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  1. Why Do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative Theory.Dan Sperber - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):57.
    Short abstract (98 words). Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given humans’ exceptional dependence on communication and vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of (...)
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  • The Fallacy of the Homuncular Fallacy.Carrie Figdor - 2018 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 31:41-56.
    A leading theoretical framework for naturalistic explanation of mind holds that we explain the mind by positing progressively "stupider" capacities ("homunculi") until the mind is "discharged" by means of capacities that are not intelligent at all. The so-called homuncular fallacy involves violating this procedure by positing the same capacities at subpersonal levels. I argue that the homuncular fallacy is not a fallacy, and that modern-day homunculi are idle posits. I propose an alternative view of what naturalism requires that reflects how (...)
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  • Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz - unknown
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based communication.
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  • The Cambridge Companion to Peirce Edited by Cheryl Misak Cambridge Companions New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004, Xi + 362 Pp., $70.00, $25.99 Paper. [REVIEW]Mark Migotti - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (4):813-816.
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  • On the Biological Concept of Subjective Significance: A Link Between the Semiotics of Nature and the Semiotics of Culture.Zdisław Wąsik - 2001 - Σημιοτκή-Sign Systems Studies 1:83-106.
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  • Reasoning, Robots, and Navigation: Dual Roles for Deductive and Abductive Reasoning.Janet Wiles - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):92-92.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) argue for their argumentative theory in terms of communicative abilities. Insights can be gained by extending the discussion beyond human reasoning to rodent and robot navigation. The selection of arguments and conclusions that are mutually reinforcing can be cast as a form of abductive reasoning that I argue underlies the construction of cognitive maps in navigation tasks.
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  • Propositional Attitudes, Intentional Contents and Other Representationalist Myths.Hans Johann Glock - unknown
  • Referring to the Qualitative Dimension of Consciousness: Iconicity Instead of Indexicality.Marc Champagne - 2014 - Dialogue 53 (1):135-182.
    This paper suggests that reference to phenomenal qualities is best understood as involving iconicity, that is, a passage from sign-vehicle to object that exploits a similarity between the two. This contrasts with a version of the ‘phenomenal concept strategy’ that takes indexicality to be central. However, since it is doubtful that phenomenal qualities are capable of causally interacting with anything, indexical reference seems inappropriate. While a theorist like David Papineau is independently coming to something akin to iconicity, I think some (...)
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  • Forms of Luminosity: Epistemic Modality, Mind, and Mathematics.Hasen Khudairi - 2017 - Gutenberg.
    This book concerns the foundations of epistemic modality. I examine the nature of epistemic modality, when the modal operator is interpreted as concerning both apriority and conceivability, as well as states of knowledge and belief. The book demonstrates how phenomenal consciousness and gradational possible-worlds models in Bayesian perceptual psychology relate to epistemic modal space. The book demonstrates, then, how epistemic modality relates to the computational theory of mind; metaphysical modality; deontic modality; logical modality; the types of mathematical modality; to the (...)
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  • Dialogue as Habit-Taking in Peirce’s Continuum: The Call to Absolute Chance.Donna E. West - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (4):685-702.
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  • Sophisticated Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Requires Philosophy.Selmer Bringsjord, Micah Clark & Joshua Taylor - forthcoming - In Ruth Hagengruber (ed.), Philosophy's Relevance in Information Science.
    Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR&R) is based on the idea that propositional content can be rigorously represented in formal languages long the province of logic, in such a way that these representations can be productively reasoned over by humans and machines; and that this reasoning can be used to produce knowledge-based systems (KBSs). As such, KR&R is a discipline conventionally regarded to range across parts of artificial intelligence (AI), computer science, and especially logic. This standard view of KR&R’s participating fields (...)
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  • Can There Be a Bayesian Explanationism? On the Prospects of a Productive Partnership.Frank Cabrera - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4):1245–1272.
    In this paper, I consider the relationship between Inference to the Best Explanation and Bayesianism, both of which are well-known accounts of the nature of scientific inference. In Sect. 2, I give a brief overview of Bayesianism and IBE. In Sect. 3, I argue that IBE in its most prominently defended forms is difficult to reconcile with Bayesianism because not all of the items that feature on popular lists of “explanatory virtues”—by means of which IBE ranks competing explanations—have confirmational import. (...)
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  • Towards the Emergence of Meaning Processes in Computers From Peircean Semiotics.Antônio Gomes, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel Niño El-Hani & João Queiroz - 2007 - Mind and Society 6 (2):173-187.
    In this work, we propose a computational approach to the triadic model of Peircean semiosis (meaning processes). We investigate theoretical constraints about the feasibility of simulated semiosis. These constraints, which are basic requirements for the simulation of semiosis, refer to the synthesis of irreducible triadic relations (Sign–Object–Interpretant). We examine the internal organization of the triad S–O–I, that is, the relative position of its elements and how they relate to each other. We also suggest a multi-level approach based on self-organization principles. (...)
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  • Peirce, para bem ou para mal, para além de Descartes.Renato Rodrigues Kinouchi - 2004 - Scientiae Studia 2 (4):579-586.
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  • Casuística y subjetivismo: falsos estigmas de la investigación cualitativa.Homero R. Saltalamacchia - 2008 - Cinta de Moebio 32:109-126.
    Para refutar los estigmas de subjetivismo e incapacidad de generalización de la investigación cualitativa, se presentan los principales rasgos de una teoría del dato y de una teoría de la producción de universales empíricos que cuestionan los fundamentos en que se basó esa crítica. Al mismo tiempo, ..
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  • Introdução ao Sistema Beta dos Grafos Existenciais de CS Peirce.Lafayette de Moraes & João Queiroz - 2004 - Cognitio: Revista de Filosofia 5 (1):28-43.
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  • Reading Austin Rhetorically.Andrew Munro - 2013 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 46 (1):22-43.
    Given John L. Austin’s Oxonian pedigree, we should expect his discussion of how “to say something is to do something” (1962, 12) to be taken up analytically. However, Austin also offers resources that have been exploited outside of traditional analytic philosophy—think of certain analytic feminist work, for example, or literary critical uses of performativity. For the most part, such work extends and inflects Austin’s notion of illocution and its related concepts of force and performativity for disciplinary-specific ends. This tendency in (...)
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  • Dialogical Communicative Interaction Between Humans and Elephants: An Experiment in Semiotic Alignment.Ignasi Ribó - forthcoming - Biosemiotics:1-23.
    Theoretical and empirical contributions to the understanding of communicative interactions between heterospecifics are scarce and tend to apply a monological model of communication that focuses on the transfer of information from signallers to receivers. This study relies on an alternative model of communication, semiotic alignment, which sees communicative interaction as a dialogical process of joint semiosis resulting in the alignment of the interactants’ own-worlds. We conducted an experiment where dyads composed of an elephant instruction-giver and a human instruction-receiver needed to (...)
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  • Surviving Abduction.Walter Carnielli - 2006 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (2):237-256.
    Abduction or retroduction, as introduced by C.S. Peirce in the double sense of searching for explanatory instances and providing an explanation is a kind of complement for usual argumentation. There is, however, an inferential step from the explanandum to the abductive explanans . Whether this inferential step can be captured by logical machinery depends upon a number of assumptions, but in any case it suffers in principle from the triviality objection: any time a singular contradictory explanans occurs, the system collapses (...)
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  • Moving Pictures of Thought II: Graphs, Games, and Pragmaticism's Proof.Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (186):315-331.
    Peirce believed that his pragmaticism can be conclusively proven. Beginning in 1903, he drafted several attempts, ending by 1908 with a semeiotic proof. Around 1905, he exposes the proof using the theory of Existential Graphs . This paper modernizes the semantics Peirce proposed for EGs in terms of game-theoretic semantics . Peirce's 1905 proof is then reconstructed in three parts, by relating pragmaticism to the GTS conception of meaning, showing that Peirce's proof is an argument for a relational structure of (...)
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  • Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):21-29.
    The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or (...)
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  • Symbol Interdependency in Symbolic and Embodied Cognition.Max M. Louwerse - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):273-302.
    Whether computational algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) can both extract meaning from language and advance theories of human cognition has become a topic of debate in cognitive science, whereby accounts of symbolic cognition and embodied cognition are often contrasted. Albeit for different reasons, in both accounts the importance of statistical regularities in linguistic surface structure tends to be underestimated. The current article gives an overview of the symbolic and embodied cognition accounts and shows how meaning induction attributed to (...)
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  • On Quantitative Comparative Research in Communication and Language Evolution.D. Kimbrough Oller & Ulrike Griebel - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (3):296-308.
  • On Artifacts and Works of Art.Risto Hilpinen - 1992 - Theoria 58 (1):58-82.
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  • From Biosemiotics to Code Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):239-249.
  • On the Origin of Language.Marcello Barbieri - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):201-223.
    Thomas Sebeok and Noam Chomsky are the acknowledged founding fathers of two research fields which are known respectively as Biosemiotics and Biolinguistics and which have been developed in parallel during the past 50 years. Both fields claim that language has biological roots and must be studied as a natural phenomenon, thus bringing to an end the old divide between nature and culture. In addition to this common goal, there are many other important similarities between them. Their definitions of language, for (...)
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  • Becoming a Sign: The Mimic's Activity in Biological Mimicry.Timo Maran - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (2):243-257.
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  • Peirce and Aesthetic Education.Juliana Acosta López de Mesa - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 52 (2):246-261.
  • The Geometry of Negation.Massimo Warglien & Achille C. Varzi - 2003 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 13 (1):9-19.
    There are two natural ways of thinking about negation: (i) as a form of complementation and (ii) as an operation of reversal, or inversion (to deny that p is to say that things are “the other way around”). A variety of techniques exist to model conception (i), from Euler and Venn diagrams to Boolean algebras. Conception (ii), by contrast, has not been given comparable attention. In this note we outline a twofold geometric proposal, where the inversion metaphor is understoood as (...)
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  • Hume and Peirce on the Ultimate Stability of Belief.Ryan Pollock & David W. Agler - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (2):245-269.
    Louis Loeb has argued that Hume is pessimistic while Peirce is optimistic about the attainment of fully stable beliefs. In contrast, we argue that Hume was optimistic about such attainment but only if the scope of philosophical investigation is limited to first-order explanatory questions. Further, we argue that Peirce, after reformulating the pragmatic maxim to accommodate the reality of counterfactuals, was pessimistic about such attainment. Finally, we articulate and respond to Peirce's objection that Hume's skeptical arguments in T 1.4.1 and (...)
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  • Inference to the Best Explanation, Coherence and Other Explanatory Virtues.Adolfas Mackonis - 2013 - Synthese 190 (6):975-995.
    This article generalizes the explanationist account of inference to the best explanation. It draws a clear distinction between IBE and abduction and presents abduction as the first step of IBE. The second step amounts to the evaluation of explanatory power, which consist in the degree of explanatory virtues that a hypothesis exhibits. Moreover, even though coherence is the most often cited explanatory virtue, on pain of circularity, it should not be treated as one of the explanatory virtues. Rather, coherence should (...)
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  • Representation and Self-Reference: Peirces Sign and its Application to the Computer.Karin Wenz - 2003 - Semiotica 2003 (143).
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  • Peircean Showers: Inquiry and Experience in the Pragmatic Tradition.Dennis M. Senchuk - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (141).
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  • Peirce's Pragmatic Theology and Stoic Religious Ethics1.John R. Shook - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (2):344-363.
    Charles S. Peirce believed that his pragmatic philosophy could reconcile religion and science and that this reconciliation involves a religious ethics creating a real community with the cosmos and God. After some rival pragmatic approaches to God and religious belief inconsistent with Peirce's philosophy are set aside, his metaphysical plan for a reconciliation of religion and science is outlined. A panentheistic God makes the best match with his desired conclusions from the Neglected Argument for the reality of God, and this (...)
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  • Fregean Incompleteness.Edwin Martin - 1983 - Philosophia 13 (3-4):247-253.
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  • The Manufacture of Chance: Firstness as a Fixture of Life.Gerald Ostdiek - 2014 - Biosemiotics 7 (3):361-376.
    Whereas Peirce’s logic drove him to postulate a primitive sentiency of physical matter, this essay argues that life exhibits behavior that is radically discontinuous from its preconditions; e.g., life manufactures chance by semiotic means. A sign being something that stands for another thing to a mind, signs are brought into existence only by acts of ‘reading.’ Peirce argued that this action is an element of physics, and thus the entire universe ‘lives.’ This essay postulates a degenerate form of Firstness that (...)
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  • Three Types of Semiosis.Marcello Barbieri - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (1):19-30.
    The existence of different types of semiosis has been recognized, so far, in two ways. It has been pointed out that different semiotic features exist in different taxa and this has led to the distinction between zoosemiosis, phytosemiosis, mycosemiosis, bacterial semiosis and the like. Another type of diversity is due to the existence of different types of signs and has led to the distinction between iconic, indexical and symbolic semiosis. In all these cases, however, semiosis has been defined by the (...)
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  • Peirce's Rhetorical Turn: Conceptualizing Education as Semiosis.Torill Strand - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (7):789-803.
    The later works of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1913) offer an extended metaphor of mind and a rich conception of the dynamics of knowledge and learning. After a ‘rhetorical turn’ Peirce develops his early ‘semiotics’ into a more general theory of sign and sign use, while integrating his pragmatism, phenomenology, and semiotics. Therefore, in this article I bring Peirce's notion of semiosis—the sign's action—to the forefront. In doing so, I hope to disclose how Peirce's rhetorical turn not only opens up towards (...)
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  • The Folk Probably Don't Think What You Think They Think: Experiments on Causation by Absence.Jonathan Livengood & Edouard Machery - 2007 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):107–127.
    Folk theories—untutored people’s (often implicit) theories about various features of the world—have been fashionable objects of inquiry in psychology for almost two decades now (e.g., Hirschfeld and Gelman 1994), and more recently they have been of interest in experimental philosophy (Nichols 2004). Folk theories of psy- chology, physics, biology, and ethics have all come under investigation. Folk meta- physics, however, has not been as extensively studied. That so little is known about folk metaphysics is unfortunate for (at least) two reasons. (...)
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  • Beyond Peirce: The New Science of Semiotics and the Semiotics of Law. [REVIEW]Charls Pearson - 2008 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 21 (3):247-296.
    This paper shows how Peirce's semeiotic could be turned into a powerful science. The New Science of Semiotics provides not only a new paradigm and an empirical justification for all these applications, but also a rational and systematic procedure for carrying them out as well. Thus the New Science of Semiotics transforms the philosophy of law into the science of legal scholarship, the discipline that I call jurisology.
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  • Creative Thinging.Lambros Malafouris - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 22 (1):140-158.
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  • A Computational Theory of Learning Causal Relationships.Michael Pazzani - 1991 - Cognitive Science 15 (3):401-424.
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  • Perception Pragmatized: A Pragmatic Reconciliation of Representationalism and Relationalism.André Sant’Anna - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (2):411-432.
    This paper develops a theory of perception that reconciles representationalism and relationalism by relying on pragmatist ideas. I call it the pragmatic view of perception. I argue that fully reconciling representationalism and relationalism requires, first, providing a theory in which how we perceive the world involves representations; second, preserving the idea that perception is constitutively shaped by its objects; and third, offering a direct realist account of perception. This constitutes what I call the Hybrid Triad. I discuss how Charles Peirce’s (...)
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  • Schönfinkel-Type Operators for Classical Logic.Katalin Bimbó - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (3):355-378.
    We briefly overview some of the historical landmarks on the path leading to the reduction of the number of logical connectives in classical logic. Relying on the duality inherent in Boolean algebras, we introduce a new operator ( Nallor ) that is the dual of Schönfinkel’s operator. We outline the proof that this operator by itself is sufficient to define all the connectives and operators of classical first-order logic ( Fol ). Having scrutinized the proof, we pinpoint the theorems of (...)
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  • Creating the Umwelt: From Chance to Choice.S. N. Salthe - 2014 - Biosemiotics 7 (3):351-359.
    Individual semiotic systems interpreting their environment are not well understood from the externalist approach typical of the scientific method. Science constructs probabilities describing large populations of systems, not individuals. The Umwelt, as the individually experienced/created aspects of the habitat aspect of its population’s ecological niche, is given an internalist understanding within the framework of the compositional hierarchy. Vagueness is an important aspect of the internalist condition. It is selectively reduced momentarily by creative choices that can have a Peircean semiotic formulation, (...)
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  • Interpretive Semiotics and Translation Theory: The Semiotic Conditions to Translation.Ubaldo Stecconi - 2004 - Semiotica 2004 (150).
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  • Fallibilism, Verisimilitude, and the Preface Paradox.Gustavo Cevolani - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):169-183.
    The Preface Paradox apparently shows that it is sometimes rational to believe logically incompatible propositions. In this paper, I propose a way out of the paradox based on the ideas of fallibilism and verisimilitude. More precisely, I defend the view that a rational inquirer can fallibly believe or accept a proposition which is false, or likely false, but verisimilar; and I argue that this view makes the Preface Paradox disappear. Some possible objections to my proposal, and an alternative view of (...)
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  • What Norm of Assertion?Casey Johnson - 2018 - Acta Analytica 33 (1):51-67.
    I argue that the debates over which norm constitutes assertion can be abandoned by challenging the three main motivations for a constitutive norm. The first motivation is the alleged analogy between language and games. The second motivation is the intuition that some assertions are worthy of criticism. The third is the discursive responsibilities incurred by asserting. I demonstrate that none of these offer good reasons to believe in a constitutive norm of assertion, as such a norm is understood in the (...)
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  • Material Engagement Theory and its Philosophical Ties to Pragmatism.Antonis Iliopoulos - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):39-63.
    Material Engagement Theory is currently driving a conceptual change in the archaeology of mind. Drawing upon the dictates of enactivism and active externalism, it specifically calls for a radical reconceptualization of mind and material culture. Unpersuaded by the common assumption that cognition is brain-bound, Malafouris argues in favour of a process ontology that situates thinking in action. In granting ontological primacy to material engagement, MET seeks to illuminate the emergence of human ways of thinking through the practical effects of the (...)
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  • Rethinking the Experiment: Necessary Evolution.Mihai Nadin - 2018 - AI and Society 33 (4):467-485.
    The current assumptions of knowledge acquisition brought about the crisis in the reproducibility of experiments. A complementary perspective should account for the specific causality characteristic of life by integrating past, present, and future. A “second Cartesian revolution,” informed by and in awareness of anticipatory processes, should result in scientific methods that transcend the theology of determinism and reductionism. In our days, science, itself an expression of anticipatory activity, makes possible alternative understandings of reality and its dynamics. For this purpose, the (...)
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