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Jennifer A. Parks (2010). Care Ethics and the Global Practice of Commercial Surrogacy.

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  1.  2
    So Not Mothers: Responsibility for Surrogate Orphans.Jennifer A. Parks & Timothy F. Murphy - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):551-554.
    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for (...)
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  2.  22
    Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.Katharina Beier - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (6):633-652.
    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit––the “surrogacy triad” consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents––whose constituents are bound (...)
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  3.  37
    The Harm Argument Against Surrogacy Revisited: Two Versions Not to Forget.Marcus Agnafors - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):357-363.
    It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate—the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against (...)
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  4.  46
    Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy.Amrita Banerjee - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  5.  69
    Transnational Gestational Surrogacy: Does It Have to Be Exploitative?Jeffrey Kirby - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (5):24-32.
    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings , is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of (...)
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  6.  31
    Commercial Surrogacy: How Provisions of Monetary Remuneration and Powers of International Law Can Prevent Exploitation of Gestational Surrogates.Louise Anna Helena Ramskold & Marcus Paul Posner - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):397-402.
    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy (...)
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  7.  60
    Reproductive Biocrossings: Indian Egg Donors and Surrogates in the Globalized Fertility Market.Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):25-51.
    In November–December 2006, a four-part documentary, A Child against All Odds, aired on BBC television, presented by a renowned British infertility specialist, physician Robert Winston. The series portrayed the reproductive journeys of several couples who apparently had very low chances of biologically conceiving their own children. The series had all the ingredients of a medical thriller, with individuals, couples, and reproductive body parts (their own and donors’) crossing national boundaries and traveling thousands of miles in what Marcia Inhorn (2002) calls (...)
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    Reproductive Biocrossings: Indian Egg Donors and Surrogates in the Globalized Fertility Market.Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):25.
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    An Ethic of Care and Responsibility: Reflections on Third-Party Reproduction.Carmel Shalev - 2012 - Medicine Studies 3 (3):147-156.
    The rapid development of assisted reproduction technologies for the treatment of infertility appears to empower women through expanding their individual choice, but it is also creating new forms of suffering for them and their collaborators, especially in the context of transnational third-party reproduction. This paper explores the possibility of framing the ethical discourse around third-party reproduction by bringing attention to concerns of altruistic empathy for women who collaborate in the reproductive process, in addition to those of individualistic choice. This would (...)
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