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  1. The Influence of Cooperative Relations of Small Businesses on Environmental Protection Intensity.Sonia Benito-Hernández, Manuel Platero-Jaime & Pablo Esteban-Sánchez - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (4):416-439.
    This study examines the relationship between cooperative business relations in small businesses and environmental protection, one of the most important policies of social responsibility in manufacturing. We reviewed the literature and carried out an empirical study of 930 small manufacturing firms in Spain. Results indicate that small businesses that maintain and improve their cooperative relations through business networking with universities, competitors, suppliers and customers spend more on environmental protection. The managerial, practical, research and policy implications of the obtained research findings (...)
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  • Pushing Forward Sme Csr Through a Network: An Account From the Catalan Model.David Murillo & Josep M. Lozano - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):7-20.
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  • Pushing Forward Sme Csr Through a Network: An Account From the Catalan Model.David Murillo & Josep M. Lozano - 2009 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 18 (1):7-20.
    This paper presents the results of a Catalan project in which an academic institution acted as a practitioner to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The project involved the establishment of a working network with intermediate organisations and the creation of specific tools for the purpose. The paper is set up as a case study, emphasising inclusion, representativity and legitimacy as key elements for the successful construction of a network to promote CSR in SMEs. It (...)
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  • CSR in SMEs: Do SMEs Matter for the CSR Agenda?Mette Morsing & Francesco Perrini - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):1-6.
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  • CSR in SMEs: Do SMEs Matter for the CSR Agenda?Mette Morsing & Francesco Perrini - 2009 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 18 (1):1-6.
    In this paper we argue that the collective grandness of small business is often underestimated in CSR research and policy-making. We emphasize the importance of understanding the contexts and the ways in which small- and medium-sized companies engage in CSR and how they differ from multinational companies. We suggest that it might be that researchers and practitioners are asking the wrong questions in their ambitions to prove 'the business case for CSR'. Perhaps we should rather focus on the 'how' and (...)
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  • Little Big Firms? Corporate Social Responsibility in Small Businesses That Do Not Compete Against Big Ones.Rune Dahl Fitjar - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (1):30-44.
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  • Little Big Firms? Corporate Social Responsibility in Small Businesses That Do Not Compete Against Big Ones.Rune Dahl Fitjar - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (1):30-44.
    This article examines the drivers and barriers for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Norwegian graduate uniform industry, which is a market devoid of large corporations, consisting entirely of two small businesses. It finds that these small businesses' CSR activities are not particularly well explained by the existing literature on CSR in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which assumes the presence of large competitors. This raises the question of whether small businesses that do not compete against large corporations may actually behave (...)
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  • The Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Strategy in Medium-Sized Companies: Evidence From Italy.Lucio Lamberti & Giuliano Noci - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (4):402-416.
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  • The Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Strategy in Medium-Sized Companies: Evidence From Italy.Lucio Lamberti & Giuliano Noci - 2012 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 21 (4):402-416.
    The paper responds to the recent calls for further evidence on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on the extant literature, the authors identify four characteristics contended by academicians as peculiarities of SMEs’ approach to CSR: the intrinsic relationship between CSR and corporate strategy motivated by the need to continuously dialogue with stakeholders; the centrality of the entrepreneur's ethos in CSR decisions; the coexistence and the cross-effect of economically instrumental and ethically motivated CSR policies; and (...)
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  • Construction of Owner–Manager Identity in Corporate Social Responsibility Discourse.Merja Lähdesmäki - 2012 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 21 (2):168-182.
    This article examines the different discursive resources on which small business owner–managers draw when understanding their sense of self in relation to corporate social responsibility. In the small business context, identity provides a justifiable framework to study corporate social responsibility, as decisions regarding socially responsible activities are mainly taken by managers and stem from their sense of who they are in the world. On the basis of 25 thematic interviews with owner–managers, two broad discursive resources were found that describe how (...)
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  • Construction of Owner-Manager Identity in Corporate Social Responsibility Discourse.Merja Lähdesmäki - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (2):168-182.
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  • Keeping at Arm’s Length or Searching for Social Proximity? Corporate Social Responsibility as a Reciprocal Process Between Small Businesses and the Local Community.Merja Lähdesmäki & Timo Suutari - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):481 - 493.
    This article examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility and locality in the small business context. This issue is addressed by studying the interplay between small businesses and local community based on the embeddedness literature and using the concept of social proximity. On the basis of 25 thematic interviews with owner-managers a typology is constructed which illustrates the owner-managers' perceptions of the relationship between the business and the local community. The findings emphasize the importance of reciprocity as it is suggested (...)
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  • Keeping at Arm’s Length or Searching for Social Proximity? Corporate Social Responsibility as a Reciprocal Process Between Small Businesses and the Local Community.Merja Lähdesmäki & Timo Suutari - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):481-493.
    This article examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility and locality in the small business context. This issue is addressed by studying the interplay between small businesses and local community based on the embeddedness literature and using the concept of social proximity. On the basis of 25 thematic interviews with owner-managers a typology is constructed which illustrates the owner-managers’ perceptions of the relationship between the business and the local community. The findings emphasize the importance of reciprocity as it is suggested (...)
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  • Local Business, Local Peace? Intergroup and Economic Dynamics.Jay Joseph, John E. Katsos & Mariam Daher - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 173 (4):835-854.
    The field of “business for peace” recognizes the role that businesses can play in peacebuilding. However, like much of the discussion concerning business in conflict zones, it has prioritized the view of multinationals, often overlooking the role of indigenous local firms. The economic, social, and intergroup dynamics experienced by local businesses in conflict zones are understudied, with the current paper beginning by positioning micro- and small enterprises in the peacebuilding debate, then engaging with multidisciplinary works to understand how they foster (...)
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  • Power and Size of Firms as Reflected in Cleaning Subcontractors' Practices of Social Responsibility.Sarit Nisim & Orly Benjamin - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):673 - 683.
    Recent discussions in the area of corporate social responsibility suggest that organizational size has complex meanings and thus requires more scholarly attention. This article explores organizational size in the context of relative power in inter-organizational networks. To shed light on the ways relative power interacts with size we studied social responsibility practices among cleaning subcontractors in three firms of different sizes. Our focus on the network differentiates these firms on the basis of their size and sector. Semi-structured interviews were used (...)
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  • Do Corporate Social Responsibility Reports Convey Value Relevant Information? Evidence from Report Readability and Tone.Shuili Du & Kun Yu - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 172 (2):253-274.
    Corporate social responsibility reporting is becoming mainstream, yet there is limited research on whether and how CSR reports communicate value relevant information. We examine the effects of CSR report readability and tone on future CSR performance and the market reaction around the release of CSR reports. Using a hand-collected dataset of Fortune 500 companies that published stand-alone CSR reports from 2002 to 2014, we find that 1-year-ahead CSR performance is positively associated with the changes in both CSR report readability and (...)
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  • The Growth of Private Regulation of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains: Mission Impossible for Western Small- and Medium-Sized Firms? [REVIEW]Jette Steen Knudsen - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):387-398.
    Multinational corporations (MNCs) have come under pressure to adopt private regulatory initiatives such as supplier codes of conduct in order to address poor working conditions in global supply chain factories. While a well-known literature explores drivers and outcomes of such monitoring schemes, this literature focuses mainly on large firms and has ignored the growing integration of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into global supply chains. Furthermore, the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in SMEs primarily emphasizes domestic initiatives and not (...)
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  • How Do European SME Owner–Managers Make Sense of 'Stakeholder Management'?: Insights From a Cross-National Study. [REVIEW]Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Andrea Werner, Silvana Signori, Elisabeth Garriga, Heidi Weltzien Hoivik, Annick Rossem & Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):39-51.
    The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Only in recent years, scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The few existing studies in this area, however, discuss SMEs as a context free category or remain focused on single country analysis. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner–managers’ perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries. The comparative analysis is followed by (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in SMEs: A Shift From Philanthropy to Institutional Works?Kenneth Amaeshi, Emmanuel Adegbite, Chris Ogbechie, Uwafiokun Idemudia, Konan Anderson Seny Kan, Mabumba Issa & Obianuju I. J. Anakwue - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):385-400.
    Corporate Social Responsibility amongst Small and Medium Enterprises is often characterised in the literature as unstructured, informal and ad hoc discretionary philanthropic activities. Drawing insights from recent theoretical/analytical frameworks :52–78, 2010), and on empirical data collected from both Nigeria and Tanzania, we found that CSR practices in SMEs are much more nuanced than previously presented. In addition, SMEs undertake their CSR practices to varying degrees in multiple spaces—i.e. the workplace, marketplace, community and the ecological environment. These CSR practices go beyond (...)
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  • How Do European SME Owner—Managers Make Sense of 'Stakeholder Management'?: Insights From a Cross-National Study.Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Andrea Werner, Silvana Signori, Elisabeth Garriga, Heidi von Weltzien Hoivik, Annick Van Rossem & Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):39 - 51.
    The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Only in recent years, scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The few existing studies in this area, however, discuss SMEs as a context free category or remain focused on single country analysis. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner—managers' perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries. The comparative analysis is followed by (...)
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  • How Do European SME Owner–Managers Make Sense of 'Stakeholder Management'?: Insights From a Cross-National Study.Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Andrea Werner, Silvana Signori, Elisabeth Garriga, Heidi von Weltzien Hoivik, Annick Van Rossem & Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):39-51.
    The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Only in recent years, scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small- and medium-sized enterprises. The few existing studies in this area, however, discuss SMEs as a context free category or remain focused on single country analysis. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner–managers’ perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries. The comparative analysis is followed by a (...)
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  • Beyond Size: Predicting Engagement in Environmental Management Practices of Dutch SMEs.Lorraine M. Uhlaner, Marta M. Berent-Braun, Ronald J. M. Jeurissen & Gerrit de Wit - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):411-429.
    This study focuses on the prediction of the engagement of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in environmental management practices, based on a random sample of 689 SMEs. The study finds that several endogenous factors, including tangibility of sector, firm size, innovative orientation, family influence and perceived financial benefits from energy conservation, predict an SME’s level of engagement in selected environmental management practices. For family influence, this effect is found only in interaction with the number of owners. In addition to empirical (...)
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  • The Relevance of Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital Theory in the Context of CSR in SMEs: An Australian Perspective.Suman Sen & James Cowley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):413-427.
    The concept of business responsibility, usually termed as corporate social responsibility (CSR), originated in the early 1930s after the Wall Street crash of 1929 exposed corporate irresponsibility in large organisations. The understanding of CSR has evolved since then and its scope has now broadened from mere compliance to corporate laws to active alignment of internal business goals with externally set societal aspirations. Unfortunately, the significance of this multidimensional concept within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector has continued to be (...)
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  • Social and Environmental Performance at SMEs: Considering Motivations, Capabilities, and Instrumentalism. [REVIEW]Richard J. Arend - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (4):1-21.
    Our analysis of recent survey data of US small- and medium-sized enterprises explores the question of how these entrepreneurial ventures can do well by doing good—i.e., how they can build a competitive advantage with their social and environmental practices. We focus on several firm characteristics and choices involving motivations and capabilities. We use hierarchical OLS to analyze the survey data to find that an orientation to, commitments to, and dynamic flexibility in, the firm’s CSR and green policies are significant factors (...)
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  • CSR and Related Terms in SME Owner–Managers’ Mental Models in Six European Countries: National Context Matters.Yves Fassin, Andrea Werner, Annick Van Rossem, Silvana Signori, Elisabet Garriga, Heidi von Weltzien Hoivik & Hans-Jörg Schlierer - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):433-456.
    As a contribution to the emerging field of corporate social responsibility cognition, this article reports on the findings of an exploratory study that compares SME owner–managers’ mental models with regard to CSR and related concepts across six European countries. Utilising Repertory Grid Technique, we found that the SME owner–managers’ mental models show a few commonalities as well as a number of differences across the different country samples. We interpret those differences by linking individual cognition to macro-environmental variables, such as language, (...)
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  • Fostering Responsible Communities: A Community Social Marketing Approach to Sustainable Living. [REVIEW]Marylyn Carrigan, Caroline Moraes & Sheena Leek - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (3):515 - 534.
    Just as socially irresponsible organizational behavior leaves a punitive legacy on society, socially responsible organizations can foster curative change. This article examines whether small organizations can foster societal change toward more sustainable modes of living. We contend that consumption is deeply intertwined with social relations and norms, thus making individual behavioral change toward sustainability a matter of facilitating change in individual behavior, as well as in social norms and relations between organizations and consumers. We argue that it is in this (...)
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  • Different Talks with Different Folks: A Comparative Survey of Stakeholder Dialog in Germany, Italy, and the U.S. [REVIEW]André Habisch, Lorenzo Patelli, Matteo Pedrini & Christoph Schwartz - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (3):381 - 551.
    Although theoretical underpinnings of stakeholder dialog (SD) have been extensively discussed in the extant literature, there is a lack of empirical studies presenting evidence on the SD initiatives undertaken by firms. In this article, we provide information about 294 SD initiatives collected through a content analysis of the sustainability reports published by large firms in Germany, Italy, and the U. S. In addition to a country-based description of the different forms, stakeholder categories, and topics of the SD initiatives, we explore (...)
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  • Peculiar Strengths and Relational Attributes of SMEs in the Context of CSR.Dima Jamali, Mona Zanhour & Tamar Keshishian - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):355-377.
    The spotlight in the CSR discourse has traditionally been focused on multinational corporations (MNCs). This paper builds on a burgeoning stream of literature that has accorded recent attention to the relevance and importance of integrating small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the CSR debate. The paper begins by an overview of the CSR literature and a synthesis of relevant evidence pertaining to the peculiarities and special relational attributes of SMEs in the context of CSR. Noting the thin theoretical grounding in (...)
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  • Formal Vs. Informal CSR Strategies: Evidence From Italian Micro, Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Firms.Angeloantonio Russo & Antonio Tencati - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S2):339-353.
    Recent research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) suggests the need for further exploration into the relationship between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and CSR. SMEs rarely use the language of CSR to describe their activities, but informal CSR strategies play a large part in them. The goal of this article is to investigate whether differences exist between the formal and informal CSR strategies through which firms manage relations with and the claims of their stakeholders. In this context, formal CSR strategies (...)
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  • Responsible Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Understanding the Realities and Complexities.Fara Azmat & Ramanie Samaratunge - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):437-452.
    Developing countries have recently experienced a burgeoning of small-scale individual entrepreneurs (SIEs) – who range from petty traders to personal service workers like small street vendors, barbers and owners of small shops – as a result of market-based reforms, rapid urbanisation, unemployment, landlessness and poverty. While SIEs form a major part of the informal workforce in developing countries and contribute significantly to economic growth, their potential is being undermined when they engage in irresponsible and deceptive business practices such as overpricing, (...)
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  • Implementing Responsible Business Behavior From a Strategic Management Perspective: Developing a Framework for Austrian SMEs.Daniela Ortiz Avram & Sven Kühne - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):463-475.
    This paper contributes to a growing body of literature analyzing the social responsibilities of SMEs (Sarbutts, 2003, Journal of Communication Management 7(4), 340-347; Castka et al., 2004, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 11, 140-149; Enderle, 2004, Business Ethics: A European Review 14(1), 51-63; Fuller and Tian, 2006, Journal of Business Ethics 67, 287-304; Jenkins, 2006, Journal of Business Ethics 67, 241-256; Lepoutre and Heene, 2006, Journal of Business Ethics 67, 257-273; Roberts, 2003, Journal of Business Ethics 44(2), 159-170; Williamson (...)
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  • The Fine Jewellery Industry: Corporate Responsibility Challenges and Institutional Forces Facing SMEs.Marylyn Carrigan, Morven McEachern, Caroline Moraes & Carmela Bosangit - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (4):681-699.
    There has been limited coverage of the corporate responsibility practices of small and medium-sized enterprises in the mainstream CR literature. Furthermore, there has been no systematic analysis of the responsibilities of the high value jewellery industry and jewellery SMEs in particular. This study explores the potential for harm and value creation by individual stakeholders in fine jewellery production. Using the harm chain and institutional theory to frame our investigation, we seek to understand how small businesses within the fine jewellery industry (...)
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  • Does the Business Case Matter? The Effect of a Perceived Business Case on Small Firms’ Social Engagement.Rajat Panwar, Erlend Nybakk, Eric Hansen & Jonatan Pinkse - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (3):597-608.
    The business case for social responsibility is one of the most widely studied topics in the business and society literature that focuses on large firms. This attention is understandable because large firms have an obligation to shareholders who, as commonly assumed, seek to maximize returns on their investments, in turn, pressing corporate managers to show that firms’ expenditures in social engagement would pay off. Small firms, on the other hand, rarely face such pressures, yet the BCSR logic is increasingly applied (...)
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  • Why and How Does Social Responsibility Differ Among SMEs? A Social Capital Systemic Approach.Cristina Aragón, Lorea Narvaiza & Maite Altuna - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):365-384.
    The existing analysis of heterogeneous social responsibility in small and medium enterprises has considered the effects of individual factors. However, no holistic analysis has been performed on how different factors of heterogeneity interact and how they collectively affect SR in SMEs. Here, we propose a new systemic approach—employing the social capital concept—with the aim of identifying how and why SR is built diversely in SMEs. In particular, we focus on a positive and holistic perspective that integrates the factors proposed in (...)
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  • CSR and Related Terms in SME Owner–Managers’ Mental Models in Six European Countries: National Context Matters.Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Heidi Weltzien Hoivik, Elisabet Garriga, Silvana Signori, Annick Rossem, Andrea Werner & Yves Fassin - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):433-456.
    As a contribution to the emerging field of corporate social responsibility cognition, this article reports on the findings of an exploratory study that compares SME owner–managers’ mental models with regard to CSR and related concepts across six European countries. Utilising Repertory Grid Technique, we found that the SME owner–managers’ mental models show a few commonalities as well as a number of differences across the different country samples. We interpret those differences by linking individual cognition to macro-environmental variables, such as language, (...)
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  • Responsible Business Practices and Some Indian SMEs.Chhanda Chakraborti & Debadutta Mishra - 2018 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):177-203.
    Studies on small and medium enterprises or SMEs in India are scarce. What little is known shows that there is a need to know more about this sector, specially on their performance on responsible business practices. This paper reports the findings on the environmental awareness and practices of some Indian SMEs, from a study conducted by the present authors on 200 SMEs, in the manufacturing and service sectors, in the two Indian states of West Bengal and Odisha. The study results (...)
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  • SMEs and Certified Management Standards: The Effect of Motives and Timing on Implementation and Commitment.Konstantinos Iatridis, Andrei Kuznetsov & Philip B. Whyman - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (1):67-94.
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  • Power and Size of Firms as Reflected in Cleaning Subcontractors’ Practices of Social Responsibility.Sarit Nisim & Orly Benjamin - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):673-683.
    Recent discussions in the area of corporate social responsibility suggest that organizational size has complex meanings and thus requires more scholarly attention. This article explores organizational size in the context of relative power in inter-organizational networks. To shed light on the ways relative power interacts with size we studied social responsibility practices among cleaning subcontractors in three firms of different sizes. Our focus on the network differentiates these firms on the basis of their size and sector. Semi-structured interviews were used (...)
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