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The Moral Judgement of the Child

Philosophy 8 (31):373-374 (1933)

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  1. Applying Research Findings to Enhance Pre-Practicum Ethics Training.Alfred Allan - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (6):465-482.
    Professions have a social obligation to ensure that their members’ professional behavior is morally appropriate. The psychology profession in most jurisdictions delegates the responsibility of ensuring that psychologists entering the profession are ethically competent to pre-practicum training programs. Educators responsible for teaching the ethics courses in these programs often base them on Rest’s theory that does not take into account a vast amount of contemporary psychological and neuroscientific research data on moral decision making. My aim with this article is therefore (...)
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  • Moral Disengagement and Children’s Propensity to Tell Coached Lies.Frances Lee Doyle & Kay Bussey - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (1):91-103.
    This study investigated the relationship between children’s proneness to endorse moral disengagement mechanisms and their anticipated antisocial lie telling. Participants were 107 predominantly white Australian children in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Children completed a lie-telling moral disengagement scale and two vignettes. In the first vignette, a child character witnessed a transgression and was coached to say that they did not see the transgression occur. In the second vignette, a child character did not witness a transgression and was coached to (...)
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  • Located in the Thin of It: Young Children’s Use of Thin Moral Concepts.Jennifer Cole Wright, Trisha Sedlock, Jenny West, Kelly Saulpaugh & Michelle Hopkins - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (3):308-323.
    One important socio-cultural medium through which young children’s moral understanding is cultivated is parent/child discourse. Of particular interest to us was young children’s use of basic evaluative concepts, which are ubiquitous in everyday discourse and serve as a potential bridge from the non-moral to the moral domain. We investigated 14 2–5-year-old children’s use of thin evaluative concepts and found that while they frequently used good and bad to morally evaluate other people’s and their own psychological/dispositional states and behaviors—as well as, (...)
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  • Condoning Aggressive Behaviour in Sport: A Cross-Sectional Research in a Few Consecutive Age Categories.Eric Fruchart & Patricia Rulence-Pâques - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (1):87-103.
    The aim of this study was to compare the way in which 216 young handball players of different ages combined and integrated five different information cues for judging the extent to which an aggressive act performed by a player during a match of handball could be condoned. The participants indicated their judgement in 48 scenarios constructed from the combination of these information cues. A cluster analysis has been done. Two different positions on moral judgement were observed. The information cues were (...)
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  • A Person-Centered Approach to Moral Motivations During Emerging Adulthood: Are All Forms of Other-Orientation Adaptive?Chien-Ti Lee, Laura M. Padilla-Walker & Larry J. Nelson - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (1):51-63.
    The purpose of this study was to explore other-oriented motivations for moral behavior, including community orientation and fear of negative evaluation from others and to examine how differences in the way that these motivations are balanced might be linked to prosocial behavior, identity development and well-being. Participants included 550 university students from four different universities across the United States. The majority of the respondents were Caucasian, living away from home. Results of latent profile analyses revealed four classes: ‘low other-orientation’, ‘high (...)
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  • Teaching Applied Ethics to the Righteous Mind.Peter Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):413-428.
    What does current empirically informed moral psychology imply about the goals that can be realistically achieved in college-level applied ethics courses? This paper takes up this question from the vantage point of Jonathan Haidt’s Social Intuitionist Model of human moral judgment. I summarize Haidt’s model, and then consider a variety of pedagogical goals. I begin with two of the loftiest goals of ethics education, and argue that neither is within realistic reach if Haidt’s model is correct. I then look at (...)
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  • Detecting Children’s Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children’s Lies?Victoria Talwar, Sarah-Jane Renaud & Lauryn Conway - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (1):81-96.
    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children’s lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother–child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and children were subsequently questioned about the transgressive event. Mothers were asked to make predictions about whether their child would peek and then watched a video of their child being questioned (...)
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  • Cognitive Underpinnings of Moral Reasoning in Adolescence: The Contribution of Executive Functions.E. Vera-Estay, J. J. Dooley & M. H. Beauchamp - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (1):17-33.
    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by intense changes, which impact the interaction between individuals and their environments. Moral reasoning is an important skill during adolescence because it guides social decisions between right and wrong. Identifying the cognitive underpinnings of MR is essential to understanding the development of this function. The aim of this study was to explore predictors of MR in typically developing adolescents and the specific contribution of higher order cognitive processing using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (...)
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  • Moral Rationality and Intuition: An Exploration of Relationships Between the Defining Issues Test and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire.Rebecca J. Glover, Prathiba Natesan, Jie Wang, Danielle Rohr, Lauri McAfee-Etheridge, Dana D. Booker, James Bishop, David Lee, Cory Kildare & Minwei Wu - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):395-412.
    Explorations of relationships between Haidt’s Moral Foundations Questionnaire and indices of moral decision-making assessed by the Defining Issues Test have been limited to correlational analyses. This study used Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority and Purity to predict overall moral judgment and individual Defining Issues Test-2 schema scores using responses from 222 undergraduates. Relationships were not confirmed between the separate foundations and the DIT-2 indices. Using the MFQ moral judgment items only, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed higher order constructs called Individualizing and Binding (...)
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  • The Effect of Personal Orientations Toward Intergroup Relations on Moral Reasoning.Stefano Passini - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):89-103.
    This article examined how the group membership of the person being judged influenced the level of moral reasoning. Nearly 200 ordinary Italians were given two measures of moral ingroup inclusiveness and the short form of Rest’s Defining Issues Test. The protagonists in the dilemmas were either Italian or Romanian. Overall, the post-conventional score was related to higher inclusiveness. However, respondents with a narrow moral ingroup scored lower on post-conventional reasoning when the protagonists were Romanian than when they were Italian. By (...)
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  • Good and Evil at School: Bullying and Moral Evaluation in Early Adolescence.Lenka Kollerová, Pavlína Janošová & Pavel Říčan - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):18-31.
    We investigated how adolescents morally evaluated hypothetical bullying and defending protagonists and whether these evaluations related to behavior in bullying as nominated by peers. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four factors for the evaluation of the hypothetical bullies: Evil soul, Contempt, Cowardice, and Deviance, and five factors for the evaluation of the hypothetical defender: General admiration, Courage, Cool, Empathic care, and Fair justice. Corresponding scales were constructed. The findings showed that bullying positively correlated with evaluating the hypothetical bullies using Cowardice (...)
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  • Moral Foundations Theory and Moral Development and Education.Bruce Maxwell & Darcia Narvaez - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):271-280.
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  • The Concept of the Moral Domain in Moral Foundations Theory and Cognitive Developmental Theory: Horses for Courses?Bruce Maxwell & Guillaume Beaulac - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):360-382.
    Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the ?great narrowing?, involves several interrelated claims concerning the scope of the moral domain construct in cognitive moral developmentalism, the procedure by which it was initially elaborated, its empirical grounds and the influence (...)
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  • The Future of Research in Moral Development and Education.Darcia Narvaez - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (1):1-11.
    (2013). The future of research in moral development and education. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2012.757102.
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  • The Effects of Off-Campus Service Learning on the Moral Reasoning of College Students.James M. Lies, Tonia Bock, Jay Brandenberger & Thomas A. Trozzolo - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (2):189-199.
  • What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility.Stephen A. Sherblom - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (1):117-142.
    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic system. Moral sensibility is defined here as a developing dynamic interaction of (1) a host of developing capacities for morally relevant knowing (e.g. moral reasoning, self-awareness and (...)
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  • Promotion of Moral Judgement Maturity Through Stimulation of Social Role‐Taking and Social Reflection: An Italian Intervention Study.Anna L. Comunian & Uwe P. Gielen - 2006 - Journal of Moral Education 35 (1):51-69.
  • A Cognitive Prototype Model of Moral Judgment and Disagreement.Carol A. Larson - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (1):1-25.
    Debates about moral judgments have raised questions about the roles of reasoning, culture, and conflict. In response, the cognitive prototype model explains that over time, through training, and as a result of cognitive development, people construct notions of blameworthy and praiseworthy behavior by abstracting out salient properties that lead to an ideal representation of each. These properties are the primary features of moral prototypes and include social context interpretation, intentionality, consent, and outcomes. According to this model, when the properties are (...)
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  • Reason and Emotion, Not Reason or Emotion in Moral Judgment.Leland F. Saunders - 2016 - Philosophical Explorations (3):1-16.
    One of the central questions in both metaethics and empirical moral psychology is whether moral judgments are the products of reason or emotions. This way of putting the question relies on an overly simplified view of reason and emotion as two fully independent cognitive faculties whose causal contributions to moral judgment can be cleanly separated. However, there is a significant body of evidence in the cognitive sciences that seriously undercuts this conception of reason and emotion, and supports the view that (...)
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  • Students' Choices and Moral Growth.Joan F. Goodman - 2006 - Ethics and Education 1 (2):103-115.
    Can schools encourage children to become independent moral decision-makers, maintaining controlled environments suitable to instructing large numbers of children? Two opposing responses are reviewed: one holds that the road to morality is through discipline and obedience, the other through children's experimentation and choice-making. Circumventing these polarities, I look to distinctions within rules that may help in balancing claims of restraint and freedom. Using a pharmacological analogy, one might, in principle, justify ‘pills’ for uncontrollable and/or morally trivial behaviors, but not for (...)
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  • In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children’s Donating to Charity.Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Marian J. Bakermans‐Kranenburg, Fieke Pannebakker & Dorothée Out - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):1-20.
    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation?specific. Genetic make?up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across time and situations. To illustrate our position we present two studies on children?s willingness to donate their money to a charity (UNICEF) as a prime example of pro?social behaviour. In two samples of (...)
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  • In Search of Profound Empathy in Learning Relationships: Understanding the Mathematics of Moral Learning Environments.Bridget Cooper - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):79-99.
    This paper considers some empirical research into the modelling of moral values in schools, which highlights the hidden impact of working environments on classroom relationships. After an initial survey and pilot study, a range of primary, secondary and student teachers, selected for their empathy, were interviewed and observed in order to understand the nature of empathy in different contexts. The findings revealed four particular types of empathy used in learning relationships: fundamental, functional, profound and feigned. Of these, functional, used in (...)
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  • Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital.Min Ju Kang & Michael Glassman - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):21-36.
    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the distinction between social capital and cultural capital—where social capital is based on cooperation and trust and leads to purposeful solutions to real time social problems and cultural capital (...)
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  • A Multi‐Level Model of Moral Functioning Revisited.Don Collins Reed - 2009 - Journal of Moral Education 38 (3):299-313.
    The model of moral functioning scaffolded in the 2008 JME Special Issue is here revisited in response to three papers criticising that volume. As guest editor of that Special Issue I have formulated the main body of this response, concerning the dynamic systems approach to moral development, the problem of moral relativism and the role of emotion in moral functioning. Five 2008 Special Issue authors contribute reflections: Darcia Narvaez, Jeremy Frimer and Lawrence Walker, Helen Haste and Ann Higgins?d?Alessandro. The Dynamic (...)
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  • Introduction to Moral Philosophy and Moral Education.Ruth Cigman - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):253-255.
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  • More Than Just a Gut Check: Evaluating Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations.Katie R. Place - 2015 - Journal of Media Ethics 30 (4):252-267.
    The public relations industry is increasingly focusing on evaluation and transparency of its activities. Despite this focus, an “evaluation” component is missing from many ethical decision-making models. Thus, this qualitative study of 22 public relations professionals asked How do public relations professionals evaluate or reflect upon ethical decisions? Five themes signaled that practitioners evaluate ethical decisions by conducting “gut checks,” asking questions, considering society, reflecting on core values, and considering the public's feedback. Findings suggest that professionals evaluate decisions on personal, (...)
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  • Why Do People Behave Immorally When Drunk?Joseph Heath & Benoit Hardy-Vallée - 2015 - Philosophical Explorations 18 (3):310-329.
    Alcohol intoxication is a major source of antisocial behavior in our society, strongly implicated in various forms of interpersonal aggression. Yet, moral philosophers have paid surprisingly little attention to the literature on alcohol and its effects. In part, this is because philosophers who have adopted a more empirically informed approach to moral psychology have gravitated toward moral sentimentalism, while the literature on alcohol intoxication fits very poorly with the sentimentalist account. Most contemporary research on the psychological effects of alcohol is (...)
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  • Facts, Values and the Psychology of the Human Person.Amedeo Giorgi - 2006 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 6 (sup1):1-17.
    The notion of value neutrality has been a contentious issue within the human and social sciences for some time. In this paper, some of the philosophical and scientific bases for the confusion surrounding the fact-value dichotomy are covered and the discrepancy between how psychology studies values and expresses them is noted. The sense of value neutrality is clarified historically and the clarified meaning of the term applied to some qualitative data demonstrating in what sense values may be expressed in psychology. (...)
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  • Relationship Between Discrete Emotions and Moral Content Judgment in Sport Settings.Miltiadis Proios - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (5):382-396.
    The purpose of the present study was to provide new knowledge on the relation between emotions and morality by investigating the relation between discrete emotions and moral content judgment in sports. The participants were 363 athletes who were involved in competitive sport at the time of data collection. Their age ranged from 18 to 23 years. All participants were undergraduate sport-science students at a Greek university and were involved in several sports. The subjects filled in two questionnaires: Moral Content Judgment (...)
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  • Moral Dilemma in the War Against Terror: Political Attitudes and Regular Versus Reserve Military Service.Shaul Kimhi - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (1):1-15.
    The current study examines moral dilemmas related to the war against terror: the amounts of force used to arrest or harm a “most wanted” terrorist: the greater the use of force, the higher the risk for harming civilians and the lower the risk to the soldiers and vice versa. The study focuses on the association between moral decisions, confidence, and level of difficulty in making the decisions and political attitudes among Israeli Defense Forces soldiers. In addition, the study examines the (...)
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  • Teachers' Views of Forgiveness for the Resolution of Conflicts Between Students in School.Ju´lio Rique & Maria Tereza Lins-Dyer - 2003 - Journal of Moral Education 32 (3):233-250.
    This study investigated teachers' views of forgiveness and institutional pardon for conflict resolution at schools. We asked, "Should teachers endorse student resolution of interpersonal conflicts at school by asking for forgiveness and forgiving?" "Considering that students' conflict led to behaviours that violated norms in the school, should schools pardon students' misconduct if students effectively used forgiveness for interpersonal conflict resolution?" Finally, "Is an internal and autonomous orientation for forgiveness related to social harmony or interpersonal ethics of care?" Fifty-three participants answered (...)
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  • Explicating the Moral Responsibility of the Advertiser: TARES as an Ethical Model for Fast Food Advertising.Seow Ting Lee & Hoang Lien Nguyen - 2013 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 28 (4):225-240.
    In adopting a deontological lens to assess message ethicality, this study identifies and explicates the ethical dimensions of fast food advertising through five principles of the TARES framework of persuasion ethics. In moral weight, fast food—with its high calories and low nutritional value—is negatively prejudiced. A deontological-ethical perspective, by focusing on the quality of the advertising message, shifts the focus from the product to a more measured deliberation about the moral responsibility of fast food advertisers to reposition them as moral (...)
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  • Athletic Identity and Social Goal Orientations as Predictors of Moral Orientation.Miltiadis Proios - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (5):410-424.
    Moral development, achievement goal, and athletic identity are considered psychological constructs sharing specific cognitive, social, motivational, and behavioral traits. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the relation among moral orientations, athletic identity, and social goal orientations. In addition, the impact of age, gender, type of sport, sport division, and school performance on moral orientation has also been investigated. One hundred forty athletes of artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, and acrobatic gymnastics (n?=?29 boys, n?=?111 girls), aged 8 to 17, (...)
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  • Individual Differences in the Moralization of Everyday Life.Benjamin J. Lovett, Alexander H. Jordan & Scott S. Wiltermuth - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):248-257.
    We report on the development and initial validation of the Moralization of Everyday Life Scale, designed to measure variations in people's assignment of moral weight to commonplace behaviors. In Study 1, participants reported their judgments for a large number of potential moral infractions in everyday life; principal components analysis revealed 6 main dimensions of these judgments. In Study 2, scores on the 30-item MELS showed high reliability and distinctness from the Big 5 personality traits. In Study 3, scores on the (...)
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  • In Support of the Cognitive‐Developmental Approach to Moral Education: A Response to David Carr.Aaron S. Richmond * & Rhoda Cummings - 2004 - Journal of Moral Education 33 (2):197-205.
    David Carr (2002) has argued against the use of developmental theories as a basis for curriculum development in moral education. Although we find common ground with some aspects of Carr's arguments, we disagree with several of his criticisms of the cognitive?developmental approach to moral education. He confuses romantic ideology (as espoused by Rousseau and others) and progressive ideology (as espoused by Dewey and others); he assumes that developmental theories have no endpoint or final goal from which to structure moral education; (...)
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  • Searching for the Ethical Journalist: An Exploratory Study of the Moral Development of News Workers.Lee Wilkins & Renita Coleman - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (3):209-225.
    This study gathered preliminary baseline data on the moral development of journalists using the Defining Issues Test, an instrument based on Kohlberg's 6 stages. Results show that a sample of journalists scored 4th highest among professionals tested using the DIT. The journalists ranked behind seminarians/philosophers, medical students, and physicians but above dental students, nurses, graduate students, undergraduate college students, veterinary students, and adults in general. No significant differences were found between various groups of journalists, including men and women, and broadcast (...)
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  • The Moral Dimension of Children's and Adolescents' Conceptualisation of Tolerance to Human Diversity.R. T. Witenberg - 2007 - Journal of Moral Education 36 (4):433-451.
    This study examined the kinds of justifications children and adolescents used to support tolerant and intolerant judgements about human diversity. For the tolerant responses, three main belief categories emerged, based on the beliefs that others should be treated fairly , empathetically and that reason/logic ought to govern judgements . Fairness emerged as the most used belief to support tolerant judgements and the most commonly used combination of beliefs was found to be fairness/empathy, linking tolerance to moral reasoning, rules and values. (...)
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  • Suppression of the Aggressive Impulse: Conceptual Difficulties in Anti-Violence Programs.Erika Kitzmiller & Joan F. Goodman - 2010 - Ethics and Education 5 (2):117-134.
    School anti-violence programs are united in their radical condemnation of aggression, generally equated with violence. The programs advocate its elimination by priming children's emotional and cognitive controls. What goes unrecognized is the embeddedness of aggression in human beings, as well as its positive psychological and moral functions. In attempting to eradicate aggression, schools increase the risk of student disaffection while stifling the goods associated with it: status, power, dominance, agency, mastery, pride, social-affiliation, social-approval, loyalty, self-respect, and self-confidence. It is argued (...)
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  • Taking Responsibility: School Behaviour Policies in England, Moral Development and Implications for Citizenship Education.Don Rowe - 2006 - Journal of Moral Education 35 (4):519-531.
    School behaviour policies in England have developed in recent years as a direct result of government policy attempting to address issues of poor behaviour in schools, against a background of wider social concerns about anti-social behaviour and loss of respect. Since the 1980s there has been an acceptance that earlier authority-based approaches need to be broadened to include more collaborative approaches with students that involve elements of discussion and negotiation. A commonly stated aim of behaviour policies is to encourage personal (...)
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  • Moral Education and Character Education: Their Relationship and Roles in Citizenship Education.Wolfgang Althof & Marvin W. Berkowitz* - 2006 - Journal of Moral Education 35 (4):495-518.
    Any democratic society must concern itself with the socialization of its citizens. This begins in childhood, and schools are critical to this process. The interrelations and roles of educating for character and educating for citizenship are explored, largely in a North American context. It is argued that citizenship education necessarily entails character and moral formation, but this integration is hindered by negative stereotyping between the two fields. In addition, negative stereotyping between the fields of moral education and character education further (...)
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  • What the Rule of Law Should Mean in Civics Education: From the 'Following Orders' Defence to the Classroom.Martha Minow1 - 2006 - Journal of Moral Education 35 (2):137-162.
    (2006). What the rule of law should mean in civics education: from the ‘Following Orders’ defence to the classroom. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 137-162.
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  • Children's Film as an Instrument of Moral Education.Monique Wonderly - 2009 - Journal of Moral Education 38 (1):1-15.
    This paper explores two philosophical treasures that we often neglect: the moral faculties of children and the pedagogic virtues of film. My thesis consists of three primary claims: (1) when properly educated, children are capable of thinking critically about ethical issues; (2) moral edification ought to have the dual aims of developing this capacity and educating the emotions; and (3) given these aims, the children's film genre is a surprisingly apposite tool for aiding the moral instruction of pre?adolescents. I advance (...)
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  • A Model of Moral Stages.Don Collins Reed - 2008 - Journal of Moral Education 37 (3):357-376.
    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in thought. When individuals seek reciprocity or appeal to reciprocity as a norm, they are not inventing reciprocity or constructing a philosophical concept out of thin (...)
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  • Fostering Goodness: Teaching Parents to Facilitate Children's Moral Development.Marvin W. Berkowitz & John H. Grych - 1998 - Journal of Moral Education 27 (3):371-391.
    Although moral development of children has long been ascribed predominantly to the effects of parenting, there has been little systematic examination of the specific nature of this relation. In this paper, we identify four foundational components of children's moral development (social orientation, self?control, compliance, self?esteem) and four central aspects of moral functioning (empathy, conscience, moral reasoning, altruism). The parenting roots of each of these eight psychological characteristics are examined, and five core parenting processes (induction, nurturance, demandingness, modelling, democratic family process) (...)
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  • Moral Education in the Zone of Proximal Development.Mark B. Tappan - 1998 - Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):141-160.
    Abstract In this paper the outlines of an explicitly ?Vygotskian? perspective on moral education are sketched. I begin by briefly reviewing and critiquing the two most well?known and widely used approaches to moral education??the cognitive?developmental approach and the character education approach??and I suggest that a Vygotskian/socio?cultural perspective has the potential to address many of the problems faced by contemporary moral educators. Vygotsky's ideas about the ?zone of proximal development? are then summarised and those ideas are extended to the domain of (...)
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  • Predicting Tolerance of Journalistic Deception.Seow Ting Lee - 2005 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (1):22 – 42.
    In a Web-based survey of 740 investigative journalists, competition and medium emerge as the 2 most salient predictors of journalists' tolerance of deception. Journalists who view competition as an important consideration in ethical decision making are more tolerant of deception. Television journalists have a higher tolerance of deception than print journalists. Overall, organizational factors such as medium and organization size are better predictors of deception tolerance than individual-level variables such as age, education, work experience, journalism as a college major, or (...)
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  • Moral Education and the Perils of Developmentalism.David Carr - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (1):5-19.
    Many conceptions of moral formation--not least some influential modern accounts--are developmental in character: they aspire to trace progress to moral maturity through or across some sequence or other of more or less well defined stages of cognitive, conative and/or affective growth. In so far as accounts of this kind are often less than mutually consistent, however, the logical status and/or evidential basis of such developmental theories remains less than clear. This article argues that such accounts are inherently normative--precisely, more evaluative (...)
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  • Moral Consciousness in a Community of Inquiry.Josephine Russell - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (2):141-153.
    In this qualitative research study moral consciousness was examined in a chosen sample of two groups of children, aged 7-8 and 11-12 years, respectively. An emergent research design was used, which meant analysing the data continually so that significant meanings could emerge in the process. What was important in the study could not be predetermined, but evolved from the categories of meaning that I derived inductively from the data. The results show that children have a strong moral sense and this (...)
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  • Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test is Supported by Cognitive Science.Darcia Narvaez & Tonia Bock - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (3):297-314.
    Ideas from cognitive science are increasingly influential and provide insight into the nature of moral judgement. Three core ideas are discussed: modern schema theory, the frequency of automatic decision-making and implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) measures the beginnings of moral understanding, which are largely non-verbal and intuitive, in contrast to the Moral Judgement Interview (MJI), which measures the highest level of verbal understanding. The positive attributes of the DIT and its (...)
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  • Case-Based Approaches to Professional Ethics: A Systematic Comparison of Students' and Ethicists' Moral Reasoning.Matthewg Keefer & Kevin D. Ashley - 2001 - Journal of Moral Education 30 (4):377-398.
    This article provides a systematic analysis of the cognitive processes required for acquiring skill in practical ethical reasoning in a professional domain. We undertook this NSF-supported research project in part to study relationships between case-based instruction in professional ethics and cognitive analyses of ethical reasoning strategies. Using a web-based experimental design, we report striking differences in the students' and ethicists' use of knowledge and reasoning. Virtually all of the ethicists and some students' protocols made significant use of specialized professional knowledge (...)
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