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  1. Ignorance, misconceptions and critical thinking.Sara Dellantonio & Luigi Pastore - 2021 - Synthese 198 (8):7473-7501.
    In this paper we investigate ignorance in relation to our capacity to justify our beliefs. To achieve this aim we specifically address scientific misconceptions, i.e. beliefs that are considered to be false in light of accepted scientific knowledge. The hypothesis we put forward is that misconceptions are not isolated false beliefs, but rather form part of a system of inferences—an explanation—which does not match current scientific theory. We further argue that, because misconceptions are embedded in a system, they cannot be (...)
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  • Mapping Cognitive Structure Onto the Landscape of Philosophical Debate: An Empirical Framework with Relevance to Problems of Consciousness, Free Will and Ethics.Jared P. Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (1):73-113.
    There has been considerable debate in the literature as to whether work in experimental philosophy actually makes any significant contribution to philosophy. One stated view is that many X-Phi projects, notwithstanding their focus on topics relevant to philosophy, contribute little to philosophical thought. Instead, it has been claimed the contribution they make appears to be to cognitive science. In contrast to this view, here we argue that at least one approach to X-Phi makes a contribution which parallels, and also extends, (...)
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  • When Science Denial Meets Epistemic Understanding.Ayça Fackler - 2021 - Science & Education 30 (3):445-461.
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  • Analytic-Thinking Predicts Hoax Beliefs and Helping Behaviors in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.Matthew L. Stanley, Nathaniel Barr, Kelly Peters & Paul Seli - forthcoming - Tandf: Thinking and Reasoning:1-14.
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  • Science as a Vaccine.Angelo Fasce & Alfonso Picó - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (1-2):109-125.
    In this study, we explore the relation between scientific literacy and unwarranted beliefs. The results show heterogeneous interactions between six constructs: conspiracy theories poorly interact with scientific literacy; there are major differences between attitudinal and practical dimensions of critical thinking; paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs show similar associations ; and, only scientific knowledge interacts with other predictor of unwarranted beliefs, such as ontological confusions. These results reveal a limited impact: science educators must take into account the complex interactions between the dimensions (...)
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  • What Makes You So Sure? Dogmatism, Fundamentalism, Analytic Thinking, Perspective Taking and Moral Concern in the Religious and Nonreligious.Jared Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2017 - Journal of Religion and Health 57 (1):157–190.
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  • Belief Bias During Reasoning Among Religious Believers and Skeptics.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2013 - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 20 (4):806-811.
    We provide evidence that religious skeptics, as compared to believers, are both more reflective and effective in logical reasoning tasks. While recent studies have reported a negative association between an analytic cognitive style and religiosity, they focused exclusively on accuracy, making it difficult to specify potential underlying cognitive mechanisms. The present study extends the previous research by assessing both performance and response times on quintessential logical reasoning problems. Those reporting more religious skepticism made fewer reasoning errors than did believers. This (...)
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • Most Peers Don’T Believe It, Hence It Is Probably False.René van Woudenberg & Hans van Eyghen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (4):87-112.
    Rob Lovering has recently argued that since theists have been unable, by means of philosophical arguments, to convince 85 percent of professional philosophers that God exists, at least one of their defining beliefs must be either false or meaningless. This paper is a critical examination of his argument. First we present Lovering’s argument and point out its salient features. Next we explain why the argument’s conclusion is entirely acceptable for theists, even if, as we show, there are multiple problems with (...)
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  • The Common-Core/Diversity Dilemma: Revisions of Humean Thought, New Empirical Research, and the Limits of Rational Religious Belief.Branden Thornhill-Miller & Peter Millican - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (1):1--49.
    This paper is the product of an interdisciplinary, interreligious dialogue aiming to outline some of the possibilities and rational limits of supernatural religious belief, in the light of a critique of David Hume’s familiar sceptical arguments -- including a rejection of his famous Maxim on miracles -- combined with a range of striking recent empirical research. The Humean nexus leads us to the formulation of a new ”Common-Core/Diversity Dilemma’, which suggests that the contradictions between different religious belief systems, in conjunction (...)
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  • Psychology of Religion in the Theories and Research of the Lvov-Warsaw School.Amadeusz Citlak - 2021 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 43 (1):95-116.
    This article presents the basic achievements of the psychology of religion in the Lvov-Warsaw School of K. Twardowski, their developments and significance for the contemporary psychology of religion. Twardowski’s School existed parallel to other European psychological schools: the Würzburg School, founded by Oswald Külpe, and the Dorpat School of the Psychology of Religion, founded by Karl Girgensohn. The article presents two research trends in the psychology of religion resulting from Twardowski’s works, specifically research on mental acts and religious beliefs with (...)
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  • Cognitive Predictors of Precautionary Behavior During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Volker Thoma, Leonardo Weiss-Cohen, Petra Filkuková & Peter Ayton - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The attempts to mitigate the unprecedented health, economic, and social disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are largely dependent on establishing compliance to behavioral guidelines and rules that reduce the risk of infection. Here, by conducting an online survey that tested participants’ knowledge about the disease and measured demographic, attitudinal, and cognitive variables, we identify predictors of self-reported social distancing and hygiene behavior. To investigate the cognitive processes underlying health-prevention behavior in the pandemic, we co-opted the dual-process model of thinking (...)
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  • Do Social Constraints Inhibit Analytical Atheism? Cognitive Style and Religiosity in Turkey.Catherine L. Caldwell-Harris, Sevil Hocaoğlu & Jonathan Morgan - 2020 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 20 (1-2):1-21.
    Recent studies claim that having an analytical cognitive style is correlated with reduced religiosity in western populations. However, in cultural contexts where social norms constrain behavior, such cognitive characteristics may have reduced influence on behaviors and beliefs. We labeled this the ‘constraining environments hypothesis.’ In a sample of 246 Muslims in Turkey, the hypothesis was supported for gender. Females face social pressure to be religious. Unlike their male counterparts, they were more religious, less analytical, and their analytical scores were uncorrelated (...)
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  • How Children’s Cognitive Reflection Shapes Their Science Understanding.Andrew G. Young & Andrew Shtulman - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Commentary: Cognitive Reflection Vs. Calculation in Decision Making.Gordon Pennycook & Robert M. Ross - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  • Urban Legends and Paranormal Beliefs: The Role of Reality Testing and Schizotypy.Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker & Peter J. Clough - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • The Effect of Analytic Cognitive Style on Credulity.Eva Ballová Mikušková & Vladimíra Čavojová - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Counterintuitive Religious Ideas and Metaphoric Thinking: An Event‐Related Brain Potential Study.Sabela Fondevila, Sabrina Aristei, Werner Sommer, Laura Jiménez-Ortega, Pilar Casado & Manuel Martín-Loeches - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (4):972-991.
    It has been shown that counterintuitive ideas from mythological and religious texts are more acceptable than other world knowledge violations. In the present experiment we explored whether this relates to the way they are interpreted. Participants were presented with verification questions that referred to either the literal or a metaphorical meaning of the sentence previously read, in a block-wise design. Both behavioral and electrophysiological results converged. At variance to the literal interpretation of the sentences, the induced metaphorical interpretation specifically facilitated (...)
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  • Override the Controversy: Analytic Thinking Predicts Endorsement of Evolution.Will M. Gervais - 2015 - Cognition 142:312-321.
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  • Activating Analytic Thinking Enhances the Value Given to Individualizing Moral Foundations.Onurcan Yilmaz & S. Adil Saribay - 2017 - Cognition 165:88-96.
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  • “Spiritual but Not Religious”: Cognition, Schizotypy, and Conversion in Alternative Beliefs.Aiyana K. Willard & Ara Norenzayan - 2017 - Cognition 165:137-146.
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  • Using Forced Choice to Test Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning.Dries Trippas, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):586-600.
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  • The Time Course of Conflict on the Cognitive Reflection Test.Eoin Travers, Jonathan J. Rolison & Aidan Feeney - 2016 - Cognition 150:109-118.
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  • Analytic Thinking Reduces Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Viren Swami, Martin Voracek, Stefan Stieger, Ulrich S. Tran & Adrian Furnham - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):572-585.
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  • Science Demands Explanation, Religion Tolerates Mystery.Emily G. Liquin, S. Emlen Metz & Tania Lombrozo - 2020 - Cognition 204:104398.
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  • Ontological Confusions but Not Mentalizing Abilities Predict Religious Belief, Paranormal Belief, and Belief in Supernatural Purpose.Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Jari Lipsanen - 2015 - Cognition 134:63-76.
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  • The Divided Mind of a Disbeliever: Intuitive Beliefs About Nature as Purposefully Created Among Different Groups of Non-Religious Adults.Elisa Järnefelt, Caitlin F. Canfield & Deborah Kelemen - 2015 - Cognition 140:72-88.
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  • Why Did This Happen to Me? Religious Believers’ and Non-Believers’ Teleological Reasoning About Life Events.Konika Banerjee & Paul Bloom - 2014 - Cognition 133 (1):277-303.
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  • The Evolution of Analytic Thought?Gordon Pennycook & David G. Rand - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  • The Mediating Effect of Reflective-Analytic Cognitive Style on Rational Thought.Ralph E. Viator, Nancy L. Harp, Shannon B. Rinaldo & Blair B. Marquardt - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (3):381-413.
    We investigate whether non-miserly cognitive styles mediate the effects of cognitive ability and thinking dispositions on rational thought. Specifically, we review relevant literature on two dimens...
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  • Better but Still Biased: Analytic Cognitive Style and Belief Bias.Dries Trippas, Gordon Pennycook, Michael F. Verde & Simon J. Handley - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (4):431-445.
    Belief bias is the tendency for prior beliefs to influence people's deductive reasoning in two ways: through the application of a simple belief-heuristic and through the application of more effortful reasoning for unbelievable conclusions. Previous research indicates that cognitive ability is the primary determinant of the effect of beliefs on accuracy. In the current study, we show that the mere tendency to engage analytic reasoning is responsible for the effect of cognitive ability on motivated reasoning. The implications of this finding (...)
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  • Skepticism: Genuine Unbelief or Implicit Beliefs in the Supernatural?Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Tapani Riekki - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:216-228.
  • Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis.Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2016 - PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  • The Self-Attribution Bias and Paranormal Beliefs.Michiel van Elk - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 49:313-321.
  • Psychics, Aliens, or Experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to Examine the Relationship Between Type of Belief and Probabilistic Reasoning.Toby Prike, Michelle M. Arnold & Paul Williamson - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 53:151-164.
  • Cognitive Biases Explain Religious Belief, Paranormal Belief, and Belief in Life’s Purpose.Aiyana K. Willard & Ara Norenzayan - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):379-391.
  • Religious Credence is Not Factual Belief.Neil Van Leeuwen - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):698-715.
    I argue that psychology and epistemology should posit distinct cognitive attitudes of religious credence and factual belief, which have different etiologies and different cognitive and behavioral effects. I support this claim by presenting a range of empirical evidence that religious cognitive attitudes tend to lack properties characteristic of factual belief, just as attitudes like hypothesis, fictional imagining, and assumption for the sake of argument generally lack such properties. Furthermore, religious credences have distinctive properties of their own. To summarize: factual beliefs (...)
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  • Examining How People Reason About Controversial Scientific Topics.Emilio J. C. Lobato & Corinne Zimmerman - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 25 (2):231-255.
  • The Origins of Religious Disbelief.Ara Norenzayan & Will M. Gervais - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):20-25.
  • The Pros and Cons of Identifying Critical Thinking with System 2 Processing.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2018 - Topoi 37 (1):113-119.
    The dual-process model of cognition but most especially its reflective component, system 2 processing, shows strong conceptual links with critical thinking. In fact, the salient characteristics of system 2 processing are so strikingly close to that of critical thinking, that it is tempting to claim that critical thinking is system 2 processing, no more and no less. In this article, I consider the two sides of that claim: Does critical thinking always require system 2 processing? And does system 2 processing (...)
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  • The Cognitive Reflection Test Revisited: Exploring the Ways Individuals Solve the Test.B. Szaszi, A. Szollosi, B. Palfi & B. Aczel - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (3):207-234.
    Individuals’ propensity not to override the first answer that comes to mind is thought to be a crucial cause behind many failures in reasoning. In the present study, we aimed to explore the strategies used and the abilities employed when individuals solve the cognitive reflection test, the most widely used measure of this tendency. Alongside individual differences measures, protocol analysis was employed to unfold the steps of the reasoning process in solving the CRT. This exploration revealed that there are several (...)
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  • Someone is Pulling the Strings: Hypersensitive Agency Detection and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Karen M. Douglas, Robbie M. Sutton, Mitchell J. Callan, Rael J. Dawtry & Annelie J. Harvey - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (1):57-77.
    We hypothesised that belief in conspiracy theories would be predicted by the general tendency to attribute agency and intentionality where it is unlikely to exist. We further hypothesised that this tendency would explain the relationship between education level and belief in conspiracy theories, where lower levels of education have been found to be associated with higher conspiracy belief. In Study 1 participants were more likely to agree with a range of conspiracy theories if they also tended to attribute intentionality and (...)
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  • Religiosity and the Formulation of Causal Attributions.Jennifer Vonk & Jerrica Pitzen - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (2):119-149.
    ABSTRACTResearchers have suggested that religious individuals engage primarily in intuitive over analytic processing. We investigated a connection between specific aspects of religiosity and the attribution of causation to social and physical events. College undergraduates completed measures of religiosity online and were asked to determine the causes of events that varied in type, outcome, and likelihood, as well as the personality characteristics of the protagonist. Individuals with greater intrinsic religious orientation, fundamentalism, who viewed God as loving, who were more dogmatic, and (...)
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  • Reasoned Connections: A Dual-Process Perspective on Creative Thought.Nathaniel Barr, Gordon Pennycook, Jennifer A. Stolz & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):61-75.
    A divide exists in the creativity literature as to whether relatively more or less executive processing is beneficial to creative thinking. To explore this issue, we employ an individual differences perspective informed by dual-process theories in which it is assumed that people vary in the extent to which they rely on autonomous or controlled processing . We find that those more willing and/or able to engage Type 2 processing are more likely to successfully make creative connections in tasks requiring the (...)
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  • Assessing Miserly Information Processing: An Expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test.Maggie E. Toplak, Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):147-168.
  • Disbelief in Belief: On the Cognitive Status of Supernatural Beliefs.Maarten Boudry & Jerry Coyne - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):601-615.
    Religious people seem to believe things that range from the somewhat peculiar to the utterly bizarre. Or do they? According to a new paper by Neil Van Leeuwen, religious “credence” is nothing like mundane factual belief. It has, he claims, more in common with fictional imaginings. Religious folk do not really “believe”—in the ordinary sense of the word—what they profess to believe. Like fictional imaginings, but unlike factual beliefs, religious credences are activated only within specific settings. We argue that Van (...)
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  • The Role of Analytic Thinking in Moral Judgements and Values.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):188-214.
    While individual differences in the willingness and ability to engage analytic processing have long informed research in reasoning and decision making, the implications of such differences have not yet had a strong influence in other domains of psychological research. We claim that analytic thinking is not limited to problems that have a normative basis and, as an extension of this, predict that individual differences in analytic thinking will be influential in determining beliefs and values. Along with assessments of cognitive ability (...)
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