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Reason and Belief in God

In Alvin Plantinga & Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds.), Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 16-93 (1983)

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  1. The Theistic Argument From Beauty: A Philonian Critique.Ribeiro Brian - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (3):149--158.
    In this paper I consider an understudied form of the design argument which focuses on the beauty of the natural world and which argues, on that basis, that the world requires a divine Artist in order to explain its beauty. Against this view, one might raise a question concerning the beauty of, and in, this divine Artist. What explains the divine beauty? This kind of explanatory regress objection is exactly like that used by Philo in Hume’s Dialogues to undercut standard (...)
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  • Kierkegaard e Plantinga: a subjetividade e a crença em Deus.Paula Marcio Gimenes de Paula - 2011 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 56 (2):32-46.
    O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a discussão da temática da subjetividade como um importante fator para a afirmação da crença religiosa, tanto na obra de Kierkegaard como na obra de Plantinga. A despeito de algumas diferenças conceituais, avaliamos que ambos os autores não se interessam por provar a existência de Deus, mas antes se concentram na experiência como um fator central. Além disso, em ambos os autores, e na tradição cristã em geral, a subjetividade é fundamental para a (...)
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  • Ontological Proof and the Critique of Religious Experience.Florin Lobont - 2010 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9 (27):157-174.
    Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Focusing mainly on a number of unpublished texts by Collingwood, especially his “Lectures on the Ontological Proof of the Existence of God,” the study examines the English philosopher’s innovative interpretation of the Anselm’s main contribution to the philosophical-theological tradition. Collingwood insightfully shows how the ontological argument can be used in (...)
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  • Recent Work in Reformed Epistemology.Andrew Moon - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):879-891.
    Reformed epistemology, roughly, is the thesis that religious belief can be rational without argument. After providing some background, I present Plantinga’s defense of reformed epistemology and its influence on religious debunking arguments. I then discuss three objections to Plantinga’s arguments that arise from the following topics: skeptical theism, cognitive science of religion, and basicality. I then show how reformed epistemology has recently been undergirded by a number of epistemological theories, including phenomenal conservatism and virtue epistemology. I end by noting that (...)
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  • Resolving Religious Disagreements.Katherine Dormandy - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (1):56-83.
    Resolving religious disagreements is difficult, for beliefs about religion tend to come with strong biases against other views and the people who hold them. Evidence can help, but there is no agreed-upon policy for weighting it, and moreover bias affects the content of our evidence itself. Another complicating factor is that some biases are reliable and others unreliable. What we need is an evidence-weighting policy geared toward negotiating the effects of bias. I consider three evidence-weighting policies in the philosophy of (...)
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  • Kilka uwag o logice przekonań religijnych.Marek Lechniak - 2020 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 68 (1):99-120.
    Artykuł jest poświęcony analizie pojęcia przekonania religijnego przeprowadzonej w świetle logiki. Porównane zostanie pojęcie przekonania religijnego z pojęciem przekonania naukowego, następnie analiza Bocheńskiego koncepcji racjonalności przekonań religijnych oraz ujęcia Tomasza z Akwinu pojęcia wiary w świetle logiki współczesnej.
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  • On Intellectual Skepticism: A Selection of Skeptical Arguments and Tusi's Criticisms, with Some Comparative Notes.Pirooz Fatoorchi - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (2):213-250.
    This essay deals with a selected part of an epistemological controversy provided by Tūsī in response to the skeptical arguments reported by Rāzī that is related to what might be called "intellectual skepticism," or skepticism regarding the judgments of the intellect, particularly in connection with self-evident principles. It will be shown that Rāzī has cited and exposed a position that seems to be no less than a medieval version of empiricism. Tūsī, in contrast, has presented us with a position that (...)
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  • Toward Analytic Theology: An Itinerary.Georg Gasser - 2015 - Scientia et Fides 3 (2):23-56.
    In this paper I aim at explaining how analytic philosophical theology developed into a thriving field of research. In doing so, I place analytic philosophical theology into a larger intellectually narrative that is deeply influenced by the philosophy of Enlightenment. This larger framework shows that analytic philosophical theology aims at providing answers to concerns raised by a philosophical tradition that shaped fundamentally the making of our modern Western secular world.
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  • Sensus divinitatis jako koncepcja genezy przekonań teistycznych.Stanisław Ruczaj - 2019 - Diametros 59:48-60.
    Alvin Plantinga's notion of sensus divinitatis ("sense of divinity") refers to a human cognitive faculty designed to produce theistic beliefs that have warrant (positive epistemic status). While most of Plantinga's commentators focus on whether introducing this notion really helps to defend the rationality of theistic beliefs, the genetic aspect of the operation of the sensus divinitatis is often overlooked. This paper is devoted to fill this gap. On the basis of Plantinga's opus magnum titled Warranted Christian Belief, I distinguish three (...)
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  • Quasi-Fideism and Religious Conviction.Duncan Pritchard - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (3):51.
    It is argued that standard accounts of the epistemology of religious commitment fail to be properly sensitive to certain important features of the nature of religious conviction. Once one takes these features of religious conviction seriously, then it becomes clear that we are not to conceive of the epistemology of religious conviction along completely rational lines. But the moral to extract from this is not fideism, or even a more moderate proposal that casts the epistemic standing of basic religious beliefs (...)
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  • La fe sobrenatural y el valor epistemológico del testimonio.José Tomás Alvarado - 2017 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 1 (1):148-170.
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  • Das gefühlte Faktum der Vernunft. Skizze einer Interpretation und Verteidigung.Dieter Schönecker - 2013 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 61 (1):91-107.
    Kant is by no means the pure rationalist that Husserl and others represented him as being. To the contrary I claim that Kant is an ethical intuitionist when it comes to our recognition of the validity of the moral law. Interpreting Kant’s famous thesis about the “fact of reason”, I will first argue for three interpretative theses: 1. The factum theory explains our insight into the binding character of the moral law; it is a theory of justification. 2. In our (...)
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  • Commentary on Adler.Dale Jacquette - unknown
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  • Religious Belief, Social Establishment and Autonomy.Christopher John Eberle - 1997 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    I attempt to analyze, reconstruct, and otherwise defend William Alston's vindication of the cognitive status of mystical experience. I begin by reconstructing Alston's doxastic practice approach to epistemology, which provides him with general criteria by which to determine whether or not mystical experience contributes to the justification of an agent's mystical beliefs. I then present Alston's case for the claim that, according to his general epistemic position, there is a way of forming beliefs about God on the basis of the (...)
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  • Faith, Belief and Fictionalism.Finlay Malcolm & Michael Scott - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):257-274.
    Is propositional religious faith constituted by belief? Recent debate has focussed on whether faith may be constituted by a positive non-doxastic cognitive state, which can stand in place of belief. This paper sets out and defends the doxastic theory. We consider and reject three arguments commonly used in favour of non-doxastic theories of faith: (1) the argument from religious doubt; (2) the use of ‘faith’ in linguistic utterances; and (3) the possibility of pragmatic faith. We argue that belief is required (...)
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  • Reason and Faith.Lara Buchak - forthcoming - In William J. Abraham & Frederick D. Aquino (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Epistemology of Theology. Oxford University Press.
    Faith is a central attitude in Christian religious practice. The problem of faith and reason is the problem of reconciling religious faith with the standards for our belief-forming practices in general (‘ordinary epistemic standards’). In order to see whether and when faith can be reconciled with ordinary epistemic standards, we first need to know what faith is. This chapter examines and catalogues views of propositional faith: faith that p. It is concerned with the epistemology of such faith: what cognitive attitudes (...)
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  • The Composite Nature of Epistemic Justification.Paul Silva Jr - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (1).
    According to many, to have epistemic justification to believe P is just for it to be epistemically permissible to believe P. Others think it is for believing P to be epistemically good. Yet others think it has to do with being epistemically blameless in believing P. All such views of justification encounter problems. Here, a new view of justification is proposed according to which justification is a kind of composite normative status. The result is a view of justification that offers (...)
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  • Analysis of Faith.Bradley Rettler - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (9):e12517.
    In recent years, many philosophers of religion have turned their attention to the topic of faith. Given the ubiquity of the word “faith” both in and out of religious contexts, many of them have chosen to begin their forays by offering an analysis of faith. But it seems that there are many kinds of faith: religious faith, non‐religious faith, interpersonal faith, and propositional faith, to name a few. In this article, I discuss analyses of faith that have been offered and (...)
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  • Lao-Zhuang and Augustine on the Issue of Suspension in the Philosophy of Religion.Changchi Hao - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):75-99.
    This paper addresses the question why the issue of reason and evidence as the central concern in the mainstream contemporary philosophy of religion has to be displaced by the issue of suspension according to Lao-Zhuang and the Augustine of Hippo. For both Lao-Zhuang and Augustine, in making room for the Other to appear at the core of the self’s being, it shows that there is an inseparable relationship of the self to the Other. In suspending its own understanding, admitting its (...)
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  • A Reformed Natural Theology?Sebastian Rehnman - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):151-175.
    This paper aims to counter the recent opinion that there is a peculiar epistemology in the reformed Church which made it negative to natural theology. First, it is shown that there was an early and unanimous adoption of natural theology as the culmination of physics and the beginning of metaphysics by the sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophers of good standing in the reformed Church. Second, it is argued that natural theology cannot be based on revelation, should not assume a peculiar (...)
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  • Markan Faith.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 81 (1-2):31-60.
    According to many accounts of faith—where faith is thought of as something psychological, e.g., an attitude, state, or trait—one cannot have faith without belief of the relevant propositions. According to other accounts of faith, one can have faith without belief of the relevant propositions. Call the first sort of account doxasticism since it insists that faith requires belief; call the second nondoxasticism since it allows faith without belief. The New Testament may seem to favor doxasticism over nondoxasticism. For it may (...)
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  • The Publicity of Belief, Epistemic Wrongs and Moral Wrongs.Michael J. Shaffer - 2006 - Social Epistemology 20 (1):41 – 54.
    It is a commonplace belief that many beliefs, e.g. religious convictions, are a purely private matter, and this is meant in some way to serve as a defense against certain forms of criticism. In this paper it is argued that this thesis is false, and that belief is really often a public matter. This argument, the publicity of belief argument, depends on one of the most compelling and central thesis of Peircean pragmatism. This crucial thesis is that bona fide belief (...)
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  • Journal of Philosophical Investigations.M. Asgahri - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 9 (17):1-227.
    open journal of Philosophical Investigations (PI) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in philosophy. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of philosophy. -/- All manuscripts to be prepared in English or Persian and are subject to a rigorous and fair peer-review process. Generally, accepted papers will appear online. The journal publishes papers including the following (...)
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  • The Concept of ‘Transcendence’ in Modern Western Philosophy and in Twentieth Century Hindu Thought.Ferdinando Sardella - 2016 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 6 (1):93-106.
    ‘Transcendence’ has been a key subject of Western philosophy of religion and history of ideas. The meaning of transcendence, however, has changed over time. The article looks at some perspectives o ered by the nineteenth and the twentieth century Anglo‐American and con‐ tinental European philosophers of religion and presents their views in relation to the concept of transcendence formulated by the Bengali Hindu traditionalist Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati (1874–1937). The questions raised are what transcendence in the philosophy of religion is, how one (...)
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  • Philosophers as Intuitive Lawyers.Gustavo Javier Arroyo - 2018 - Contemporary Pragmatism 15 (1):46-65.
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  • There Is No Sensus Divinitatis.Hans van Eyghen - 2016 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (45):24-40.
    Inspired by Alvin Plantinga, many philosophers of religion accept the existence of a sensus divinitatis, a cognitive mechanism that produces religious beliefs. In this paper I will argue that there are no good reasons to accept the existence of a sensus divinitatis and hence its existence should not be affirmed. Plantinga gives two arguments for its existence, one empirical and one from the nature of God. I will argue that the first argument fails because God’s nature makes it more likely (...)
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  • Children, Religion and the Ethics of Influence.John Tillson - 2015 - Dissertation, Dublin City University
    This thesis investigates how children ought to be influenced with respect to religion. To answer this question, I develop a theory of cognitive curriculum content and apply it to the teaching of religious beliefs and beliefs about religions. By ‘a theory of cognitive curriculum content,’ I mean a theory that determines which truth-claims belong on the curriculum, and whether or not teachers ought to promote students’ belief of those claims. I extend this theory to help educators to decide which attitudes (...)
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  • Common Minds, Uncommon Thoughts: A Philosophical Anthropological Investigation of Uniquely Human Creative Behavior, with an Emphasis on Artistic Ability, Religious Reflection, and Scientific Study.Johan De Smedt - unknown
    The aim of this dissertation is to create a naturalistic philosophical picture of creative capacities that are specific to our species, focusing on artistic ability, religious reflection, and scientific study. By integrating data from diverse domains within a philosophical anthropological framework, I have presented a cognitive and evolutionary approach to the question of why humans, but not other animals engage in such activities. Through an application of cognitive and evolutionary perspectives to the study of these behaviors, I have sought to (...)
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  • Public Reason, Reasonability and Religion A Critical Look at a Liberal Tradition.Manfred Svensson - 2016 - Ideas Y Valores 65 (161):247-265.
    Se aborda la idea de razón pública, atendiendo en particular a su concomitante ideal de razonabilidad. Se expone la continuidad de esta noción desde John Locke a John Rawls, destacando su vínculo con la religiosidad doctrinalmente minimalista de la tradición erasmista. Se cuestiona que, dado tal vínculo, esta ida pueda servir de criterio para evaluar la presencia de otras voces religiosas en la vida pública. The article addresses the idea of public reason, treating in particular its concomitant ideal of reasonableness. (...)
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  • Thomas Reid's Only Primary-Secondary Quality Distinction.Christopher A. Shrock - 2011 - Journal of Scottish Thought 4:141-150.
  • A epistemologiada religião de Plantinga– algumas questões.Rogel Esteves De Oliveira - 2012 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 57 (2):9-14.
    This paper raises some questions and objections to Alvin Plantinga ’s epistemology of religion. In Part I, we have a non-believer speaking. She is in fact an epistemologist and is not very comfortable with Plantinga ’s reformed epistemology. In Part II, we have a Christian believer, and the questions will therefore be from the perspective of someone who is inside, who sincerely believes the main teachings of Christian religion. We do not mean by those questions, however, that Plantinga ’s approach (...)
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  • Great pumpkins, externalisme en religieuze twijfel.Sabine Roeser - 2000 - Philosophia Reformata 65 (2):183-188.
    Alvin Plantinga verdedigt een externalistische kentheorie ten aanzien van religieus geloof. In dit artikel beargumenteer ik dat een internalistische benadering meer recht doet aan de manier waarop veel mensen hun relatie ten aanzien van geloven ervaren: geloven gaat vaak gepaard met twijfel, en iemand moet in zijn of haar geloof vaak afwegingen maken tussen argumenten voor en tegen het bestaan van God. In Plantinga’s theorie wordt er aan het metafysische probleem of er al dan niet een God bestaat te weinig (...)
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  • Externalist Responses to Skepticism.Michael Bergmann - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford Handbook on Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 504--32.
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  • Ambigüedad religiosa, diversidad y racionalidad.Carlos Miguel Gómez Rincón - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (164):55-77.
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  • Revisiting the ‘Reformed Objection’ to Natural Theology.Michael Sudduth - 2009 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (2):37-62.
    In the present paper I address two significant and prevalent errors concerning to natural theology within the Reformed theological tradition. First, contrary to Alvin Plantinga, I argue that the idea of properly basic theistic belief has not motivated or otherwise grounded opposition to natural theology within the Reformed tradition. There is, in fact, a Reformed endorsement of natural theology grounded in the notion that theistic belief can be properly basic. Secondly, I argue that late nineteenth- and twentieth-century Reformed criticisms of (...)
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  • Un lugar para la religión. Examen crítico de la filosofía de la religión de Jorge Aurelio Díaz.Raúl Ernesto Meléndez Acuña & Carlos Miguel Gómez - 2018 - Ideas Y Valores 67 (167).
    Se explora cr.ticamente el pensamiento del fil.sofo colombiano Jorge Aurelio Díaz acerca de la religi.n. En particular, se examina, por un lado, la cuestión del lugar y el papel de la religi.n en la modernidad, a partir de la pregunta por la racionalidad y el valor cognitivo de la creencia religiosa, y, por otro lado, la diferencia entre misticismoy religión. Se plantear.n y discutir.n algunos aspectos problemáticos de lamanera en que Díaz comprende ambos asuntos.
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  • Plantinga’s Reformed Epistemology and Religious Extremism: Some Historical Evidences.Jalal Peykani - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 9 (17):105-116.
    According to Plantinga’s reformed epistemology, as perceptual beliefs, religious beliefs are properly basic, and therefore need no additional justification. But as it has been said frequently, this idea may lead to relativism. In this paper, first, we argue that not only its relativistic aspect allows for religious extremism, but also it could be used to justify that kind of extremism. Then, reciting some historical testimonies, including John Calvin, Khawarij, Ibn Taymiyye and Seyyed Qutb, we suggest that in principle, for many (...)
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  • Leibniz E Darwin: História, Religião E Biologia.William de Siqueira Piauí - 2016 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 9 (19).
    Gostaríamos de contextualizar parte do que o filósofo alemão Leibniz disse em uma carta ao teólogo Des Bosses quanto à possibilidade de existir uma series continua dos seres vivos; contextualização que acreditamos fornecer os dados históricos ou o imaginário da época, ambos de alguma relevância para o embate entre criacionistas e darwinistas, ao menos para os mais ingênuos. Como esperamos deixar claro, muito do que se pensava e encontrava em “História Natural” assumia feições injustificáveis cientificamente, justamente por sua dependência de (...)
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  • Cognitive Science of Religion, Atheism, and Theism in Advance.A. Penner Myron - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
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  • Understanding Hume's Natural History of Religion.P. J. E. Kail - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (227):190–211.
    Hume's 'Natural History of Religion' offers a naturalized account of the causes of religious thought, an investigation into its 'origins' rather than its 'foundation in reason'. Hume thinks that if we consider only the causes of religious belief, we are provided with a reason to suspend the belief. I seek to explain why this is so, and what role the argument plays in Hume's wider campaign against the rational acceptability of religious belief. In particular, I argue that the work threatens (...)
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  • The Explanatory Challenge: Moral Realism Is No Better Than Theism.Dan Baras - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):368-389.
    Many of the arguments for and against robust moral realism parallel arguments for and against theism. In this article, I consider one of the shared challenges: the explanatory challenge. The article begins with a presentation of Harman's formulation of the explanatory challenge as applied to moral realism and theism. I then examine two responses offered by robust moral realists to the explanatory challenge, one by Russ Shafer-Landau and another by David Enoch. Shafer-Landau argues that the moral realist can plausibly respond (...)
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  • Epistemology of religious belief as an essential part of philosophy of religion.Kirill Karpov - 2017 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 53 (3):8-18.
    The article presents the main trends in the analytical epistemology of religious belief. Their interrelations and mutual influences are shown. The author argues that epistemology of religious belief has risen as one of the possible answers to the Gettier- problems. Therefore different trends in religious epistemology are bounded not only with each other, but also with trends in general epistemology. As a result of the analysis of all major trends in epistemology of religious belief the author concludes that the core (...)
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  • The Epistemology of Religious Diversity in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion.Amir Dastmalchian - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (3):298-308.
    Religious diversity is a key topic in contemporary philosophy of religion. One way religious diversity has been of interest to philosophers is in the epistemological questions it gives rise to. In other words, religious diversity has been seen to pose a challenge for religious belief. In this study four approaches to dealing with this challenge are discussed. These approaches correspond to four well-known philosophers of religion, namely, Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Alston, and John Hick. The study is concluded by (...)
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  • Arguing From Ignorance.Jonathan Adler - unknown
    Arguments from ignorance should be schematized: It has not been proven false that p. So it is possible that p. So, it is reasonable to believe p. Also, in opposition to standard views they should be distinguished from burden of proof and absence of evidence arguments. Much of the persuasiveness of such arguments can be located in the slippery uses of "possible." Besides equivocations on "possible" the argument is a fallacy for two reasons. First, the possibility implied by the first (...)
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  • A Place For Religion A Critical Examination Of Jorge Aurelio Díaz's Philosophy Of Religion.Carlos Miguel Gómez & Raúl Meléndez - 2018 - Ideas Y Valores 67 (167):241-263.
    RESUMEN Se explora críticamente el pensamiento del filósofo colombiano Jorge Aurelio Díaz acerca de la religión. En particular, se examina, por un lado, la cuestión del lugar y el papel de la religión en la modernidad, a partir de la pregunta por la racionalidad y el valor cognitivo de la creencia religiosa, y, por otro lado, la diferencia entre misticismo y religión. Se plantearán y discutirán algunos aspectos problemáticos de la manera en que Díaz comprende ambos asuntos. ABSTRACT The paper (...)
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  • Faith and Goodness.Eleonore Stump - 1989 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25:167-191.
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  • Reason in Mystery.Norman Kretzmann - 1989 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25 (1):15-39.
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  • Heeft Het Theïsme Eigen Gronden? Alvin Plantinga Over de ‘Proper Basicality’ van Religieus Geloof.Gerrit Glas - 2000 - Philosophia Reformata 65 (2):170-182.
    The title of this article is ambiguous in the sense that it may direct the attention to either theism as a system of beliefs of persons who are referring to particular facts that serve as external grounds for the foundation of theist beliefs or to theism as a system of beliefs of persons who are convinced of theism’s truth on grounds that are intrinsic to their belief . Traces of both conceptions of theism can be found in Alvin Plantinga’s thesis (...)
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  • Aquinas on the Foundations of Knowledge.Eleonore Stump - 1991 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (sup1):125-158.
  • The Nature of Faith in Analytic Theistic Philosophy of Religion.Dan-Johan Eklund - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (1):85-99.
    In this article I shall analyse and evaluate analytic theists’ views of what it takes to be a person of faith. I suggest that the subject can be approached by posing requirements a person must allegedly fulfil in order to count as a person of faith. These requirements can be referred to as aspects of faith. According to my analysis, four different aspects of faith can be distinguished: the cognitive, the evaluative-affective, the practical, and the interpersonal. There have been divergent (...)
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