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  1. When Birds of a Feather Flock Together: The Role of Core-Self Evaluations and Moral Intensity in the Relationship Between Network Unethicality and Unethical Choice.C. Justice Tillman, Anthony C. Hood, Ericka R. Lawrence & K. Michele Kacmar - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (6):458-481.
    Leveraging perspectives from social cognitive theory, the attention-based view, and social networks literatures, we tested the relationship between unethical choice and network unethicality, which we define as respondents’ perceptions of their peer advisors’ unethical choices. Although social cognitive theory predicts that perceptions of peer advisor unethical choice are positively associated with unethical choice, we theorize that the nature of this relationship depends on the personality of the actor and the situation. Results from a lagged study suggest that individual and situational (...)
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  • Common Thread: The Impact of Mission on Ethical Business Culture. A Case Study.Jana L. Craft - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):127-145.
    What is the impact of mission on ethical business culture? This question was analyzed through a qualitative case study of a large nonprofit organization in the human services industry with a solid history of ethical business practices and consistent use of a values-based decision-making model. This research explored ethical decision making, ethical business culture, and congruence between enacted and espoused institutional values. Institutional values were identified, and the following pair of research questions was examined: To what extent were incongruent values (...)
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  • A Cognitive–Intuitionist Model of Moral Judgment.Adenekan Dedeke - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (3):1-21.
    The study of moral decision-making presents to us two approaches for understanding such choices. The cognitive and the neurocognitive approaches postulate that reason and reasoning determines moral judgments. On the other hand, the intuitionist approaches postulate that automated intuitions mostly dominate moral judgments. There is a growing concern that neither of these approaches by itself captures all the key aspects of moral judgments. This paper draws on models from neurocognitive research and social-intuitionist research areas to propose an integrative cognitive–intuitive model (...)
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  • Do You Need a Receipt? Exploring Consumer Participation in Consumption Tax Evasion as an Ethical Dilemma.Barbara Culiberg & Domen Bajde - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):1-12.
    The paper focuses on the consumer side of consumption tax evasion (CTE), a subcategory of the shadow economy. The ethical dimensions of tax evasion have been effectively captured by the existent literature on tax morale, yet it fails to address the role consumers can play in CTE. Further, there is a shortage of tax morale studies that explore ethical decision making as a process composed of multiple steps and determinants. To bridge these gaps, we turned to the consumer ethics literature (...)
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  • Moral Intensity, Issue Importance, and Ethical Reasoning in Operations Situations.Sean Valentine & David Hollingworth - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):509 - 523.
    Previous work suggests that moral intensity and the perceived importance of an ethical issue can influence individual ethical decision making. However, prior research has not explored how the various dimensions of moral intensity might differentially affect PIE, or how moral intensity might function together with (or in the presence of) PIE to influence ethical decision making. In addition, prior work has also not adequately investigated how the operational context of an organization, which may embody conditions or practices that create barriers (...)
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  • Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences.Ethan P. Waples, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Michael D. Mumford & Ryan P. Brown - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263-289.
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the ethical (...)
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  • Environmental Influences on Ethical Decision Making: Climate and Environmental Predictors of Research Integrity.Michael D. Mumford, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ryan P. Brown & Lynn D. Devenport - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (4):337 – 366.
    It is commonly held that early career experiences influence ethical behavior. One way early career experiences might operate is to influence the decisions people make when presented with problems that raise ethical concerns. To test this proposition, 102 first-year doctoral students were asked to complete a series of measures examining ethical decision making along with a series of measures examining environmental experiences and climate perceptions. Factoring of the environmental measure yielded five dimensions: professional leadership, poor coping, lack of rewards, limited (...)
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  • Articles: Validation of Ethical Decision Making Measures: Evidence for a New Set of Measures.Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport, Ryan P. Brown, Shane Connelly, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill & Alison L. Antes - 2006 - Ethics and Behavior 16 (4):319 – 345.
    Ethical decision making measures are widely applied as the principal dependent variable used in studies of research integrity. However, evidence bearing on the internal and external validity of these measures is not available. In this study, ethical decision making measures were administered to 102 graduate students in the biological, health, and social sciences, along with measures examining exposure to ethical breaches and the severity of punishments recommended. The ethical decision making measure was found to be related to exposure to ethical (...)
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  • The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning.Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing a sales-based (...)
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  • The Impact of Perceived Ethical Culture of the Firm and Demographic Variables on Auditors' Ethical Evaluation and Intention to Act Decisions.Breda Sweeney, Don Arnold & Bernard Pierce - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):531 - 551.
    This study examined the impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and selected demographic variables on auditors' ethical evaluation of, and intention to engage in, various time pressure-induced dysfunctional behaviours. Four audit cases and questionnaires were distributed to experienced pre-manager level auditors in Ireland and the U. S. The findings revealed that while perceived unethical pressure to engage in dysfunctional behaviours and unethical tone at the top were significant in forming an ethical evaluation, only perceived unethical pressure had an (...)
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  • A Multidimensional Ethics Scale for Indian Managers' Moral Decision Making.Seema Gupta - unknown
    This paper analyses the role of traditional moral theories in managers’ moral decision making using the multidimensional ethics scale developed and refined by Reidenbach and Robin. This study extends their work by examining the applicability of the scale to subjects from India, other than the country in which the scale was developed. The research question is: what kind of ethical dimensions do Indian managers reveal when they are making moral decisions. Factor analysis is done to investigate the role of five (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375 - 413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996-2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable - awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • The Personal Selling and Sales Management Ethics Research: Managerial Implications and Research Directions From a Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Literature. [REVIEW]Nicholas McClaren - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):101-125.
    Research into ethics in personal selling and sales management has increased substantially over the preceding decade by investigating complex dimensions of ethical decision-making in greater depth and with more analytical sophistication. This review of the recent conceptual and empirical literature provides insight into the extent and the direction of this knowledge, recommends managerial action, and discusses areas for future exploration. Future direction is also provided through research propositions. The type of sales practitioner investigated, the main variables examined, and the key (...)
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  • Managerial Decision-Making on Moral Issues and the Effects of Teaching Ethics.Vidya N. Awasthi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):207-223.
    This study uses judgment and decision-making (JDM) perspective with the help of framing and schema literature from cognitive psychology to evaluate how managers behave when problems with unethical overtones are presented to them in a managerial frame rather than an ethical frame. In the proposed managerial model, moral judgment of the situation is one of the inputs to managerial judgment, among several other inputs regarding costs and benefits of various alternatives. Managerial judgment results in managerial intent leading to managerial action. (...)
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  • Ethical Sensitivity for Organizational Communication Issues: Examining Individual and Organizational Differences.Tammy Swenson-Lepper - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (3):205-231.
    . This descriptive study discusses cognitive mapping as a technique for analyzing ethical sensitivity, examines whether the method allows comparisons between people, compares the ethical sensitivity levels of participants from three organizations, examines which indicators of ethical sensitivity are most salient to members of specific organizations, and examines whether education level or organizational membership is the best predictor of an individual’s ethical sensitivity level. Subjects from three organizations read background information, listened to two audiotaped scenarios containing multiple ethical issues related (...)
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  • The Role of Law in Models of Ethical Behavior.Sandra L. Christensen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (4):451-461.
    In attempting to improve ethical decision-making in business organizations, researchers have developed models of ethical decision-making processes. Most of these models do not include a role for law in ethical decision-making, or if law is mentioned, it is set as a boundary constraint, exogenous to the decision process. However, many decision models in business ethics are based on cognitive moral development theory, in which the law is thought to be the external referent of individuals at the level of cognitive development (...)
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  • The Ethical Decision Making of Men and Women Executives in International Business Situations.Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):125-134.
    While a number of studies have examined the impact of gender/sex on ethical decision-making, the findings of this body of research do not provide consistent answers. Furthermore, very few of these studies have incorporated cross-cultural samples. Consequently, this study of 222 American and Spanish business executives explored sex differences in ethical judgments and intentions to act ethically. While no significant differences between males and females were found with respect to ethical judgments, females exhibited higher intentions to act more ethically than (...)
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  • Positive Job Response and Ethical Job Performance.Sean Valentine, Philip Varca, Lynn Godkin & Tim Barnett - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):195-206.
    Although many studies have linked job attitudes and intentions to aspects of in-role and extra-role job performance, there has been relatively little attention given to such job responses in the context of employees’ ethical/unethical behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between positive job response (conceptualized as job satisfaction and intention to stay) and behavioral ethics. Ninety-two matched manager-employee pairs from a regional branch of a large financial services and banking firm completed survey instruments, with (...)
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  • The Role of Moral Intensity and Moral Philosophy in Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the European Union.Scott J. Vitell & Abhijit Patwardhan - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):196–209.
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  • A Cross-Cultural Study of the Antecedents of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  • Islam and Socially Responsible Business Conduct: An Empirical Study of Dutch Entrepreneurs.Johan Graafland, Corrie Mazereeuw & Aziza Yahia - 2006 - Business Ethics 15 (4):390–406.
  • The Impact of Locus of Control, Moral Intensity, and the Microsocial Ethical Environment on Purchasing-Related Ethical Reasoning.Jocelyn Husser, Jean-Marc Andre & Véronique Lespinet-Najib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (1):243-261.
    This study uses a sample of 242 European professional purchasers to examine the six characteristics of the decision-making process developed by Jones. The illustration mobilizes six original scenarios reproducing typical purchasing situations. Two versions of each scenario were used, one representing low moral intensity and the other showing high moral intensity. Two populations were sampled: one of 120 purchasers responding to the first version of the questionnaire and a second of 122 different purchasers responding to version two. Each version contained (...)
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  • Investigating Moral Ideology, Ethical Beliefs, and Moral Intensity Among Consumers of Pakistan.Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah & Shehla Amjad - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):153-187.
    The purpose of the study is to empirically examine moral ideology, ethical beliefs, and moral intensity in the context of Pakistan. Jones, 366–395, 1991) model and Muncy and Vitell have extensively been investigated and validated in west for examining ethical decision-making process. This study examines and validates these models in a collectivist cultural settings, i.e., Pakistan. A self-administered online survey technique using convenience sampling technique was used to gather data from a sample of 1000 consumers in Pakistan. Final analysis was (...)
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  • Moral Schemas and Business Practices: The Ethics of Guangzhou Migrant Marketers.Alicia S. M. Leung, Xiangyang Liu & Shanshi Liu - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):11 - 23.
    This article explores the ethics of migrant marketers in Guangzhou. Data were collected from 357 migrant marketers who lived in Guangzhou. A model of Ethical Action has been developed to test the antecedents and outcomes of the ethical decision-making process. It measured moral intention using four ethical scenarios. The results show that the egoistic schema had a positive effect on their intention to act unethically, while the legislative schema exerted a negative effect. The results confirm that moral intention was a (...)
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  • The Antecedents of Moral Imagination in the Workplace: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective. [REVIEW]Brian G. Whitaker & Lindsey N. Godwin - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):61-73.
    As corporate scandals proliferate, organizational researchers and practitioners have made calls for research providing guidance for those wishing to influence positive moral decision-making and behavior in the workplace. This study incorporates social cognitive theory and a vignette-based cognitive measure for moral imagination to examine (a) moral attentiveness and employee creativity as important antecedents of moral imagination and (b) creativity as a moderator of the positive relationship between moral attentiveness and moral imagination. Based on the results from supervisor–subordinate dyadic data (N (...)
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  • Design and Validation of a Novel New Instrument for Measuring the Effect of Moral Intensity on Accountants' Propensity to Manage Earnings.Jeanette Ng, Gregory P. White, Alina Lee & Andreas Moneta - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):367 - 387.
    The goal of this study was to construct a valid new instrument to measure the effect of moral intensity on managers' propensity to manage earnings. More specifically, this study is a pilot study of the impact of moral intensity on financial accountants' propensity to manage earnings. The instrument, once validated, will be used in a full-study of managers in the hotel industry. Different ethical scenarios were presented to respondents in the survey; each ethical scenario was designed in both high or (...)
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  • Factors Impacting Ethical Behavior in Hospitals.Satish P. Deshpande, Jacob Joseph & Rashmi Prasad - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (2):207-216.
    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 203 hospital employees in Midwestern and Northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior. Ethical behavior of successful managers, professional education in ethics and sex of the respondents also significantly impacted ethical behavior. Nurses were significantly more ethical than other employees. Race of the respondent did not impact ethical behavior. Overclaiming scales indicated that social desirability bias did not significantly impact the results of our study. (...)
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  • Ethical Context and Ethical Decision Making: Examination of an Alternative Statistical Approach for Identifying Variable Relationships.Sean Valentine, Seong-Hyun Nam, David Hollingworth & Callie Hall - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (3):509-526.
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  • The Moderating Effect of Perceived Organizational Ethical Context on Employees’ Ethical Issue Recognition and Ethical Judgments.David Hollingworth & Sean Valentine - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):457-466.
    When investigating the impact of organizational ethical context on individual ethical decision-making, past work has reported mixed results, with some studies indicating that a strong ethical work environment is associated with increased ethical reasoning, and other studies indicating that such an environment has little to no influence on the way ethical issues are addressed. Given these contradictory findings, we utilize multiple theoretical perspectives to assess the degree to which employees’ perceptions of ethical values, ethical culture, and corporate social responsibility moderate (...)
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  • The Moral of the Story: Re-Framing Ethical Codes of Conduct as Narrative Processes.Matt Statler & David Oliver - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1):89-100.
    This paper re-frames business ethical codes as narrative processes by reflecting critically on key ontological assumptions underpinning the existing research, and introducing new and relevant concepts based on alternative assumptions. The first section draws on recent decision-making research to develop a theoretical account of BCEs as complex, socially embedded sensemaking processes. The second section addresses the content of codes, and differentiates between narrative and logico-scientific modes of reasoning. The third section focuses on the quality of code communication and identifies several (...)
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  • Ethical Consumer Decision‐Making: The Role of Need for Cognition and Affective Responses.Omneya Mokhtar Yacout & Scott Vitell - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (2):178-194.
    Most of the academic research in the field of consumer ethics has focused on the cognitive antecedents and processes of unethical consumer behavior. However, the specific roles of discrete emotions such as fear have not yet been investigated thoroughly. This research examines the role of the need for cognition, the three affective responses—fear, power, and excitement—and perceived issue importance on moral intensity, ethical perceptions, and ethical intentions for four types of unethical consumer behaviors. A sample of consumers from the two (...)
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  • Comparative Analysis of Jones’ and Kelley’s Ethical Decision-Making Models.Yi-Ming Yu - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (3):573-583.
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  • Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) to Construct a Measure of the Magnitude of Consequences Component of Moral Intensity.Eric W. Stein & Norita Ahmad - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):391 - 407.
    The purpose of this work is to elaborate an empirically grounded mathematical model of the magnitude of consequences component of “moral intensity” (Jones, Academy of Management Review 16 (2),366, 1991) that can be used to evaluate different ethical situations. The model is built using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty, The Analytic Hierarchy Process , 1980) and empirical data from the legal profession. One contribution of our work is that it illustrates how AHP can be applied in the field of (...)
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  • The Effects of Victim Anonymity on Unethical Behavior.Kai Chi Yam & Scott J. Reynolds - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1):13-22.
    We theorize that victim anonymity is an important factor in ethical decision making, such that actors engage in more self-interested and unethical behaviors toward anonymous victims than they do toward identifiable victims. Three experiments provided empirical support for this argument. In Study 1, participants withheld more life-saving products from anonymous than from identifiable victims. In Study 2, participants allocated a sum of payment more unfairly when interacting with an anonymous than with an identifiable partner. Finally, in Study 3, participants cheated (...)
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  • Villains, Victims, and Verisimilitudes: An Exploratory Study of Unethical Corporate Values, Bullying Experiences, Psychopathy, and Selling Professionals’ Ethical Reasoning.Sean Valentine, Gary Fleischman & Lynn Godkin - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (1):135-154.
    This study assesses the relationships among unethical corporate values, bullying experiences, psychopathy, and selling professionals’ ethical evaluations of bullying. Information was collected from national/regional samples of selling professionals. Results indicated that unethical values, bullying, and psychopathy were positively interrelated. Psychopathy and unethical values were negatively associated with moral intensity, while moral intensity was positively related to ethical issue importance. Psychopathy and unethical values were negatively related to issue importance, and issue importance and moral intensity were positively related to ethical judgment. (...)
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  • The Role of Idealism and Relativism as Dispositional Characteristics in the Socially Responsible Decision-Making Process.Haesun Park - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):81-98.
    This study investigated how decision-makers differ in processing their organizational environment, depending on the levels of their idealism and relativism. Focusing on socially responsible buying/sourcing issues, responses from buying/sourcing professionals from U.S. apparel and shoe companies were analyzed, using a series of regression analyses. The results generally supported the proposition that the degrees of idealism and relativism determine involvement levels that, in turn, result in varying levels of reactions to the organizational environment and corresponding amounts of information processing. Highly idealistic (...)
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  • Design and Validation of a Novel New Instrument for Measuring the Effect of Moral Intensity on Accountants’ Propensity to Manage Earnings.Jeanette Ng, Gregory P. White, Alina Lee & Andreas Moneta - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):367-387.
    The goal of this study was to construct a valid new instrument to measure the effect of moral intensity on managers' propensity to manage earnings. More specifically, this study is a pilot study of the impact of moral intensity on financial accountants' propensity to manage earnings. The instrument, once validated, will be used in a full-study of managers in the hotel industry. Different ethical scenarios were presented to respondents in the survey; each ethical scenario was designed in both high or (...)
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  • Perceived Ethical Values and Small Business Problems in Poland.Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin, Edward Cyrson & Gary Fleischman - 2006 - Business Ethics 15 (1):76–85.
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  • Effects of the Use of the Availability Heuristic on Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations.Sefa Hayibor & David M. Wasieleski - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (S1):151 - 165.
    Recent corporate scandals across various industries have led to an increased focus on research in business ethics, particularly on understanding ethical decision-making. This increased interest is due largely to managers' desire to reduce the incidence of unwanted behaviors in the workplace. This article examines one major moderator of the ethical decision-making process - moral intensity. In particular, we explore the potential influence of a particular cognitive heuristic - the availability heuristic -on perceptions of moral intensity. It is our contention that (...)
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  • Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process to Construct a Measure of the Magnitude of Consequences Component of Moral Intensity.Eric W. Stein & Norita Ahmad - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):391-407.
    The purpose of this work is to elaborate an empirically grounded mathematical model of the magnitude of consequences component of "moral intensity", 366, 1991) that can be used to evaluate different ethical situations. The model is built using the analytical hierarchy process and empirical data from the legal profession. One contribution of our work is that it illustrates how AHP can be applied in the field of ethics. Following a review of the literature, we discuss the development of the model. (...)
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  • Ethics Training and Businesspersons? Perceptions of Organizational Ethics.Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):391-400.
    Ethics training is commonly cited as a primary method for increasing employees' ethical decision making and conduct. However, little is known about how the presence of ethics training can enhance other components of an organization's ethical environment such as employees' perception of company ethical values. Using a national sample of 313 business professionals employed in the United States, the relationship between ethics training and perceived organizational ethics was explored. The results of the analysis provide significant statistical support for the notion (...)
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  • The Impact of Perceived Ethical Culture of the Firm and Demographic Variables on Auditors’ Ethical Evaluation and Intention to Act Decisions.Breda Sweeney, Don Arnold & Bernard Pierce - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):531-551.
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  • Ethics Training and Businesspersons' Perceptions of Organizational Ethics.Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):381 - 390.
    Ethics training is commonly cited as a primary method for increasing employees ethical decision making and conduct. However, little is known about how the presence of ethics training can enhance other components of an organization's ethical environment such as employees perception of company ethical values. Using a national sample of 313 business professionals employed in the United States, the relationship between ethics training and perceived organizational ethics was explored. The results of the analysis provide significant statistical support for the notion (...)
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  • The Role of Moral Intensity and Moral Philosophy in Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the European Union.Scott J. Vitell & Abhijit Patwardhan - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (2):196-209.
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  • Islam and Socially Responsible Business Conduct: An Empirical Study of Dutch Entrepreneurs.Johan Graafland, Corrie Mazereeuw & Aziza Yahia - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (4):390-406.
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  • Perceived Ethical Values and Small Business Problems in Poland.Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin, Edward Cyrson & Gary Fleischman - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (1):76-85.
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  • A Cross-Cultural Study of the Antecedents of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics: A European Review 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  • The Role of Mere Exposure Effect on Ethical Tolerance: A Two-Study Approach.William A. Weeks, Justin G. Longenecker, Joseph A. McKinney & Carlos W. Moore - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (4):281-294.
    This paper reports on the results from two studies that were conducted eight years apart with different respondents. The studies examined the role of the Mere Exposure Effect on ethical tolerance or acceptability of particular business decisions. The results from Study 1 show there is a significant difference in ethical judgment for 12 out of 16 vignettes between those who have been exposed to such situations compared to those who have not been exposed to them. In those 12 situations, those (...)
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  • Ethical Decision-Making by Consumers: The Roles of Product Harm and Consumer Vulnerability.Jeri Lynn Jones & Karen L. Middleton - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):247-264.
    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of perceptions of product harm and consumer vulnerability on ethical evaluations of target marketing strategies. We first established whether subjects are able to accurately judge the harmfulness of a product through labeling alone, and whether they could differentiate consumers who were more or less vulnerable. The results suggest that without the presence of a prime, subjects who depended on implicit memory or guess were able to detect differences in “sin” (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375-413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996–2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable – awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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