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  1. Function, Fitness, Flourishing.Paul Bloomfield - 2023 - In Paul Bloomfield & David Copp (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Moral Realism. Oxford University Press. pp. 264-292.
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  • Patriotism as an Environmental Virtue.Philip Cafaro - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):185-206.
    Define “patriotism” as love for one’s country and devotion to its well-being. This essay contends that patriotism thus defined is a virtue and that environmentalism is one of its most important manifestations. Patriotism, as devotion to particular places and people, can occur at various levels, from the local to the national. Knowing and caring about particular places and people and working to protect them is good for us and good for them and hence a good thing overall. Knowing and caring (...)
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  • The Virtue of Simplicity.Joshua Colt Gambrel & Philip Cafaro - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):85-108.
    In this paper we explore material simplicity, defined as the virtue disposing us to act appropriately within the sphere of our consumer decisions. Simplicity is a conscientious and restrained attitude toward material goods that typically includes (1) decreased consumption and (2) a more conscious consumption; hence (3) greater deliberation regarding our consumer decisions; (4) a more focused life in general; and (5) a greater and more nuanced appreciation for other things besides material goods, and also for (6) material goods themselves. (...)
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  • Are the sources of interest the same for everyone? Using multilevel mixture models to explore individual differences in appraisal structures.Paul J. Silvia, Robert A. Henson & Jonathan L. Templin - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1389-1406.
    How does personality influence the relationship between appraisals and emotions? Recent research suggests individual differences in appraisal structures: people may differ in an emotion's appraisal pattern. We explored individual differences in interest's appraisal structure, assessed as the within-person covariance of appraisals with interest. People viewed images of abstract visual art and provided ratings of interest and of interest's appraisals (novelty–complexity and coping potential) for each picture. A multilevel mixture model found two between-person classes that reflected distinct within-person appraisal styles. For (...)
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  • Why Are People High in Dispositional Awe Happier? The Roles of Meaning in Life and Materialism.Huanhuan Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Yan Xu, Wen He & Jiamei Lu - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Character Strengths, Strengths Use, Future Self-Continuity and Subjective Well-Being Among Chinese University Students.Yonghong Zhang & Mengyan Chen - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:316048.
    The study was designed to explore the relationships among character strengths, strengths use, future self-continuity and subjective well-being. A total of 225 undergraduates completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing character strengths, strengths use, future self-continuity and subjective well-being. Results suggested several character strengths were correlated with subjective well-being and the strongest correlations were found for hope, curiosity, zest, perseverance and love. All character strengths were significantly correlated with strengths use. Strengths use and future self-continuity were robustly correlated with subjective well-being. The mediation (...)
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  • Leaders’ Personal Wisdom and Leader–Member Exchange Quality: The Role of Individualized Consideration.Hannes Zacher, Liane K. Pearce, David Rooney & Bernard McKenna - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (2):1-17.
    Business scholars have recently proposed that the virtue of personal wisdom may predict leadership behaviors and the quality of leader–follower relationships. This study investigated relationships among leaders’ personal wisdom—defined as the integration of advanced cognitive, reflective, and affective personality characteristics (Ardelt, Hum Dev 47:257–285, 2004)—transformational leadership behaviors, and leader–member exchange (LMX) quality. It was hypothesized that leaders’ personal wisdom positively predicts LMX quality and that intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration, two dimensions of transformational leadership, mediate this relationship. Data came from (...)
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  • Why Do Leaders Express Humility and How Does This Matter: A Rational Choice Perspective.JianChun Yang, Wei Zhang & Xiao Chen - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Human Flourishing in Cross Cultural Settings. Evidence From the United States, China, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and Mexico.Dorota Wȩziak-Białowolska, Eileen McNeely & Tyler J. VanderWeele - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Defining Leadership.David Carl Wilson - 2022 - Philosophy of Management 21 (1):99-128.
    This essay examines the concept of leadership as it is commonly understood within the field of leadership studies today. The inquiry is framed by an analysis of three generally accepted definitions of leadership. I look at the selected definitions from four angles, which I call the four dimensions of leadership: the behavioral (what the leader does, or ought to do, that makes it leadership), the asymmetrical (in what sense a leader is different from the others in the group), the social (...)
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  • After Virtue and Accounting Ethics.Andrew West - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (1):21-36.
    Alasdair MacIntyre’s After Virtue presented a reinterpretation of Aristotelian virtue ethics that is contrasted with the emotivism of modern moral discourse, and provides a moral scheme that can enable a rediscovery and reimagination of a more coherent morality. Since After Virtue’s publication, this scheme has been applied to a variety of activities and occupations, and has been influential in the development of research in accounting ethics. Through a ‘close’ reading of Chaps. 14 and 15 of AV, this paper considers and (...)
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  • A Reconceptualisation of the Self in Humanistic Psychology: Heidegger, Foucault and the Sociocultural Turn.Stephen Wearing & Matthew McDonald - 2013 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 44 (1):37-59.
    Since the early 1970s humanistic psychology has struggled to remain a relevant force in the social and psychological sciences, we attribute this in part to a conceptualisation of the self rooted in theoretically outmoded thinking. In response to the issue of relevancy a sociocultural turn has been called for within humanistic psychology, which draws directly and indirectly on the conceptual insights of Michel Foucault. However, this growing body of research lacks a unifying conceptual base that is able to encompass its (...)
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  • Moral Leadership and Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model.Yujuan Wang & Hai Li - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    In this paper, we aim to examine the indirect effects of moral leadership on unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). Drawing on Social Identity Theory, identification with supervisors (social identity) and taking responsibility (personal identity) were hypothesized as mediators linking moral leadership and UPB. In addition, we aim to investigate the moderating role of moral courage in the relationship between moral leadership and UPB. We conducted two studies with two distinct samples: one on a sample of 161 MBA students, and the other (...)
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  • Character in childhood and early adolescence: models and measurement.Jun Wang, Lacey J. Hilliard, Rachel M. Hershberg, Edmond P. Bowers, Paul A. Chase, Robey B. Champine, Mary H. Buckingham, Dylan A. Braun, Erin S. Gelgoot & Richard M. Lerner - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (2):165-197.
    In recent years, the construct of character has received substantial attention among developmental scientists, but no consensus exists about the content and structure of character, especially among children and early adolescents. In a study of positive development among racially diverse Cub Scouts in the greater Philadelphia area, we assessed the construct and concurrent validity of a new measure of character, the Assessment of Character in Children and Early Adolescents, among 906 Scouts and 775 non-Scout boys and girls. We identified an (...)
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  • Conceptualization and Measurement of Virtuous Leadership: Doing Well by Doing Good.Gordon Wang & Rick D. Hackett - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (2):321-345.
    Despite a long history in eastern and western culture of defining leadership in terms of virtues and character, their significance for guiding leader behavior has largely been confined to the ethics literature. As such, agreement concerning the defining elements of virtuous leadership and their measurement is lacking. Drawing on both Confucian and Aristotelian concepts, we define virtuous leadership and distinguish it conceptually from several related perspectives, including virtues-based leadership in the Positive organizational behavior literature, and from ethical and value-laden leadership. (...)
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  • The Social Life of Class Clowns: Class Clown Behavior Is Associated With More Friends, but Also More Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom.Lisa Wagner - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    A dimensional rather than a typological approach to studying class clown behavior was recently proposed (Ruch, Platt, & Hofmann, 2014). In the present study, four dimensions of class clown behavior (class clown role, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker) were used to investigate the associations between class clown behavior and indicators of social status and social functioning in the classroom in a sample of N = 300 students attending grades 6 to 9 (mean age: 13 years, 47.7% male). Participants (...)
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  • Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.Lisa Wagner & Willibald Ruch - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • The Study of Normal Psychic Life.Albert-Jan van de Pol & Jan Derksen - 2014 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 45 (2):113-145.
    In the introduction to hisAllgemeine Psychopathologie, published in 1913, Karl Jaspers stated that psychology has little value for the psychopathologist because it focuses on all kinds of interesting matters, but not on normal psychic life. In this article we argue that today, in the year 2013, little has changed in this respect. During the past century, normal psychic life has rarely been a topic of research. Clinical psychology has focused primarily on studying three other topics: the mind-body problem, the methodological (...)
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  • The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US.Joseph C. Thornton - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Role of Character Strengths in Depression: A Structural Equation Model.Ata Tehranchi, Hamid T. Neshat Doost, Shole Amiri & Michael J. Power - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Collective Traumas and the Development of Leader Values: A Currently Omitted, but Increasingly Urgent, Research Area.Lara A. Tcholakian, Svetlana N. Khapova, Erik van de Loo & Roger Lehman - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10:429390.
    The number of traumatic events that occur worldwide is increasing, yet the literature pays little attention to their implications for leader development. This paper calls for a consideration of how collective trauma such as genocides and the Holocaust can shape the cognition of leaders who are second- and third-generation descendants. Drawing on research on the transgenerational transmission of collective trauma, social learning, social identity and psychodynamic theories, we identify three mechanisms through which collective trauma can be transmitted to leaders: cultural (...)
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  • Bridging science and religion: "The more" and "the less" in William James and Owen Flanagan.Ann Taves - 2009 - Zygon 44 (1):9-17.
    There is a kinship between Owen Flanagan's The Really Hard Problem and William James's The Varieties of Religious Experience that not only can help us to understand Flanagan's book but also can help scholars, particularly scholars of religion, to be attentive to an important development in the realm of the "spiritual but not religious." Specifically, Flanagan's book continues a tradition in philosophy, exemplified by James, that addresses questions of religious or spiritual meaning in terms accessible to a broad audience outside (...)
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  • Character Strengths Lead to Satisfactory Educational Outcomes Through Strength Use: A Longitudinal Analysis.Xiaoqing Tang, Yumei Li, Wenjie Duan, Wenlong Mu & Xinfeng Cheng - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10:454028.
    Despite the flourishing of positive education, understanding of whether different character strengths have different predictive effects on academic achievement/ well-being and the mechanisms of actions between character strengths is limited. Specifically, this study adopted strength use as a mediator to understand well how character strength (assessed by caring, inquisitiveness, and self-control) is associated with students’ end-of-year academic achievements and well-being. Survey data from 349 adolescents from three different schools showed that three factors of character strengths have positive correlations with academic (...)
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  • Servant Leadership and the Effect of the Interaction Between Humility, Action, and Hierarchical Power on Follower Engagement.Milton Sousa & Dirk van Dierendonck - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (1):13-25.
    Servant leadership has been theorized as a model where the moral virtue of humility co-exists with action-driven behavior. This article provides an empirical study that tests how these two apparently paradoxical aspects of servant leadership interact in generating follower engagement, while considering the hierarchical power of the leader as a contingency variable. Through a three-way moderation model, a study was conducted based on a sample of 232 people working in a diverse range of companies. The first finding is that humble (...)
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  • How different is neo‐Aristotelian virtue from positive organizational virtuousness?Alejo José G. Sison & Ignacio Ferrero - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (S2):78-98.
    The purpose of this article is to explain the differences between neo-Aristotelian virtue and positive organizational virtuousness from the virtue ethics perspective. Most studies use virtues and virtuousness interchangeably. A few others try to explain their differences from the positive organizational science perspective. Although closely related, we believe that these two notions are not identical. If we understand neo-Aristotelian virtue correctly, then it cannot be judged exclusively on what is externally verifiable, as is the case with virtuousness. For these reasons, (...)
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  • Understanding Moral Courage Through a Feminist and Developmental Ethic of Care.Sheldene Simola - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):29-44.
    During the last decade, scholars of business ethics have become increasingly interested in the construct of moral courage. However, despite the importance of understanding both moral courage and the factors that might facilitate its expression, this topic has still received relatively limited study and several areas have been identified as being in need of further exploration. These include the need to investigate courage from within a full range of theoretical frameworks, including feminist ones, from within which, little is yet known (...)
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  • The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict.Anat Shoshani & Michelle Slone - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • From Character Strengths to Children’s Well-Being: Development and Validation of the Character Strengths Inventory for Elementary School Children.Anat Shoshani & Lior Shwartz - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Admiration and adoration: Their different ways of showing and shaping who we are.Ines Schindler, Veronika Zink, Johannes Windrich & Winfried Menninghaus - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (1):85-118.
    Admiration and adoration have been considered as emotions with the power to change people, yet our knowledge of the specific nature and function of these emotions is quite limited. From an interdisciplinary perspective, we present a prototype approach to admiration and what has variously been labelled adoration, worship, or reverence. Both admiration and adoration contribute to the formation of personal and collective ideals, values, and identities, but their workings differ. We offer a detailed theoretical account of commonalities and differences in (...)
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  • Virtues, ecological momentary assessment/intervention and smartphone technology.Jason D. Runyan & Ellen G. Steinke - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology:1-24.
    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability (...)
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  • The character strengths of class clowns.Willibald Ruch, Tracey Platt & Jennifer Hofmann - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Mapping strengths into virtues: the relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues.Willibald Ruch & René T. Proyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability.Willibald Ruch, Sonja Heintz, Tracey Platt, Lisa Wagner & René T. Proyer - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  • The Normative and the Empirical in the Study of Gratitude.Robert C. Roberts - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (4):883-914.
    Recent empirical work on the virtue of gratitude raises questions about the limits of that research and its methods to address normative questions about gratitude. I distinguish two kinds of norms for the emotion of gratitude—norms of genuineness and norms of excellence. I examine two kinds of empirical studies that aim to establish or contribute to the norms for gratitude: a so-called “prototype” approach, and a narrative vignettes approach, finding the latter far superior, and suggest various refinements that might improve (...)
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  • Constancy and integrity: (un)measurable virtues?Angus Robson - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (S2):S115-S129.
    The current article offers a short critique of some of the pre-suppositions of the positive psychology approach. It takes the seminal book 'Character Strengths and Virtues' by Peterson and Seligman as the key text, and then explores an alternative programme of enquiry offered by virtue ethics as articulated by MacIntyre. The MacIntyrean approach developed here is consciously focused on traditions of virtue ethics, engaging in empirical enquiry from within a particular tradition, and enquiring into the practical ethics of others who (...)
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  • Natural theology and epistemic justification.Sebastian Rehnman - 2010 - Heythrop Journal 51 (6):1017-1022.
    First it is argued that the linkage of natural theology to epistemology is invalid historically, epistemologically and metaphysically. Second it is argued that knowledge claims about the ultimate cause of everything should be evaluated not in terms of justified true belief but in terms of the intellectual virtue of wisdom.
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  • Perceptions of Organizational Virtuousness and Happiness as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.Arménio Rego, Neuza Ribeiro & Miguel P. Cunha - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2):215-235.
    Moral and financial scandals emerging in recent years around the world have created the momentum for reconsidering the role of virtuousness in organizational settings. This empirical study seeks to contribute toward maintaining this momentum. We answer to researchers’ suggestions that the exploratory study carried out by Cameron et al. :766–790, 2004 ), which related organizational virtuousness and performance, must be pursued employing their measure of OV in other contexts and in relation to other outcomes :928–958, 2007 ). Two hundred and (...)
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  • Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention.René T. Proyer, Fabian Gander, Sara Wellenzohn & Willibald Ruch - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Is the Homo Ludens Cheerful and Serious at the Same Time? An Empirical Study of Hugo Rahner’s Notion of Ernstheiterkeit.René T. Proyer & Frank A. Rodden - 2013 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 35 (2):213-231.
    The theologian Hugo Rahner argued that the homo ludens is a man of ‘Ernstheiterkeit’, a person who can smile under tears but also recognizes the gravity in all earthly cheerfulness. The primary aim of this study was to test the validity of this notion: Do homines ludentes exist? Two hundred sixty-three adult subjects were measured for seriousness and cheerfulness and playfulness. Results provided unequivocal support for Rahner's thesis. Numerous subjects scored high in both seriousness and cheerfulness thus confirming the existence (...)
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  • Flying Too Close to the Sun? Hubris Among CEOs and How to Prevent it.Valérie Petit & Helen Bollaert - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):265-283.
    Hubris among CEOs is generally considered to be undesirable: researchers in finance and in management have documented its unwelcome effects and the media ascribe many corporate failings to CEO hubris. However, the literature fails to provide a precise definition of CEO hubris and is mostly silent on how to prevent it. We use work on hubris in the fields of mythology, psychology, and ethics to develop a framework defining CEO hubris. Our framework describes a set of beliefs and behaviors, both (...)
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  • Virtuous Leadership: Exploring the Effects of Leader Courage and Behavioral Integrity on Leader Performance and Image.Michael E. Palanski, Kristin L. Cullen, William A. Gentry & Chelsea M. Nichols - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (2):297-310.
    We examined the relationship between leader behavioral integrity and leader behavioral courage using data from two studies. Results from Study 1, an online experiment, indicated that behavioral manifestations of leader behavioral integrity and situational adversity both have direct main effects on behavioral manifestations of leader courage. Results from Study 2, a multisource field study with practicing executives, indicated that leader behavioral courage fully mediates the effects of leader behavioral integrity on leader performance and leader executive image. Implications of these findings (...)
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  • Parenting and adolescents’ values and behaviour: the moderating role of temperament.Laura M. Padilla-Walker & Larry J. Nelson - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (4):491-509.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting and adolescent fearfulness on adolescents’ pro‐social values and pro‐social and antisocial behaviour. A total of 134 adolescents (M age = 16.22, 72 girls, 62 boys) responded to questions regarding their own fearfulness, pro‐social values and pro‐social and antisocial behaviour, as well as their perceptions of maternal attachment and maternal appropriateness. Results revealed few main‐effect findings, most notably a negative relation between attachment and antisocial behaviour. However, findings pointed to (...)
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  • A non-reductive science of personality, character, and well-being must take the person's worldview into account.Artur Nilsson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Virtuous Influence of Ethical Leadership Behavior: Evidence from the Field.Mitchell J. Neubert, Dawn S. Carlson, K. Michele Kacmar, James A. Roberts & Lawrence B. Chonko - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):157-170.
    This study examines a moderated/mediated model of ethical leadership on follower job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. We proposed that managers have the potential to be agents of virtue or vice within organizations. Specifically, through ethical leadership behavior we argued that managers can virtuously influence perceptions of ethical climate, which in turn will positively impact organizational members’ flourishing as measured by job satisfaction and affective commitment to the organization. We also hypothesized that perceptions of interactional justice would moderate the ethical (...)
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  • The Role of Four Universal Moral Competencies in Ethical Decision-Making.Rafael Morales-Sánchez & Carmen Cabello-Medina - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (4):717-734.
    Current frameworks on ethical decision-making process have some limitations. This paper argues that the consideration of moral competencies, understood as moral virtues in the workplace, can enhance our understanding of why moral character contributes to ethical decision-making. After discussing the universal nature of four moral competencies (prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance), we analyse their influence on the various stages of the ethical decision-making process. We conclude by considering the managerial implications of our findings and proposing further research.
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  • Integrating character in management: virtues, character strengths, and competencies.Rafael Morales-Sánchez & Carmen Cabello-Medina - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (S2):156-174.
    In recent years, character traits in general and virtue-related concepts in particular have been of considerable interest to philosophers, psychological researchers, and practitioners in the business ethics field. Three approaches to character traits can be used to incorporate ethics into organizations: virtues, character strengths, and competencies. The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of character traits, or virtues, and provide a unified operational version of it for incorporation into management. To this end, we first discuss the analogy (...)
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  • Corporate character, corporate virtues.Geoff Moore - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (S2):99-114.
    This paper extends previous discussions of corporate character and corporate virtues. By drawing particularly on the work of Alasdair MacIntyre, it offers a perspective on context-dependent categories of the virtues. It then provides a philosophically grounded framework which enables a discussion of which virtues are required for business organizations to qualify as virtuous. It offers a preliminary taxonomy of such corporate virtues and provides a revised definition of corporate character.
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  • Exploring the Incorporation of a Positive Psychology Component in a Cognitive Behavioral Internet-Based Program for Depressive Symptoms. Results Throughout the Intervention Process.Adriana Mira, Juana Bretón-López, Ángel Enrique, Diana Castilla, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa Baños & Cristina Botella - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Embracing the Kindness Management and Leadership Facets in a Humanitarian Aid Mission. The Personal and Professional Experience of the Head Nurse of the Israeli Delegation to Cebu 2013.Racheli Mezan, Lea Tamir Tetroashvili & Daniela-Tatiana Agheorghiesei - 2019 - Postmodern Openings 10 (2):125-136.
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  • Cultural Diversity and Universal Ethics in a Global World.Domènec Melé & Carlos Sánchez-Runde - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (4):681-687.
    Cultural diversity and globalization bring about a tension between universal ethics and local values and norms. Simultaneously, the current globalization and the existence of an increasingly interconnected world seem to require a common ground to promote dialog, peace, and a more humane world. This article is the introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Business Ethics regarding these problems. We highlight five topics, which intertwine the eight papers of this issue. The first is whether moral diversity in different (...)
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