’ in AIDS Denialism and Homeopathy.Babette Babich - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (1):1-39.
    Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact foregrounds claims traditionally excluded from reception, often regarded as opposed to fact, scientific claims that are increasingly seldom discussed in connection with philosophy of science save as examples of pseudoscience. I am especially concerned with scientists who question the epidemiological link between HIV and AIDS and who are thereby discounted—no matter their credentials, no matter the cogency of their arguments, no matter the sobriety of their statistics—but also with other classic examples of (...)
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  • Models and Stories in Hadron Physics.Stephan Hartmann - 1999 - In Margaret Morrison & Mary Morgan (eds.), Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science. pp. 52--326.
    Fundamental theories are hard to come by. But even if we had them, they would be too complicated to apply. Quantum chromodynamics is a case in point. This theory is supposed to govern all strong interactions, but it is extremely hard to apply and test at energies where protons, neutrons and ions are the effective degrees of freedom. Instead, scientists typically use highly idealized models such as the MIT Bag Model or the Nambu Jona-Lasinio Model to account for phenomena in (...)
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  • What is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks.J. S. Alper, M. Bridger, J. Earman & J. D. Norton - 2000 - Synthese 124 (2):281-293.
    Supertasks recently discussed in the literature purport to display a failure ofenergy conservation and determinism in Newtonian mechanics. We debatewhether these supertasks are admissible as Newtonian systems, with Earmanand Norton defending the affirmative and Alper and Bridger the negative.
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  • A Case for an Empirically Demonstrable Notion of the Vacuum in Quantum Electrodynamics Independent of Dynamical Fluctuations.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):241-261.
    A re-evaluation of the notion of vacuum in quantum electrodynamics is presented, focusing on the vacuum of the quantized electromagnetic field. In contrast to the ‘nothingness’ associated to the idea of classical vacuum, subtle aspects are found in relation to the vacuum of the quantized electromagnetic field both at theoretical and experimental levels. These are not the usually called vacuum effects. The view defended here is that the so-called vacuum effects are not due to the ground state of the quantized (...)
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  • Hypothetical, Not Fictional Worlds.Friedel Weinert - 2016 - Kairos 17 (1):110-136.
    This paper critically analyzes the fiction-view of scientific modeling, which exploits presumed analogies between literary fiction and model building in science. The basic idea is that in both fiction and scientific modeling fictional worlds are created. The paper argues that the fiction-view comes closest to certain scientific thought experiments, especially those involving demons in science and to literary movements like naturalism. But the paper concludes that the dissimilarities prevail over the similarities. The fiction-view fails to do justice to the plurality (...)
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  • Models and the Semantic View.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):524-535.
    I begin by distinguishing two notions of model, the notion of a truth-making structure and the notion of a mathematical model (in one specific sense). I then argue that although the models of the semantic view have often been taken to be both truth-making structures and mathematical models, this is in part due to a failure to distinguish between two ways of truth-making; in fact, the talk of truth-making is best excised from the view altogether. The result is a version (...)
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  • Demarkationsproblemet: Faldgruber og Muligheder.Jens Hebor - 2009 - Res Cogitans 6 (1).
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  • Alternative Explanations of the Cosmic Microwave Background: A Historical and an Epistemological Perspective.Milan M. Ćirković & Slobodan Perović - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 62:1-18.
    We historically trace various non-conventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it. It turns out that there have been many such unorthodox interpretations; not only those developed in the context of theories rejecting the relativistic paradigm entirely but also those coming from the camp of original thinkers firmly entrenched in the relativistic milieu. In fact, the orthodox (...)
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  • Idealization in Quantum Field Theory.Stephan Hartmann - 1998 - In Niall Shanks (ed.), Idealization in Contemporary Physics. pp. 99-122.
    This paper explores various functions of idealizations in quantum field theory. To this end it is important to first distinguish between different kinds of theories and models of or inspired by quantum field theory. Idealizations have pragmatic and cognitive functions. Analyzing a case-study from hadron physics, I demonstrate the virtues of studying highly idealized models for exploring the features of theories with an extremely rich structure such as quantum field theory and for gaining some understanding of the physical processes in (...)
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  • Distant Action in Classical Electromagnetic Theory.Brent Mundy - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (1):39-68.
    The standard mathematical apparatus of classical electromagnetic theory in Minkowski space-time allows an interpretation in terms of retarded distant action, as well as the standard field interpretation. This interpretation is here presented and defended as a scientifically significant alternative to the field theory, casting doubt upon the common view that classical electromagnetic theory provides scientific support for the physical existence of fields as fundamental entities. The various types of consideration normally thought to provide evidence for the existence of the electromagnetic (...)
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  • The Dirac Equation as a Path to the Concept of Quanta, and its Role in Quantum Electrodynamics.Mario Bacelar Valente - unknown
    In this article the Dirac equation is used a guideline to see the historical emergence of the concept of quanta, associated with the quantum field. In P. Jordan’s approach, the electron as quanta results from the quantization of a classical field described by the Dirac equation. The concept of quanta becomes a central piece in the applications of the theory and is seen as fundamental in the intelegibility of the interaction between fields, being the Fock space the natural mathematical structure (...)
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  • History and Physics.Roger H. Stuewer - 1998 - Science & Education 7 (1):13-30.
  • Metaphysik im “Handumdrehen” – Kant und Earman, Parität und moderne Raumauffassung.Holger Lyre - 2005 - Philosophia Naturalis 42 (1):49-76.
    In 1768 Immanuel Kant presented an argument showing the necessity of absolute space, i.e. substantivalism in contrast to relationalism, based on the property of handedness. While there is large consensus about the fallacy of Kant’s argument, a more recent debate exists – mainly stimulated by John Earman – about the status of the Kantian argument in view of modern physics and its fundamentally built-in parity violation, which leads to a preferred handedness. According to Earman the relationalist has no means to (...)
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  • A Tale of Two Vectors.Marc Lange - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):397-431.
    Why do forces compose according to the parallelogram of forces? This question has been controversial; it is one episode in a longstanding, fundamental dispute regarding which facts are not to be explained dynamically. If the parallelogram law is explained statically, then the laws of statics are separate from and “transcend” the laws of dynamics. Alternatively, if the parallelogram law is explained dynamically, then statical laws become mere corollaries to the dynamical laws. I shall attempt to trace the history of this (...)
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  • Pascual Jordan's Resolution of the Conundrum of the Wave-Particle Duality of Light.Anthony Duncan & Michel Janssen - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (3):634-666.
    In 1909, Einstein derived a formula for the mean square energy fluctuation in blackbody radiation. This formula is the sum of a wave term and a particle term. In a key contribution to the 1926 Dreim¨.
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  • Essay Review: P. L. Rose, Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project: A Study in German Culture. [REVIEW]Nicolaas P. Landsman - unknown
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  • La invención del neutrino: un análisis epistemológico.Alejandro Cassini - 2012 - Scientiae Studia 10 (1):11-39.
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  • Historical Magic in Old Quantum Theory?Peter Vickers - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (1):1-19.
    Two successes of old quantum theory are particularly notable: Bohr’s prediction of the spectral lines of ionised helium, and Sommerfeld’s prediction of the fine-structure of the hydrogen spectral lines. Many scientific realists would like to be able to explain these successes in terms of the truth or approximate truth of the assumptions which fuelled the relevant derivations. In this paper I argue that this will be difficult for the ionised helium success, and is almost certainly impossible for the fine-structure success. (...)
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  • Conceptual Problems in Quantum Electrodynamics: A Contemporary Historical-Philosophical Approach.Mario Bacelar Valente - unknown
    PhD dissertation addressing what can be called conceptual-mathematical anomalies in quantum electrodynamics. This work can be seen as following the line of philosophy of physics studies of quantum field theory that started to emerge in a systematic way in the early eighties of last century. One example is Teller’s work on standard quantum electrodynamics.In this work, by following a historical approach, I will return to the standard version of quantum electrodynamics, which is the only one available when we want to (...)
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  • Would "Direct Realism" Resolve the Classical Problem of Induction?Marc Lange - 2004 - Noûs 38 (2):197–232.
  • Are Virtual Quanta Nothing but Formal Tools?Mario Bacelar Valente - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):39 - 53.
    The received view in philosophical studies of quantum field theory is that Feynman diagrams are simply calculational devices. Alongside this view we have the one that takes virtual quanta to be also simply formal tools. This received view was developed and consolidated in philosophy of physics by Mario Bunge, Paul Teller, Michael Redhead, Robert Weingard, Brigitte Falkenburg, and others. In this article I present an alternative to the received view.
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  • Using Logic to Define the Aufbau–Hund–Pauli Relation: A Guide to Teaching Orbitals as a Single, Natural, Unfragmented Rule-Set. [REVIEW]Conal Boyce - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):93-106.
    The general chemistry curriculum includes a prelude that consumes nearly all of the first semester and occupies the first third of the typical textbook. This necessary prelude to the main event is comparable in scope to precalculus though not broken out as a formal ‘prechemistry’ course. Atomic orbitals account for much of this prelude-to-chemistry. By tradition, orbital theory is conveyed to the student in three disjunct pieces, presented in the following illogical order: the Pauli principle, the Aufbau principle, and Hund’s (...)
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  • Fundamental Physics.Wolfgang Kundt - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (9):1317-1369.
    A survey is given of the elegant physics of N-particle systems, both classical and quantal, non-relativistic (NR) and relativistic, non-gravitational (SR) and gravitational (GR). Chapter 1 deals exclusively with NR systems; the correspondence between classical and quantal systems is highlighted and summarized in two tables of Sec. 1.3. Chapter 2 generalizes Chapter 1 to the relativistic regime, including Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. Chapter 3 follows Einstein in allowing gravity to curve the spacetime arena; its Sec. 3.2 is devoted to the (...)
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  • Some Naturalistic Reflections on Set Theoretic Method.Penelope J. Maddy - 2001 - Topoi 20 (1):17-27.
    My ultimate goal in this paper is to illuminate, from a naturalistic point of view, the significance of the application of mathematics in the natural sciences for the practice of contemporary set theory.
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  • Introduction.Jeffrey A. Barrett - 1995 - Topoi 14 (1):1-6.
  • Data and Phenomena.Jim Woodward - 1989 - Synthese 79 (3):393 - 472.
  • Projection, Symmetry, and Natural Kinds.Benjamin C. Jantzen - 2015 - Synthese 192 (11):3617-3646.
    Scientific practice involves two kinds of induction. In one, generalizations are drawn about the states of a particular system of variables. In the other, generalizations are drawn across systems in a class. We can discern two questions of correctness about both kinds of induction: what distinguishes those systems and classes of system that are ‘projectible’ in Goodman’s sense from those that are not, and what are the methods by which we are able to identify kinds that are likely to be (...)
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  • Can Superselection Rules Solve the Measurement Problem?Don Robinson - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):79-93.
  • Kitcher's Explanatory Unification, Kaluza-Klein Theories, and the Normative Aspect of Higher Dimensional Unification in Physics.K. Karaca - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (2):287-312.
    I examine the relation between explanation and unification in both the original Kaluza–Klein theory, which originated in the works of Theodor Kaluza and Oskar Klein in the 1920s, and in the modern Kaluza–Klein theories which date back to the late 1970s and which are still considered by the majority of the physics community to be the best hope for a complete unified theory of all fundamental interactions. I use the conclusions of this case study to assess the merits of Philip (...)
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  • When Energy Conservation Seems to Fail: The Prediction of the Neutrino.Francesco Guerra, Matteo Leone & Nadia Robotti - 2014 - Science & Education 23 (6):1339-1359.
  • Patricius' Phenomenological Theory of Tides and its Modern Relativistic Interpretation.Tomislav Petković & Kristian Hengster-Movrić - 2006 - Synthesis Philosophica 21 (2):255-266.
    This paper brings, for the first time, an interesting modern description of the Patricius’ phenomenological theory of tides and its modern relativistic understanding. Famous historians of science are emphasizing Patricius’ treatise on tides, which had been of primary importance for Kepler in his attempts at formulating the universal character of attraction. Patricius had tried to explain the variety of phenomena of tides in various seas as part of his model of the universe . He correctly recognized the Moon and the (...)
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  • Getting Even with Heisenberg.N. P. Landsman - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (2):297-325.
  • Photons and Temporality in Quantum Electrodynamics.Mario Bacelar Valente - unknown
    The lowest order processes described within quantum electrodynamics are free from the problems of infinites in the theory, and can be dealt with disregarding the need for charge and mass renormalization. This might indicate that the space-time description of these processes is not only consistent but also could give a privileged insight to the functioning of models provided by the theory. The Møller scattering is as R. P. Feynman considered, a prototype for the development of his rules of quantum electrodynamics (...)
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  • Spacetime Visualisation and the Intelligibility of Physical Theories.Henk W. de Regt - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (2):243-265.
  • Spacetime Visualisation and the Intelligibility of Physical Theories.Henk W. de Regt - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (2):243-265.
  • Some QED Myths-in-the-Making?Laurie M. Brown - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (1):81-90.
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  • Some QED Myths-in-the-Making?Laurie M. Brown - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (1):81-90.
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  • Einstein y el efecto Compton (Einstein and the Compton Effect).Alejandro Cassini, Leonardo Levinas & Hernán Pringe - 2013 - Scientiae Studia 11 (1):185-209.
    PORTUGUESE: Neste artigo, apresentaremos uma visão particular do desenvolvimento de teorias científicas que denominamos (inspirados em Ortega y Gasset) "perspectivismo". Discutiremos como, através desse enfoque, é possível compatibilizar diversas descrições aparentemente distintas e incompatíveis de uma suposta realidade que se investiga. Fazemos isso distinguindo entre a "realidade" (R) e a "descrição empírica da realidade" (Re). Aceitando que podemos ter diversas descrições empíricas de uma mesma realidade, discutimos o caso particular em que esse esquema é utilizado nos debates atuais acerca da (...)
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  • Niels Bohr's Discussions with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger: The Origins of the Principles of Uncertainty and Complementarity.Jagdish Mehra - 1987 - Foundations of Physics 17 (5):461-506.
    In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger during 1920–1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925–1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory—formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan—Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in (...)
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  • The Essential Tension in Science and Democracy.David Guston - 1993 - Social Epistemology 7 (1):3 – 23.
    Abstract In Democracy in America, de Tocqueville makes two claims about scientific inquiry in democracies: first, that in the abstract there is nothing essential about democracies that prevents them from achieving in science; and second, that in practice democracies will bend science toward practical applications. This paper will examine the nature of the compatibility of science with democracy within a literature roughly called ?liberal social thought?, using de Tocqueville's claims as an organizing principle. In assessing the first claim, the paper (...)
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  • Art, Science, and the Clear Blue Sky.Philip Lawton - 1993 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7 (2):107 – 119.
    Abstract The concepts of consciousness and the unconscious have been problematic for cognitive science. This paper is an attempt to determine if artistic and, especially, scientific creativity, taken as a paradigm of cognitive activity, can be explained without recourse to the concept of the unconscious. It opens with a description of creative experience, guided by the works of Arthur Koestler and Abraham Pais and illustrated by anecdotes from the history of science. It then offers a summary and critique of the (...)
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  • Empirical Testing.Harold I. Brown - 1995 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 38 (4):353 – 399.
    Three major views of the observation?theory relation are now extant: (1) Observation and theory are mutually independent and observation provides the basis for evaluating theories. (2) Observations are theory?dependent and do not provide objective grounds for evaluating theories. (3) The concept of observation should be extended in a way that includes many so?called ?theoretical?entities? among the observables. Analyses of these views set the stage for a new approach that incorporates lessons learned from discussions of earlier accounts. The central idea of (...)
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  • Book Review. [REVIEW]Silvio Bergia - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (8):1099-1101.
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