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  1. Advances in Peer Review Research: An Introduction.Arthur E. Stamps - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):3-10.
    Peer review is a topic of considerable concern to many researchers, and there is a correspondingly large body of research on the topic. This issue of Science and Engineering Ethics presents recent work on peer review that is both grounded in empirical science and is applicable to policy decisions. This research raises two basic questions; how does current peer review operate, and how can it be improved? Topics addressed include descriptions of how peer review is used in Federal agencies. whether (...)
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  • Institutional Logics in the Study of Organizations: The Social Construction of the Relationship Between Corporate Social and Financial Performance.Marc Orlitzky - 2011 - Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (3):409-444.
    This study examines whether the empirical evidence on the relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance differs depending on the publication outlet in which that evidence appears. This moderator meta-analysis, based on a total sample size of 33,878 observations, suggests that published CSP-CFP findings have been shaped by differences in institutional logics in different subdisciplines of organization studies. In economics, finance, and accounting journals, the average correlations were only about half the magnitude of the findings published in Social (...)
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  • Jury Theorems for Peer Review.Marcus Arvan, Liam Kofi Bright & Remco Heesen - unknown
    Peer review is often taken to be the main form of quality control on academic writings. Usually this is carried out by journals. Parts of math and physics appear to have now set up a parallel, crowd-sourced model of peer review, where papers are posted on the arXiv to be publicly discussed. In this paper we argue that crowd-sourced peer review is likely to do better than journal-solicited peer review at sorting papers by quality. Our argument rests on two key (...)
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  • Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  • The Gendered Conference Campaign: A Critique.David Benatar - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (1):13-23.
    The Gendered Conference Campaign seeks to reduce the prevalence of conferences at which the keynote speakers are all male. Such conferences, according to proponents of the campaign, stereotype philosophy as male, contribute to implicit bias against women and perpetuate stereotype threat. I argue, first, that if a more diverse list of keynote speakers were the correct way to counter harms such as implicit bias and stereotype threat, then a Gendered Conference Campaign would not be the solution. The campaign would need (...)
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  • Scepticism and Implicit Bias.Jennifer Saul - 2013 - Disputatio 5 (37):243-263.
    Saul_Jennifer, Scepticism and Implicit Bias.
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  • From Manuscript Evaluation to Article Valuation: The Changing Technologies of Journal Peer Review.David Pontille & Didier Torny - 2015 - Human Studies 38 (1):57-79.
    Born in the 17th century, journal peer review is an extremely diverse technology, constantly torn between two often incompatible goals: the validation of manuscripts conceived as a collective industrial-like reproducible process performed to assert scientific statements, and the dissemination of articles considered as a means to spur scientific discussion, raising controversies, and civically challenging a state of knowledge. Such a situation is particularly conducive to clarifying the processes of valuation and evaluation in journal peer review. In this article, such processes (...)
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  • Innovating Editorial Practices: Academic Publishers at Work.Willem Halffman & Serge P. J. M. Horbach - 2020 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 5 (1).
    BackgroundTriggered by a series of controversies and diversifying expectations of editorial practices, several innovative peer review procedures and supporting technologies have been proposed. However, adoption of these new initiatives seems slow. This raises questions about the wider conditions for peer review change and about the considerations that inform decisions to innovate. We set out to study the structure of commercial publishers’ editorial process, to reveal how the benefits of peer review innovations are understood, and to describe the considerations that inform (...)
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  • Perspectives on Global Warming: Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway: Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues From Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2010, 368pp, $ 27.00 HB.Steven Yearley, David Mercer, Andy Pitman, Naomi Oreskes & Erik Conway - 2012 - Metascience 21 (3):531-559.
    Perspectives on global warming Content Type Journal Article Category Book Symposium Pages 1-29 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9639-9 Authors Steven Yearley, ESRC Genomics Policy and Research Forum, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ UK David Mercer, Science and Technology Studies Program, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia Andy Pitman, Climate Change Research Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia Naomi Oreskes, Department of History, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0104, USA Erik Conway, Caltech, (...)
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  • Experimental Philosophy and the Underrepresentation of Women.Carrie Figdor & Matt L. Drabek - 2016 - In W. Buckwalter & J. Sytsma (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 590-602.
    This paper summarizes recent and ongoing experimental work regarding the reality, nature, effects, and causes of the underrepresentation of women in academic philosophy. We first present empirical data on several aspects of underrepresentation, and then consider various reasons why this gender imbalance is problematic. We then turn to the published and preliminary results of empirical work aimed at identifying factors that might explain it.
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  • How to Reject Any Scientific Manuscript.Dieter Gernert - 2010 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 22 (2).
    After a short overview of arguments pro and contra peer reviews, examples of gross misjudgement are compiled, followed by an attempt to identify some frequent, recurrent patterns of unjustified rejection of scientific manuscripts. A few specific questions are studied in more detail: the claim for still more precise and comprehensive definitions, the right way of handling ‘‘parallel theories’’, and the frequent misuse of the term ‘‘pseudoscience’’. Finally, practical rules to improve refereeing and ‘‘basic rights of authors’’ are proposed, together with (...)
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  • Characteristics of Peer Review Reports: Editor-Suggested Versus Author-Suggested Reviewers.Jovan Shopovski, Cezary Bolek & Monika Bolek - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):709-726.
    Peer review is widely recognized as a mechanism for quality control of academic content. This research article aims at comparing the review reports and decisions of reviewers who are members of the editorial board of the European Scientific Journal with those reviewers suggested by the authors and who are not affiliated with the journal. 457 review reports on 378 papers submitted to the ESJ in the period of October–December 2017 were analysed. Statistical methods including OLS and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were (...)
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  • On the Relativity of Quantitative Genetic Variance Components.Charles J. Goodnight - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):134-135.
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  • Précis.Berit Brogaard - 2013 - Disputatio 5 (37):311-314.
  • Journal Peer Review and Editorial Evaluation: Cautious Innovator or Sleepy Giant?Serge P. J. M. Horbach & Willem Halffman - 2020 - Minerva 58 (2):139-161.
    Peer review of journal submissions has become one of the most important pillars of quality management in academic publishing. Because of growing concerns with the quality and effectiveness of the system, a host of enthusiastic innovators has proposed and experimented with new procedures and technologies. However, little is known about whether these innovations manage to convince other journal editors. This paper will address open questions regarding the implementation of new review procedures, the occurrence rate of various peer review procedures and (...)
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  • Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes.Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):4-27.
  • Peer Review for Journals: Evidence on Quality Control, Fairness, and Innovation.J. Scott Armstrong - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):63-84.
    This paper reviews the published empirical evidence concerning journal peer review consisting of 68 papers, all but three published since 1975. Peer review improves quality, but its use to screen papers has met with limited success. Current procedures to assure quality and fairness seem to discourage scientific advancement, especially important innovations, because findings that conflict with current beliefs are often judged to have defects. Editors can use procedures to encourage the publication of papers with innovative findings such as invited papers, (...)
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  • Philosophy Journal Practices and Opportunities for Bias.Carole J. Lee & Christian D. Schunn - 2010 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy.
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  • Bias in Peer Review.Carole J. Lee, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Guo Zhang & Blaise Cronin - 2013 - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64 (1):2-17.
    Research on bias in peer review examines scholarly communication and funding processes to assess the epistemic and social legitimacy of the mechanisms by which knowledge communities vet and self-regulate their work. Despite vocal concerns, a closer look at the empirical and methodological limitations of research on bias raises questions about the existence and extent of many hypothesized forms of bias. In addition, the notion of bias is predicated on an implicit ideal that, once articulated, raises questions about the normative implications (...)
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  • Social-Cognitive Barriers to Ethical Authorship.Jordan R. Schoenherr - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Shall We Vote on Values, But Bet on Beliefs?Robin Hanson - 2013 - Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (2):151-178.
    Policy disputes arise at all scales of governance: in clubs, non-profits, firms, nations, and alliances of nations. Both the means and ends of policy are disputed. While many, perhaps most, policy disputes arise from conflicting ends, important disputes also arise from differing beliefs on how to achieve shared ends. In fact, according to many experts in economics and development, governments often choose policies that are “inefficient” in the sense that most everyone could expect to gain from other feasible policies. Many (...)
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  • Social Biases and Solution for Procedural Objectivity.Carole J. Lee & Christian D. Schunn - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (2):352-73.
    An empirically sensitive formulation of the norms of transformative criticism must recognize that even public and shared standards of evaluation can be implemented in ways that unintentionally perpetuate and reproduce forms of social bias that are epistemically detrimental. Helen Longino’s theory can explain and redress such social bias by treating peer evaluations as hypotheses based on data and by requiring a kind of perspectival diversity that bears, not on the content of the community’s knowledge claims, but on the beliefs and (...)
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  • Facts, Concepts, and Theories: The Shape of Psychology's Epistemic Triangle.Armando Machado, Orlando Lourenço & Francisco J. Silva - 2000 - Behavior and Philosophy 28 (1/2):1 - 40.
    In this essay we introduce the idea of an epistemic triangle, with factual, theoretical, and conceptual investigations at its vertices, and argue that whereas scientific progress requires a balance among the three types of investigations, psychology's epistemic triangle is stretched disproportionately in the direction of factual investigations. Expressed by a variety of different problems, this unbalance may be created by a main operative theme—the obsession of psychology with a narrow and mechanical view of the scientific method and a misguided aversion (...)
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  • Selected Articles & Chapters, by Date.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV. What we know (so far) (Pp. 59–102). In B. Wittenbrink & N. S. Schwarz (Eds.). Implicit measures of attitudes: Procedures and controversies . New York: Guilford Press. PDF - 652KB ].
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  • Naturalizing Logic: A Case Study of the Ad Hominem and Implicit Bias.Madeleine Ransom - 2019 - In Dov Gabbay, Lorenzo Magnani, Woosuk Park & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (eds.), Natural Arguments: A Tribute to John Woods. London: College Publications. pp. 575-589.
    The fallacies, as traditionally conceived, are wrong ways of reasoning that nevertheless appear attractive to us. Recently, however, Woods (2013) has argued that they don’t merit such a title, and that what we take to be fallacies are instead largely virtuous forms of reasoning. This reformation of the fallacies forms part of Woods’ larger project to naturalize logic. In this paper I will look to his analysis of the argumentum ad hominem as a case study for the prospects of this (...)
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  • Are There Any “Communications Anomalies”?John T. Sanders - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):607.
    I address some specific problems in the two target articles offered here (Rao and Palmer/Alcock: Parapsychology review and critique), which are indicative of more general problems that plague the larger debate. Because such problems are rather typical of scientific conflict, I address general problems of assessment in a second section. In a final section. I make some comments about the future of this debate.
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  • Social Biases and Solutions for Procedural Objectivity.L. E. E. J. & CHRISTIAN D. SCHUNN - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (2):352-373.
    An empirically sensitive formulation of the norms of transformative criticism must recognize that even public and shared standards of evaluation can be implemented in ways that unintentionally perpetuate and reproduce forms of social bias that are epistemically detrimental. Helen Longino's theory can explain and redress such social bias by treating peer evaluations as hypotheses based on data and by requiring a kind of perspectival diversity that bears, not on the content of the community's knowledge claims, but on the beliefs and (...)
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  • Using a Dialectical Scientific Brief in Peer Review.Arthur E. Stamps - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):85-98.
    This paper presents a framework that editors, peer reviewers, and authors can use to identify and resolve efficiently disputes that arise during peer review in scientific journals. The framework is called a scientific dialectical brief. In this framework, differences among authors and reviewers are formatted into specific assertions and the support each party provides for its position. A literature review suggests that scientists use five main types of support; empirical data, reasoning, speculation, feelings, and status. It is suggested that the (...)
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  • Proposed Codification of Ethicacy in the Publication Process.Jo Ann Carland, James W. Carland & Carroll D. Aby - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2):95 - 104.
    The pressure for publication is ever present in academe. Rules for submission are elucidated by conferences, proceedings and journals for the benefit of authors; however, the rules for reviewers and editors are not so well established or consistent. This treatise examines examples of abuse of the editorial process and points to a need for formal recognition of rules for review. The manuscript culminates with proposed Codes of Ethics for researchers, referees and editors and suggestions for improvement of the peer review (...)
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  • The Evolution of Science and “Principles of Impossibility”.Victor G. Adamenko - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):566.
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  • Estimating Heritabilities in Quantitative Behavior Genetics: A Station Passed.Wim E. Crusio - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):127-128.
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  • Prediction Markets for Science: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease?Michael Thicke - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (5):451-467.
    Prediction markets, which trade contracts based on the results of predictions, have been remarkably successful in predicting the results of political events. A number of proposals have been made to extend prediction markets to scientific questions, and some small-scale science prediction markets have been implemented. Advocates for science prediction markets argue that they could alleviate problems in science such as bias in peer review and epistemically unjustified consensus. I argue that bias in peer review and epistemically unjustified consensuses are genuine (...)
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  • Implicit Bias, Ideological Bias, and Epistemic Risks in Philosophy.Uwe Peters - 2019 - Mind and Language 34 (3):393-419.
    It has been argued that implicit biases are operative in philosophy and lead to significant epistemic costs in the field. Philosophers working on this issue have focussed mainly on implicit gender and race biases. They have overlooked ideological bias, which targets political orientations. Psychologists have found ideological bias in their field and have argued that it has negative epistemic effects on scientific research. I relate this debate to the field of philosophy and argue that if, as some studies suggest, the (...)
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  • Seeing is Believing: The Effect of Brain Images on Judgments of Scientific Reasoning.David P. McCabe & Alan D. Castel - 2008 - Cognition 107 (1):343-352.
  • Implicit Racial Bias and Epistemic Pessimism.Charles Lassiter & Nathan Ballantyne - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (1-2):79-101.
    Implicit bias results from living in a society structured by race. Tamar Gendler has drawn attention to several epistemic costs of implicit bias and concludes that paying some costs is unavoidable. In this paper, we reconstruct Gendler’s argument and argue that the epistemic costs she highlights can be avoided. Though epistemic agents encode discriminatory information from the environment, not all encoded information is activated. Agents can construct local epistemic environments that do not activate biasing representations, effectively avoiding the consequences of (...)
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  • Now That We Know How Low the Reliability is, What Shall We Do?Kurt Salzinger - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):162-162.
  • Antinonrobustness: A Case Study in the Sociology of Science.James V. Bradley - 1984 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):463-466.
  • What Cognitive Representations Underlie Social Attitudes?Anthony G. Greenwald - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):254-260.
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  • Peer Review: Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder.Douglas P. Peters & Stephen J. Ceci - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):747-750.
  • Tacit Agreements Between Authors and Editors.Robert J. Sternberg - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):746-747.
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  • Some Reactions to Manuscript Review From a Questionnaire Study.Charles N. Cofer - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):745-746.
  • A Challenge to Peters and Ceci's Conclusions with an Examination of Editorial Files for Reviewer Appropriateness.Robert Boice, Gayle Pecker, Ellen Zaback & David H. Barlow - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):744-745.
  • Administrative Freedom Versus Academic Freedom and Peer Reviews.Russell L. Berry - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):743-744.
  • Effects of Correlation on Interactions in the Analysis of Variance.Victor H. Denenberg - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):129-130.
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  • Monotone Interactions: It's Even Simpler Than That.Robyn M. Dawes - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):128-129.
  • How Important is Detecting Interaction?James F. Crow - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):126-127.
  • On the Insensitivity of the ANOVA to Interactions: Some Suggested Simulations.Domenic V. Cicchetti - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):125-126.
  • Additivity, Interaction, and Developmental Good Sense.David A. Chiszar & Eugene S. Gollin - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):124-125.
  • Inheritance and the Additive Genetic Model.James M. Cheverud - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):124-124.
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  • Interaction Between Genotype and Environment: Yes, but Who Truly Demonstrates This Kind of Interaction?Michèle Carlier & Catherine Marchaland - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):123-124.
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