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  1. °Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model.Michael T. Ullman - 2004 - Cognition 92 (1-2):231-270.
    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative / procedural model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word- specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory, which underlies the storage and use of knowledge of facts and events. The mental grammar, which subserves the rule-governed combination of lexical items into complex representations, depends on a distinct neural (...)
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  • Experience‐Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.Gert Westermann - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):446-458.
    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language (...)
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  • Steven Pinker.Steven Pinker - 2002 - Cognitive Science 1991 (1996).
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  • The Rules Versus Similarity Distinction.Emmanuel M. Pothos - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):1-14.
    The distinction between rules and similarity is central to our understanding of much of cognitive psychology. Two aspects of existing research have motivated the present work. First, in different cognitive psychology areas we typically see different conceptions of rules and similarity; for example, rules in language appear to be of a different kind compared to rules in categorization. Second, rules processes are typically modeled as separate from similarity ones; for example, in a learning experiment, rules and similarity influences would be (...)
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  • Changes in Functional Connectivity Within the Fronto-Temporal Brain Network Induced by Regular and Irregular Russian Verb Production.Maxim Kireev, Natalia Slioussar, Alexander D. Korotkov, Tatiana V. Chernigovskaya & Svyatoslav V. Medvedev - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Decomposability and Mental Representation of French Verbs.Gustavo L. Estivalet & Fanny E. Meunier - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Is More Always Better for Verbs? Semantic Richness Effects and Verb Meaning.David M. Sidhu, Alison Heard & Penny M. Pexman - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Generalization From Newly Learned Words Reveals Structural Properties of the Human Reading System.Blair C. Armstrong, Nicolas Dumay, Woojae Kim & Mark A. Pitt - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (2):227-249.
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  • Pigeons Acquire Multiple Categories in Parallel Via Associative Learning: A Parallel to Human Word Learning?Edward A. Wasserman, Daniel I. Brooks & Bob McMurray - 2015 - Cognition 136:99-122.
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  • Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.Saloni Krishnan, Kate E. Watkins & Dorothy V. M. Bishop - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (9):701-714.
  • Quasiregularity and Its Discontents: The Legacy of the Past Tense Debate.Mark S. Seidenberg & David C. Plaut - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1190-1228.
    Rumelhart and McClelland's chapter about learning the past tense created a degree of controversy extraordinary even in the adversarial culture of modern science. It also stimulated a vast amount of research that advanced the understanding of the past tense, inflectional morphology in English and other languages, the nature of linguistic representations, relations between language and other phenomena such as reading and object recognition, the properties of artificial neural networks, and other topics. We examine the impact of the Rumelhart and McClelland (...)
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  • Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition.Linda B. Smith James L. McClelland, Matthew M. Botvinick, David C. Noelle, David C. Plaut, Timothy T. Rogers, Mark S. Seidenberg - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):348.
  • Emergence in Cognitive Science.James L. McClelland - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):751-770.
    The study of human intelligence was once dominated by symbolic approaches, but over the last 30 years an alternative approach has arisen. Symbols and processes that operate on them are often seen today as approximate characterizations of the emergent consequences of sub- or nonsymbolic processes, and a wide range of constructs in cognitive science can be understood as emergents. These include representational constructs (units, structures, rules), architectural constructs (central executive, declarative memory), and developmental processes and outcomes (stages, sensitive periods, neurocognitive (...)
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  • Dissociations in Performance on Novel Versus Irregular Items: Single‐Route Demonstrations With Input Gain in Localist and Distributed Models.Christopher T. Kello, Daragh E. Sibley & David C. Plaut - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (4):627-654.
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  • Developing a Domain-General Framework for Cognition: What is the Best Approach?James L. McClelland, David C. Plaut, Stephen J. Gotts & Tiago V. Maia - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):611-614.
    We share with Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) (and with Newell before them) the goal of developing a domain-general framework for modeling cognition, and we take seriously the issue of evaluation criteria. We advocate a more focused approach than the one reflected in Newell's criteria, based on analysis of failures as well as successes of models brought into close contact with experimental data. A&L attribute the shortcomings of our parallel-distributed processing framework to a failure to acknowledge a symbolic level of thought. (...)
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  • Models of Atypical Development Must Also Be Models of Normal Development.Gert Westermann & Denis Mareschal - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):771-772.
    Connectionist models aiming to reveal the mechanisms of atypical development must in their undamaged form constitute plausible models of normal development and follow a developmental trajectory that matches empirical data. Constructivist models that adapt their structure to the learning task satisfy this demand. They are therefore more informative in the study of atypical development than the static models employed by Thomas & Karmiloff-Smith (T&K-S).
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  • Are Developmental Disorders Like Cases of Adult Brain Damage? Implications From Connectionist Modelling.Michael Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):727-750.
    It is often assumed that similar domain-specific behavioural impairments found in cases of adult brain damage and developmental disorders correspond to similar underlying causes, and can serve as convergent evidence for the modular structure of the normal adult cognitive system. We argue that this correspondence is contingent on an unsupported assumption that atypical development can produce selective deficits while the rest of the system develops normally (Residual Normality), and that this assumption tends to bias data collection in the field. Based (...)
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  • The Nature of the Language Faculty and its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky).Steven Pinker - 2005 - Cognition 97 (2):211-225.
    In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the “narrow language faculty”) consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We argue that their characterization of the narrow language faculty is problematic for many reasons, including its dichotomization of cognitive capacities into those that are utterly unique and those (...)
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  • Two Types of Thought: Evidence From Aphasia.Jules Davidoff - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):20-21.
    Evidence from aphasia is considered that leads to a distinction between abstract and concrete thought processes and hence for a distinction between rules and similarity. It is argued that perceptual classification is inherently a rule-following procedure and these rules are unable to be followed when a patient has difficulty with name comprehension and retrieval.
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  • Synthetic Brain Imaging of English Past Tense Inflection.Gert Westermann & Nicolas Ruh - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1364--1369.
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  • A Single-Mechanism Dual-Route Model of German Verb Inflection.Nicolas Ruh & Gert Westermann - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
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  • Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations.João Veríssimo & Harald Clahsen - 2009 - Cognition 112 (1):187-194.
  • What Levels of Explanation in the Behavioural Sciences?Giuseppe Boccignone & Roberto Cordeschi (eds.) - 2015 - Frontiers Media SA.
    Complex systems are to be seen as typically having multiple levels of organization. For instance, in the behavioural and cognitive sciences, there has been a long lasting trend, promoted by the seminal work of David Marr, putting focus on three distinct levels of analysis: the computational level, accounting for the What and Why issues, the algorithmic and the implementational levels specifying the How problem. However, the tremendous developments in neuroscience knowledge about processes at different scales of organization together with the (...)
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  • On the Necessity of U-Shaped Learning.Lorenzo Carlucci & John Case - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):56-88.
    A U-shaped curve in a cognitive-developmental trajectory refers to a three-step process: good performance followed by bad performance followed by good performance once again. U-shaped curves have been observed in a wide variety of cognitive-developmental and learning contexts. U-shaped learning seems to contradict the idea that learning is a monotonic, cumulative process and thus constitutes a challenge for competing theories of cognitive development and learning. U-shaped behavior in language learning (in particular in learning English past tense) has become a central (...)
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  • Capturing Underlying Differentiation in the Human Language System.William D. Marslen-Wilson & Lorraine K. Tyler - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):62-63.
  • The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure.Lorraine K. Tyler Brechtje Post, William D. Marslen-Wilson, Billi Randall - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):1.
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  • Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model.Michael T. Ullman - 2004 - Cognition 92 (1-2):231-270.
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  • Errors of Omission in English‐Speaking Children's Production of Plurals and the Past Tense: The Effects of Frequency, Phonology, and Competition.Danielle E. Matthews & Anna L. Theakston - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (6):1027-1052.
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  • The Past-Tense Debate: Exocentric Form Versus the Evidence.Michael Ramscar - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):107-108.
  • A Social Approach to Rule Dynamics Using an Agent‐Based Model.Christine Cuskley, Vittorio Loreto & Simon Kirby - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (4):745-758.
    A well-trod debate at the nexus of cognitive science and linguistics, the so-called past tense debate, has examined how rules and exceptions are individually acquired. However, this debate focuses primarily on individual mechanisms in learning, saying little about how rules and exceptions function from a sociolinguistic perspective. To remedy this, we use agent-based models to examine how rules and exceptions function across populations. We expand on earlier work by considering how repeated interaction and cultural transmission across speakers affects the dynamics (...)
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  • Birth of an Abstraction: A Dynamical Systems Account of the Discovery of an Elsewhere Principle in a Category Learning Task.Whitney Tabor, Pyeong W. Cho & Harry Dankowicz - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1193-1227.
    Human participants and recurrent (“connectionist”) neural networks were both trained on a categorization system abstractly similar to natural language systems involving irregular (“strong”) classes and a default class. Both the humans and the networks exhibited staged learning and a generalization pattern reminiscent of the Elsewhere Condition (Kiparsky, 1973). Previous connectionist accounts of related phenomena have often been vague about the nature of the networks’ encoding systems. We analyzed our network using dynamical systems theory, revealing topological and geometric properties that can (...)
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  • ‘Words or Rules’ Cannot Exploit the Regularity in Exceptions.James L. McClelland & Karalyn Patterson - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (11):464-465.
  • Re-Thinking Stages of Cognitive Development: An Appraisal of Connectionist Models of the Balance Scale Task.Philip T. Quinlan, Han L. J. van der Maas, Brenda R. J. Jansen, Olaf Booij & Mark Rendell - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):413-459.
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  • A Challenge to Current Models of Past Tense Inflection: The Impact of Phonotactics.Chloe R. Marshall & Heather K. J. van der Lely - 2006 - Cognition 100 (2):302-320.
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  • Past Tense Route Priming.Emily R. Cohen-Shikora & David A. Balota - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):397-404.
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  • Children's Acquisition of the English Past‐Tense: Evidence for a Single‐Route Account From Novel Verb Production Data.Ryan P. Blything, Ben Ambridge & Elena V. M. Lieven - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):621-639.
    This study adjudicates between two opposing accounts of morphological productivity, using English past-tense as its test case. The single-route model posits that both regular and irregular past-tense forms are generated by analogy across stored exemplars in associative memory. In contrast, the dual-route model posits that regular inflection requires use of a formal “add -ed” rule that does not require analogy across regular past-tense forms. Children saw animations of an animal performing a novel action described with a novel verb. Past-tense forms (...)
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  • How Many Mechanisms Are Needed to Analyze Speech? A Connectionist Simulation of Structural Rule Learning in Artificial Language Acquisition.Aarre Laakso & Paco Calvo - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (7):1243-1281.
    Some empirical evidence in the artificial language acquisition literature has been taken to suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are insufficient for extracting structural information from an artificial language. According to the more than one mechanism (MOM) hypothesis, at least two mechanisms are required in order to acquire language from speech: (a) a statistical mechanism for speech segmentation; and (b) an additional rule-following mechanism in order to induce grammatical regularities. In this article, we present a set of neural network studies demonstrating (...)
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  • The English Past Tense: Analogy Redux.Steve Chandler - 2010 - Cognitive Linguistics 21 (3).
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  • The Concrete Universal and Cognitive Science.Richard Shillcock - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):63-80.
    Cognitive science depends on abstractions made from the complex reality of human behaviour. Cognitive scientists typically wish the abstractions in their theories to be universals, but seldom attend to the ontology of universals. Two sorts of universal, resulting from Galilean abstraction and materialist abstraction respectively, are available in the philosophical literature: the abstract universal—the one-over-many universal—is the universal conventionally employed by cognitive scientists; in contrast, a concrete universal is a material entity that can appear within the set of entities it (...)
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  • The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure.Brechtje Post, William D. Marslen-Wilson, Billi Randall & Lorraine K. Tyler - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):1-17.
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  • Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition.James L. McClelland, Matthew M. Botvinick, David C. Noelle, David C. Plaut, Timothy T. Rogers, Mark S. Seidenberg & Linda B. Smith - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):348-356.
  • Rules or Connections in Past-Tense Inflections: What Does the Evidence Rule Out?James L. McClelland & Karalyn Patterson - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (11):465-472.
  • Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading: Cooperative Division of Labor Between Visual and Phonological Processes.Michael W. Harm & Mark S. Seidenberg - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (3):662-720.
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  • Show Us the Model.Mark S. Seidenberg & Marc F. Joanisse - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):106-107.
  • Learning Nonadjacent Dependencies: No Need for Algebraic-Like Computations.Pierre Perruchet, Michael D. Tyler, Nadine Galland & Ronald Peereman - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (4):573-583.
  • The Biological Basis of Language: Insight From Developmental Grammatical Impairments.Heather K. J. van der Lely & Steven Pinker - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (11):586-595.
  • An Elicited‐Production Study of Inflectional Verb Morphology in Child Finnish.Sanna H. M. Räsänen, Ben Ambridge & Julian M. Pine - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):1704-1738.
    Many generativist accounts argue for very early knowledge of inflection on the basis of very low rates of person/number marking errors in young children's speech. However, studies of Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese have revealed that these low overall error rates actually hide important differences across the verb paradigm. The present study investigated children's production of person/number marked verbs by eliciting present tense verb forms from 82 native Finnish-speaking children aged 2;2–4;8 years. Four main findings were observed: Rates of person/number marking (...)
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  • Computational Explanation in Neuroscience.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2006 - Synthese 153 (3):343-353.
    According to some philosophers, computational explanation is proprietary
    to psychology—it does not belong in neuroscience. But neuroscientists routinely offer computational explanations of cognitive phenomena. In fact, computational explanation was initially imported from computability theory into the science of mind by neuroscientists, who justified this move on neurophysiological grounds. Establishing the legitimacy and importance of computational explanation in neuroscience is one thing; shedding light on it is another. I raise some philosophical questions pertaining to computational explanation and outline some promising answers that (...)
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  • The Reality of a Universal Language Faculty.Steven Pinker & Ray Jackendoff - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):465-466.
    While endorsing Evans & Levinson's (E&L's) call for rigorous documentation of variation, we defend the idea of Universal Grammar as a toolkit of language acquisition mechanisms. The authors exaggerate diversity by ignoring the space of conceivable but nonexistent languages, trivializing major design universals, conflating quantitative with qualitative variation, and assuming that the utility of a linguistic feature suffices to explain how children acquire it.
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  • Rules Versus Statistics: Insights From a Highly Inflected Language.Jelena Mirković, Mark S. Seidenberg & Marc F. Joanisse - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (4):638-681.
    Inflectional morphology has been taken as a paradigmatic example of rule-governed grammatical knowledge (Pinker, 1999). The plausibility of this claim may be related to the fact that it is mainly based on studies of English, which has a very simple inflectional system. We examined the representation of inflectional morphology in Serbian, which encodes number, gender, and case for nouns. Linguists standardly characterize this system as a complex set of rules, with disagreements about their exact form. We present analyses of a (...)
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