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The Virtues in Medical Practice

Oxford University Press (1993)

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  1. Competence in Mental Health Care: A Hermeneutic Perspective. [REVIEW]Lazare Benaroyo & Guy Widdershoven - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (4):295-306.
    In this paper we develop a hermeneutic approach to the concept of competence. Patient competence, according to a hermeneutic approach, is not primarily a matter of being able to reason, but of being able to interpret the world and respond to it. Capacity should then not be seen as theoretical, but as practical. From the perspective of practical rationality, competence and capacity are two sides of the same coin. If a person has the capacity to understand the world and give (...)
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  • Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing– Learning Lessons From the San-Hoodia Case.Rachel Wynberg, Doris Schroeder & Roger Chennells (eds.) - 2009 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing is the first in-depth account of the Hoodia bioprospecting case and use of San traditional knowledge, placing it in the global context of indigenous peoples’ rights, consent and benefit-sharing. It is unique as the first interdisciplinary analysis of consent and benefit sharing in which philosophers apply their minds to questions of justice in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), lawyers interrogate the use of intellectual property rights to protect traditional knowledge, environmental scientists analyse implications (...)
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  • Engagement and Practical Wisdom in Clinical Practice: A Phenomenological Study.Michael Saraga, Donald Boudreau & Abraham Fuks - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):41-52.
    In order to understand the lived experiences of physicians in clinical practice, we interviewed eleven expert, respected clinicians using a phenomenological interpretative methodology. We identified the essence of clinical practice as engagement. Engagement accounts for the daily routine of clinical work, as well as the necessity for the clinician to sometimes trespass common boundaries or limits. Personally engaged in the clinical situation, the clinician is able to create a space/time bubble within which the clinical encounter can unfold. Engagement provides an (...)
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  • The Separation Wall and the Right to Healthcare.Melania Borgo & Mario Picozzi - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (4):523-529.
    Nowadays, the concepts of soldier and war have changed due to terrorism and the war on terrorism. According to the literature, to prevent terrorism, it is possible to use more violence, but how can we grant the safety of many versus the dignity of a few? In Israel, in order to protect civilians against possible terrorist attacks, Palestinian ambulances that would reach the Israeli hospitals must be quickly controlled. However, many times, at the checkpoint, patients have to wait for an (...)
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  • Measuring ‘Virtue’ in Medicine.Ben Kotzee & Agnieszka Ignatowicz - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):149-161.
    Virtue-approaches to medical ethics are becoming ever more influential. Virtue theorists advocate redefining right or good action in medicine in terms of the character of the doctor performing the action. In medical education, too, calls are growing to reconceive medical education as a form of character formation. Empirical studies of doctors’ ethics from a virtue-perspective, however, are few and far between. In this respect, theoretical and empirical study of medical ethics are out of alignment. In this paper, we survey the (...)
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  • Novel Ethical Dilemmas Arising in Geriatric Clinical Practice.Elisa Constanza Calleja-Sordo, Adalberto de Hoyos, Jorge Méndez-Jiménez, Nelly F. Altamirano-Bustamante, Sergio Islas-Andrade, Alejandro Valderrama, Carmen García-Peña & Myriam M. Altamirano-Bustamante - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (2):229-236.
    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel–patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical (...)
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  • Towards an Ethical Theory in Disaster Situations.Pierre Mallia - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):3-11.
    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and (...)
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  • Empathy as a Necessary Condition of Phronesis: A Line of Thought for Medical Ethics.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (2):293-299.
    Empathy is a thing constantly asked for and stressed as a central skill and character trait of the good physician and nurse. To be a good doctor or a good nurse one needs to be empathic—one needs to be able to feel and understand the needs and wishes of patients in order to help them in the best possible way, in a medical, as well as in an ethical sense. The problem with most studies of empathy in medicine is that (...)
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  • The Desired Moral Attitude of the Physician: (III) Care. [REVIEW]Petra Gelhaus - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):125-139.
    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired moral attitude of physicians. In a series of three articles, three of the discussed concepts are presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” has been (...)
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  • The Desired Moral Attitude of the Physician: (II) Compassion. [REVIEW]Petra Gelhaus - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):397-410.
    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the (...)
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  • Does Aristotle Believe That Habituation is Only for Children?Wouter Sanderse - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (1):98-110.
    ABSTRACTFull virtue and practical wisdom comprise the end of neo-Aristotelian moral development, but wisdom cannot be cultivated straight away through arguments and teaching. Wisdom is integrated with, and builds upon, habituation: the acquisition of virtuous character traits through the repeated practice of corresponding virtuous actions. Habit formation equips people with a taste for, and commitment to, the good life; furthermore it provides one with discriminatory and reflective capacities to know how to act in particular circumstances. Unfortunately, habituation is often understood (...)
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  • On the Autonomy and Justification of Nanoethics.Fritz Allhoff - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (3):185-210.
    In this paper, I take a critical stance on the emerging field of nanoethics. After an introductory section, “Conceptual Foundations of Nanotechnology” considers the conceptual foundations of nanotechnology, arguing that nanoethics can only be as coherent as nanotechnology itself and then discussing concerns with this latter concept; the conceptual foundations of nanoethics are then explicitly addressed in “Conceptual Foundations of Nanoethics”. “Issues in Nanoethics” considers ethical issues that will be raised through nanotechnology and, in “What’s New?”, it is argued that (...)
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  • Mapping Bioethics in Latin America: History, Theoretical Models, and Scientific Output.Lucas F. Garcia, Marcia S. Fernandes, Jonathan D. Moreno & Jose R. Goldim - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (3):323-331.
    Objective: To present a narrative review of the history of bioethics in Latin America and of scientific output in this interdisciplinary field. Methods: This was a mixed-methods study. Results: A total of 1458 records were retrieved, of which 1167 met the inclusion criteria. According to the Web of Science classification, the predominant topics of study were medical ethics, social sciences and medicine, and environmental and public health topics. Four themes of bioethics output in the Latin American literature have emerged: issues (...)
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  • The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts.Brent Daniel Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):303–341.
    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as ‘Big Data’, this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technological progress, understanding of the ethical implications (...)
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  • The Ethics of Uncertainty for Data Subjects.Philip Nickel - 2019 - In Jenny Krutzinna & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Medical Data Donation. Springer Verlag. pp. 55-74.
    Modern health data practices come with many practical uncertainties. In this paper, I argue that data subjects’ trust in the institutions and organizations that control their data, and their ability to know their own moral obligations in relation to their data, are undermined by significant uncertainties regarding the what, how, and who of mass data collection and analysis. I conclude by considering how proposals for managing situations of high uncertainty might be applied to this problem. These emphasize increasing organizational flexibility, (...)
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  • Bridging the Gap Between Ethical Theory and Practice in Medicine: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study.Mansure Madani, AbouAli Vedadhir, Bagher Larijani, Zahra Khazaei & Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2255-2275.
    Physicians try hard to alleviate mental and physical ailments of their patients. Thus, they are heavily burdened by observing ethics and staying well-informed while improving health of their patients. A major ethical concern or dilemma in medication is that some physicians know their behavior is unethical, yet act against their moral compass. This study develops models of theory–practice gap, offering optimal solutions for the gap. These solutions would enhance self-motivation or remove external obstacles to stimulate ethical practices in medicine. The (...)
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  • The Virtue of Piety in Medical Practice.David McPherson - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (3):923-931.
    Following the Introduction, the second section of this essay lays out Tom Cavanaugh’s helpful and convincing account of the enduring significance of the Hippocratic Oath in terms of how it responds to the problem of iatrogenic harm. The third section discusses something underemphasized in Cavanaugh’s account, namely, the key role of the virtue of piety within the Oath and the profession it establishes, and argues that this virtue should be regarded as integral to an authentic Hippocratic ethic. The fourth and (...)
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  • How Virtue Ethics Informs Medical Professionalism.Susan D. McCammon & Howard Brody - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (4):257-272.
    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education—first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to (...)
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  • Conscientious Objection and Person-Centered Care.Stephen Buetow & Natalie Gauld - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):143-155.
    Person-centered care offers a promising way to manage clinicians’ conscientious objection to providing services they consider morally wrong. Health care centered on persons, rather than patients, recognizes clinicians and patients on the same stratum. The moral interests of clinicians, as persons, thus warrant as much consideration as those of other persons, including patients. Interconnected moral interests of clinicians, patients, and society construct the clinician as a socially embedded and integrated self, transcending the simplistic duality of private conscience versus public role (...)
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  • Recta Ratio Agibilium in a Medical Context: The Role of Virtue in the Physician-Patient Relationship.Helena M. Olivieri - 2018 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 13 (1):9.
    Acting for the good of the patient is the most fundamental and universally acknowledged principle of medical ethics. However, given the complexity of modern medicine as well as the moral fragmentation of contemporary society, determining the good is far from simple. In his philosophy of medicine, Edmund Pellegrino develops a conception of the good that is derived from the internal morality of medicine via the physician-patient relationship. It is through this healing relationship that rights, duties, and privileges are defined for (...)
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  • Doctors That “Doctor” Sickness Certificates: Cunning Intelligence as an Ability and Possibly a Virtue Among Swedish GPs.Mani Shutzberg - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):445-456.
    The relations of power between healthcare-related institutions and the professionals that interact with them are changing. Generally, the institutions are gaining the upper hand. Consequently, the intellectual abilities necessary for professionals to pursue the internal goods of healthcare are changing as well. A concrete case is the struggle over sickness benefits in Sweden, in which the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and physicians are important stakeholders. The SSIA has recently consolidated its power over the sickness certificates that doctors issue for their (...)
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  • Phronesis in Medical Ethics: Courage and Motivation to Keep on the Track of Rightness in Decision-Making.Aisha Malik, Mervyn Conroy & Chris Turner - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (2):158-175.
    Ethical decision making in medicine has recently seen calls to move towards less prescriptive- based approaches that consider the particularities of each case. The main alternative call from the literature is for better understanding of phronesis concepts applied to decision making. A well-cited phronesis-based approach is Kaldjian’s five-stage theoretical framework: goals, concrete circumstances, virtues, deliberation and motivation to act. We build on Kaldjian’s theory after using his framework to analyse data collected from a three-year empirical study of phronesis and the (...)
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  • Bridging the Gap Between Ethical Theory and Practice in Medicine: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study.Mansure Madani, AbouAli Vedadhir, Bagher Larijani, Zahra Khazaei & Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1-21.
    Physicians try hard to alleviate mental and physical ailments of their patients. Thus, they are heavily burdened by observing ethics and staying well-informed while improving health of their patients. A major ethical concern or dilemma in medication is that some physicians know their behavior is unethical, yet act against their moral compass. This study develops models of theory–practice gap, offering optimal solutions for the gap. These solutions would enhance self-motivation or remove external obstacles to stimulate ethical practices in medicine. The (...)
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  • HIV/AIDS and Bioethics: Historical Perspective, Personal Retrospective. [REVIEW]Charles S. Bryan - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (1):5-18.
    Problems posed by HIV/AIDS differ from those ofpast epidemics by virtue of unique propertiesof the causative agent, dramatic societalchanges of the late 20th century, and thetransition of medical practice from aprofessional ethic to a technology-dependentbusiness ethic. HIV/AIDS struck during thecoming-of-age of molecular biology and also ofbioethics, and the epidemic stimulated thegrowth of both disciplines. The number ofarticles published about AIDS and ethics (asidentified by a MEDLINE search) peaked in 1990,just before the peak incidence of AIDS in theUnited States. The character (...)
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  • A Genealogy of Autonomy: Freedom, Paternalism, and the Future of the Doctor–Patient Relationship.Quentin I. T. Genuis - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (3):330-349.
    Although the principle of respect for personal autonomy has been the subject of debate for almost 40 years, the conversation has often suffered from lack of clarity regarding the philosophical traditions underlying this principle. In this article, I trace a genealogy of autonomy, first contrasting Kant’s autonomy as moral obligation and Mill’s teleological political liberty. I then show development from Mill’s concept to Beauchamp and Childress’ principle and to Julian Savulescu’s non-teleological autonomy sketch. I argue that, although the reach for (...)
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  • Is Conscientious Objection Incompatible with a Physician’s Professional Obligations.Mark R. Wicclair - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):171--185.
    In response to physicians who refuse to provide medical services that are contrary to their ethical and/or religious beliefs, it is sometimes asserted that anyone who is not willing to provide legally and professionally permitted medical services should choose another profession. This article critically examines the underlying assumption that conscientious objection is incompatible with a physician’s professional obligations (the “incompatibility thesis”). Several accounts of the professional obligations of physicians are explored: general ethical theories (consequentialism, contractarianism, and rights-based theories), internal morality (...)
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  • Virtue Ethics and Nursing: On What Grounds?Roger A. Newham - 2015 - Nursing Philosophy 16 (1):40-50.
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  • Contemporary Nursing Wisdom in the UK and Ethical Knowing: Difficulties in Conceptualising the Ethics of Nursing.Roger Newham, Joan Curzio, Graham Carr & Louise Terry - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (1):50-56.
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  • Is There Unity Within the Discipline?Roger A. Newham - 2012 - Nursing Philosophy 13 (3):214-223.
    This paper will examine a claim that nursing is united by its moral stance. The claim is that there are moral constraints on nurses' actions as people practising nursing and that they are in some way different from both what for now can be called standard morality and also different from the person's own moral views who also happens to be a nurse, hence the defining and unifying factor for nursing. I will begin by situating the claim within the broader (...)
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  • Towards Understanding the Nature of Conflict of Interest and its Application to the Discipline of Nursing.Nancy J. Crigger - 2009 - Nursing Philosophy 10 (4):253-262.
    Most incidences of dishonesty in research, financial investments that promote personal financial gain, and kickback scandals begin as conflicts of interest (COI). Research indicates that healthcare professionals who maintain COI relationships make less optimal and more expensive patient care choices. The discovery of COI relationships also negatively impact patient and public trust. Many disciplines are addressing this professional issue, but little work has been done towards understanding and applying this moral category within a nursing context. Do COIs occur in nursing (...)
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  • Nursing Involvement in Euthanasia: A ‘Nursing-as-Healing-Praxis’ Approach: Original Article.Helen McCabe - 2007 - Nursing Philosophy 8 (3):176-186.
  • Towards a Strong Virtue Ethics for Nursing Practice.Alan E. Armstrong - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (3):110-124.
    Illness creates a range of negative emotions in patients including anxiety, fear, powerlessness, and vulnerability. There is much debate on the ‘therapeutic’ or ‘helping’ nurse–patient relationship. However, despite the current agenda regarding patient-centred care, the literature concerning the development of good interpersonal responses and the view that a satisfactory nursing ethics should focus on persons and character traits rather than actions, nursing ethics is dominated by the traditional obligation, act-centred theories such as consequentialism and deontology. I critically examine these theories (...)
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  • Keeping the “Human in the Loop” in the Age of Artificial Intelligence: Accompanying Commentary for “Correcting the Brain?” by Rainey and Erden.Fabrice Jotterand & Clara Bosco - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2455-2460.
    The benefits of Artificial Intelligence in medicine are unquestionable and it is unlikely that the pace of its development will slow down. From better diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention to more precise surgical procedures, AI has the potential to offer unique opportunities to enhance patient care and improve clinical practice overall. However, at this stage of AI technology development it is unclear whether it will de-humanize or re-humanize medicine. Will AI allow clinicians to spend less time on administrative tasks and technology (...)
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  • Recognizing Tacit Knowledge in Medical Epistemology.Stephen G. Henry - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):187--213.
    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi’s theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino’s classic treatment of (...)
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  • Philosophy at the Bedside - Phenomenology, Complexity and Virtue in the Care of Patients.Derek Mitchell - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):970-974.
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  • The Appropriate Role of a Clinical Ethics Consultant’s Religious Worldview in Consultative Work: Nearly None.Janet Malek - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (2):91-102.
    Ethical reasoning is an integral part of the work of a clinical ethics consultant. Ethical reasoning has a close relationship with an individual’s beliefs and values, which, for religious adherents, are likely to be tightly connected with their spiritual perspectives. As a result, for individuals who identify with a religious tradition, the process of thinking through ethical questions is likely to be influenced by their religious worldview. The connection between ethical reasoning and one’s spiritual perspective raises questions about the role (...)
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  • Is There a Duty to Participate in Digital Epidemiology?Brent Mittelstadt, Justus Benzler, Lukas Engelmann, Barbara Prainsack & Effy Vayena - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-24.
    This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first describe traditional justifications for epidemiology that imply a duty to participate for the general public, which take account of the immediacy and plausibility of threats, and the identifiability of (...)
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  • Evidence, Emotion and Eminence: A Qualitative and Evaluative Analysis of Doctors’ Skills in Macroallocation.Siun Gallagher, Miles Little & Claire Hooker - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (2):93-109.
    In this analysis of the ethical dimensions of doctors’ participation in macroallocation we set out to understand the skills they use, how they are acquired, and how they influence performance of the role. Using the principles of grounded moral analysis, we conducted a semi-structured interview study with Australian doctors engaged in macroallocation. We found that they performed expertise as argument, bringing together phronetic and rhetorical skills founded on communication, strategic thinking, finance, and health data. They had made significant, purposeful efforts (...)
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  • Psychopathy: Morally Incapacitated Persons.Heidi Maibom - 2017 - In Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1109-1129.
    After describing the disorder of psychopathy, I examine the theories and the evidence concerning the psychopaths’ deficient moral capacities. I first examine whether or not psychopaths can pass tests of moral knowledge. Most of the evidence suggests that they can. If there is a lack of moral understanding, then it has to be due to an incapacity that affects not their declarative knowledge of moral norms, but their deeper understanding of them. I then examine two suggestions: it is their deficient (...)
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  • Comradery, Community, and Care in Military Medical Ethics.Michael L. Gross - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (5):337-350.
    Medical ethics prohibits caregivers from discriminating and providing preferential care to their compatriots and comrades. In military medicine, particularly during war and when resources may be scarce, ethical principles may dictate priority care for compatriot soldiers. The principle of nondiscrimination is central to utilitarian and deontological theories of justice, but communitarianism and the ethics of care and friendship stipulate a different set of duties for community members, friends, and family. Similar duties exist among the small cohesive groups that typify many (...)
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  • Analysing Our Qualms About “Designing” Future Persons: Autonomy, Freedom of Choice, and Interfering with Nature. [REVIEW]Erik Malmqvist - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (4):407-416.
    Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that (...)
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  • Doctors on Values and Advocacy: A Qualitative and Evaluative Study.Siun Gallagher & Miles Little - 2017 - Health Care Analysis 25 (4):370-385.
    Doctors are increasingly enjoined by their professional organisations to involve themselves in supraclinical advocacy, which embraces activities focused on changing practice and the system in order to address the social determinants of health. The moral basis for doctors’ decisions on whether or not to do so has been the subject of little empirical research. This opportunistic qualitative study of the values of medical graduates associated with the Sydney Medical School explores the processes that contribute to doctors’ decisions about taking up (...)
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  • Was ist empirische Ethik?ProfDr Bert - 2009 - Ethik in der Medizin 21 (3):187-199.
    Empirische Ethik ist ein relativ neues Vorgehen in der Ethikforschung, das vor allem in der Medizinethik angewandt wird. Dieser Beitrag bespricht die kennzeichnenden Charakteristika der empirischen Ethik und unterscheidet zwischen generalistischer und kontextualistischer empirischer Ethik. Zuerst werden verschiedene Beispiele beider Arten von empirischer Ethik vorgestellt, danach werden für beide Ansätze mögliche Schwachpunkte diskutiert. Die Schlussfolgerung des Beitrages besteht darin, dass das Entstehen der empirischen Ethik eine positive Entwicklung ist. Empirische Ethik sollte jedoch als eine Ergänzung der traditionellen philosophischen Medizinethik betrachtet (...)
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  • Normativity Unbound: Liminality in Palliative Care Ethics.Hillel Braude - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):107-122.
    This article applies the anthropological concept of liminality to reconceptualize palliative care ethics. Liminality possesses both spatial and temporal dimensions. Both these aspects are analyzed to provide insight into the intersubjective relationship between patient and caregiver in the context of palliative care. Aristotelian practical wisdom, or phronesis, is considered to be the appropriate model for palliative care ethics, provided it is able to account for liminality. Moreover, this article argues for the importance of liminality for providing an ethical structure that (...)
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  • The Virtues in Their Place: Virtue Ethics in Medicine.Lynn A. Jansen - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (3):261-276.
    We are currently in the midst of a revival of interest in thevirtues. A number of contemporary moral philosophers havedefended a virtue-based approach to ethics. But does thisrenewal of interest in the virtues have much to contributeto medical ethics and medical practice? This paper criticallydiscusses this question. It considers and rejects a number ofimportant arguments that purport to establish the significanceof the virtues for medical practice. Against these arguments,the paper seeks to show that while the virtues have a genuinerole to (...)
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  • Can Doctors Maintain Good Character? An Examination of Physician Lives.Saba Fatima - 2016 - Journal of Medical Humanities 37 (4):419-433.
    Can doctors maintain good character? This paper shifts the focus from patient care to ethical considerations that bear on the physician and impact her as a person. By decentering patient care, the paper highlights certain factors that habituate a particular way of reasoning that is not conducive to inculcating good character. Such factors include, standards of professionalism, being influenced by external monitors, and emphasis on adherence to guidelines. While such factors may benefit patients, they often adversely affect the character of (...)
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  • Trust in Health Care and Vaccine Hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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  • Ethics as Usual? Unilateral Withdrawal of Treatment in a State of Exception.Jason T. Eberl - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):210-211.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 210-211.
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  • COVID-19: Where is the National Ethical Guidance?Richard Huxtable - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-3.
    BackgroundAs the COVID-19 pandemic develops, healthcare professionals are looking for support with, and guidance to inform, the difficult decisions they face. In the absence of an authoritative national steer in England, professional bodies and local organisations have been developing and disseminating their own ethical guidance. Questions inevitably arise, some of which are particularly pressing during the pandemic, as events are unfolding quickly and the field is becoming crowded. My central question here is: which professional ethical guidance should the professional follow?Main (...)
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  • Trust.Carolyn McLeod - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A summary of the philosophical literature on trust.
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