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  1. The Impact of Trade Policy Decisions on Social Justice.Sarah C. Goff - 2021 - Res Publica 27 (1):59-76.
    Some recent trade decisions, such as the U.S.’s imposition of protectionist measures against China, have attracted fervent popular support as well as outrage. Critics of these trade policies argue that they fail to promote society’s own interests. This paper catalogues the different ways that trade decisions can hinder and facilitate a society’s pursuit of social justice. I adopt a simple description of trade liberalization: a society forgoes the use of certain policy options, in order to pursue greater economic productivity through (...)
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  • From Conflictual Systems to a Society of Peace: Nonviolence Facing Organized Evil.Roberto Mancini - 2014 - Diogenes 61 (3-4):59-70.
    This article is focused on the relation between peace and nonviolence. It claims that the main challenge for peace comes from the power of structural violence. This is the main form of evil in history. Today structural violence is at work in the political and economic global systems. They obey a logic of conflict. The exercise of nonviolence can avoid the tendency to transform the connection between violence, evil, dehumanization, and great organizational systems into a destiny. The dynamic that is (...)
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  • Rigorist Cosmopolitanism: A Kantian Alternative to Pogge.Shmuel Nili - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (3):260-287.
    What counts as global ‘harm’? This article explores this question through critical engagement with Thomas Pogge’s conception of negative duties not to harm. My purpose here is to show that while Pogge is right to orient global moral claims around negative duties not to harm, he is mistaken in departing from the standard understanding of these duties. Pogge ties negative duties to global institutions, but I argue that truly negative duties cannot apply to such institutions. In order to retain the (...)
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  • On the International Investment Regime: A Critique From Equality.Shuk Ying Chan - 2021 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 20 (2):202-226.
    The international investment regime has come under increasing scrutiny, with several developing countries withdrawing from bilateral investment treaties in recent years. A central worry raised by c...
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  • Holding Intergovernmental Institutions to Account.Ngaire Woods - 2003 - Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):69-80.
    How can governments and peoples better hold to account international economic institutions, such as the WTO, the World Bank, and the IMF? This article proposes an approach.
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  • CSR and the Debate on Business and Human Rights: Bridging the Great Divide.Florian Wettstein - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (4):739-770.
    Human rights have not played an overwhelmingly prominent role in CSR in the past. Similarly, CSR has had relatively little influence on what is now called the “business and human rights debate.” This contribution uncovers some of the reasons for the rather peculiar disconnect between these two debates and, based on it, presents some apparent synergies and complementarities between the two. A closer integration of the two debates, as it argues, would allow for the formulation of an expansive and demanding (...)
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  • Silence as Complicity: Elements of a Corporate Duty to Speak Out Against the Violation of Human Rights.Florian Wettstein - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (1):37-61.
    Increasingly, global businesses are confronted with the question of complicity in human rights violations committed by abusive host governments. This contribution specifically looks at silent complicity and the way it challenges conventional interpretations of corporate responsibility. Silent complicity impliesthat corporations have moral obligations that reach beyond the negative realm of doing no harm. Essentially, it implies that corporations have a moral responsibility to help protect human rights by putting pressure on perpetrating host governments involved in human rights abuses. This is (...)
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  • Models of International Economic Justice.Ethan B. Kapstein - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (2):79-92.
    Kapstein offers three models that seek to capture some of the normative concerns expressed by critics of economic globalization—communitarian, liberal internationalist, and cosmopolitan prioritarian.
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  • Three Pillars of Transnational Economic Justice: The Bretton Woods Institutions as Guara.Robert Hockett - 2005 - Metaphilosophy 36 (1-2):93-127.
  • Three Major Challenges for Business and Economic Ethics in the Next Ten Years: Wealth Creation, Human Rights, and Active Involvement of the World’s Religions.Georges Enderle - 2011 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4):231-252.
    Given the enormous changes in the ways we will live together on the planet Earth, business and economic ethics, with its considerable developments since the1980s, is called to ask itself what major challenges lay ahead for it in the next ten years. It seems three major challenges have emerged with increasing clarity, urgency, and importance. They concern all levels of business, from the personal to the organizational and the systemic level and likely will become even more important in the future. (...)
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  • Assistance with Fewer Strings Attached.Vivien Collingwood - 2003 - Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):55-67.
    This article explores the extent to which it is morally defensible to attach good governance conditions to aid and loans in international society, arguing that the use of conditionality should be limited.
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  • The Ethical Implications of Sea-Level Rise Due to Climate Change.Sujatha Byravan & Sudhir Chella Rajan - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (3):239-260.
    Does humanity have a moral obligation toward the estimated millions of individuals who will be displaced from their homes over the course of this century primarily due to sea-level rise as the earth's climate warms? What form should these actions take?
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  • The Harm Principle and Recognition Theory: On the Complementarity Between Linklater, Honneth and the Project of Emancipation.Shannon Brincat - 2013 - Critical Horizons 14 (2):225--256.
    This paper explores potential points of synthesis between two leading theorists in Critical Theory and Critical International Relations Theory, Axel Honneth and Andrew Linklater. Whereas Linklater's recent work on the harm principle has turned away from the critical social theory of the Frankfurt School in favour of Norbert Elias and process sociology, the paper observes a fundamental complementarity between harm and the precepts of recognition theory that can bridge these otherwise disparate approaches to emancipation. The paper begins with a brief (...)
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  • Comparative Vs. Transcendental Approaches to Justice: A Misleading Dichotomy in Sen's The Idea of Justice.Francesco Biondo - 2012 - Ratio Juris 25 (4):555-577.
    This paper examines the distinction drawn by Amartya Sen between transcendental and comparative theories of justice, and its application to Rawls' doctrine. It then puts forward three arguments. First, it is argued that Sen offers a limited portrayal of Rawls' doctrine. This is the result of a rhetorical strategy that depicts Rawlsian doctrine as more “transcendental” than it really is. Although Sen deploys numerous quotations in support of his interpretation, it is possible to offer a less transcendental interpretation of Rawls. (...)
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  • Compatriot Partiality and Cosmopolitan Justice: Can We Justify Compatriot Partiality Within the Cosmopolitan Framework?Rachelle Bascara - 2016 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 10 (2):27-39.
    This paper shows an alternative way in which compatriot partiality could be justified within the framework of global distributive justice. Philosophers who argue that compatriot partiality is similar to racial partiality capture something correct about compatriot partiality. However, the analogy should not lead us to comprehensively reject compatriot partiality. We can justify compatriot partiality on the same grounds that liberation movements and affirmative action have been justified. Hence, given cosmopolitan demands of justice, special consideration for the economic well-being of your (...)
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  • A Substantivist Construal of Discourse Ethics.Pablo Gilabert - 2005 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (3):405 – 437.
    This paper presents a substantivist construal of discourse ethics, which claims that we should see our engagement in public deliberation as expressing and elaborating a substantive commitment to basic moral ideas of solidarity, equality, and freedom. This view is different from Habermas's standard formalist defence of discourse ethics, which attempts to derive the principle of discursive moral justification from primarily non-moral presuppositions of rational argumentation as such. After explicating the difference between the substantivist and the formalist construal, I defend the (...)
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  • The Importance of 'Social Responsibility' in the Promotion of Health.Stefano Semplici - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (4):355-363.
    The publication of the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of Unesco on Social responsibility and health provides an opportunity to reshape the conceptual framework of the right to health care and its practical implications. The traditional distinctions between negative and positive, civil-political and economic-social, legal and moral rights are to be questioned and probably overcome if the goal is to pursue ‘the highest attainable standard of health’ as a fundamental human right, that should as such be guaranteed to every (...)
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  • Repensar la injusticia. Una aproximación filosófica.Teresa Santiago Oropeza - 2018 - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 49:45-69.
    El presente artículo intenta retomar el tema de la injusticia social con el fin de poder construir una caracterización útil para la filosofía política. La hipótesis principal es que el tema de la injusticia es tan importante como el de la justicia —de la cual hay ilustres teorías filosóficas— pero que no puede ser comprendido cabalmente si se le considera solamente como el polo opuesto de esta. En apoyo de esta idea se desarrollan tres dimensiones de la injusticia social: mala (...)
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  • Shame, Justice, and Decolonization: A Reply to Catherine Lu.Michael Blake - 2019 - Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric 11 (2):51-57.
    This paper discusses two possible difficulties with Catherine Lu’s powerful analysis of the moral response to our shared history of colonial evil; both of thesedifficulties stem from the rightful place of shame in that moral response. The first difficulty focuses on efficacy: existing states may be better motivated by shame atthe past than by a shared duty to bring about a just future. The second focuses on equity: it is, at the very least, possible that shame over past misdeeds ought (...)
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  • Rawls, Self-Respect, and Assurance: How Past Injustice Changes What Publicly Counts as Justice.Timothy Waligore - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (1):42-66.
    This article adapts John Rawls’s writings, arguing that past injustice can change what we ought to publicly affirm as the standard of justice today. My approach differs from forward-looking approaches based on alleviating prospective disadvantage and backward-looking historical entitlement approaches. In different contexts, Rawls’s own concern for the ‘social bases of self-respect’ and equal citizenship may require public endorsement of different principles or specifications of the standard of justice. Rawls’s difference principle focuses on the least advantaged socioeconomic group. I argue (...)
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  • Against ‘Permanent Sovereignty’ Over Natural Resources.Chris Armstrong - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):129-151.
    The doctrine of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is a hugely consequential one in the contemporary world, appearing to grant nation-states both jurisdiction-type rights and rights of ownership over the resources to be found in their territories. But the normative justification for that doctrine is far from clear. This article elucidates the best arguments that might be made for permanent sovereignty, including claims from national improvement of or attachment to resources, as well as functionalist claims linking resource rights to key (...)
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  • Against ‘Permanent Sovereignty’ Over Natural Resources.Chris Armstrong - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):129-151.
    The doctrine of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is a hugely consequential one in the contemporary world, appearing to grant nation-states both jurisdiction-type rights and rights of ownership over the resources to be found in their territories. But the normative justification for that doctrine is far from clear. This article elucidates the best arguments that might be made for permanent sovereignty, including claims from national improvement of or attachment to resources, as well as functionalist claims linking resource rights to key (...)
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  • Global Justice and Global Realities.Shmuel Nili - 2016 - Journal of International Political Theory 12 (2):200-216.
    Should global political theory “get real,” focusing on real-world moral failures? I argue that, insofar as we think it important to reflect on global morality in a world of separate states, the answer is yes. In the article’s first stage, I set up the argument by suggesting that our only convincing reasons to reject the idea of a world state are non-ideal—these reasons concern failures to comply with moral duties, rather than ideal visions of a perfectly just world of full (...)
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  • Sometimes There is Nothing Wrong with Letting a Child Drown.Travis Timmerman - 2015 - Analysis 75 (2):204-212.
    Peter Singer argues that we’re obligated to donate our entire expendable income to aid organizations. One premiss of his argument is "If it is in your power to prevent something bad from happening, without sacrificing anything nearly as important, it is wrong not to do so." Singer defends this by noting that commonsense morality requires us to save a child we find drowning in a shallow pond. I argue that Singer’s Drowning Child thought experiment doesn’t justify this premiss. I offer (...)
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  • Girls Rising for Human Rights: Not Magic, Politics.Brooke A. Ackerly - 2016 - Journal of International Political Theory 12 (1):26-41.
    “Girls rising” offers a grounded, critical, and human rights theory of political responsibility for global injustice. This theory of human rights tells us not just what rights are but how to take responsibility for bringing about their enjoyment for all. It grounds a theory of human rights in the political view of human beings as fundamentally relational and human rights as fundamentally collectively enjoyed. Using girls’ education activism as an illustrative issue area, it outlines five political practices and what they (...)
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  • Between Morality and Law: In Defense of a Political Conception of Human Rights.Regina Kreide - 2016 - Journal of International Political Theory 12 (1):10-25.
    Human rights are currently either seen in a morally exaggerated way as “trump cards” in political negotiations or they are pruned back to a purely juridical level, absorbed into legal instances. In contrast to this, the author defends a political conception of human rights that overcomes the problems besetting both conceptions, but without having to sacrifice their critical, normative content or a realistic role for human rights in international politics. The author argues, first, that a political conception of human rights (...)
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  • Natural Resources and Government Responsiveness.David Wiens - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):84-105.
    Pogge and Wenar have recently argued that we are responsible for the persistence of the so-called ‘resource curse’. But their analyses are limited in important ways. I trace these limitations to their undue focus on the ways in which the international rules governing resource transactions undermine government accountability. To overcome the shortcomings of Pogge’s and Wenar’s analyses, I propose a normative framework organized around the social value of government responsiveness and discuss the implications of adopting this framework for future normative (...)
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  • The Irony of Michael Novak.Menno R. Kamminga - 2020 - Philosophia Reformata 86 (1):5-28.
    The late influential American intellectual Michael Novak was a self-declared devotee of Reinhold Niebuhr, arguably the foremost twentieth-century American theologian. Novak’s The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism was an attempt to fill the political-economic lacuna in Niebuhr’s thought. The present article offers a Niebuhrian irony–focused response to Novak’s democratic capitalism in view of climate change as probably the greatest threat facing humanity. Novak quite successfully extended Niebuhrian ideas into a theology-based vision of democratic capitalism as the only political-economic system effective in (...)
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  • Rethinking the Central Role of Equity in the Global Governance of Pandemic Response.Oghenowede Eyawo & A. M. Viens - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):549-553.
    Our initial response to COVID-19 has been plagued by a series of failures—many of which have extended inequity within and across populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The global health governance of pandemic preparedness and response needs to move further away from the advocacy of a one-size-fits-all approach that tends to prioritize the interests of high-income countries towards a context-sensitive approach that gives equity a central role in guiding our pandemic preparedness and response strategies.
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  • The Horizon of Another World: Foucault’s Cynics and the Birth of Radical Cosmopolitics.Tamara Caraus - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    The ancient Cynic Diogenes was the first to declare ‘I am a citizen of the world ’ and the other Cynics followed him. In The Courage of the Truth, Michel Foucault analyses the Cynic m...
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  • WHO’s Allocation Framework for COVAX: Is It Fair?Siddhanth Sharma, Nisrine Kawa & Apoorva Gomber - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-107152.
    The COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility represents an unprecedented global collaboration facilitating the development and distribution of vaccines for COVID-19. COVAX pools and channels funds from state and non-state actors to promising vaccine candidates, and has started to distribute successful candidates to participating states. The WHO, one of the leaders of COVAX, recognised vaccine doses would initially be scarce, and therefore, prepared a two-staged allocation mechanism they considered fair. In the first stage, vaccine doses are distributed equally among participating countries, (...)
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  • Pobreza global o desigualdad doméstica: Una crítica a las propuestas de David Miller y Laura Valentini.Francisco García Gibson - 2014 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 21:42-63.
    En este trabajo cuestiono las razones que ofrecen David Miller y Laura Valentini para afirmar que el deber de reducir la desigualdad dentro del propio Estado tiene prioridad sobre el deber de reducir la pobreza extrema global. Según Miller, los deberes globales, a diferencia de los domésticos, no pueden legítimamente hacerse cumplir mediante la fuerza, y por esa razón son meros deberes humanitarios que tienen menor peso que los deberes domésticos, que son deberes de justicia. Según Valentini, el deber de (...)
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  • ‘To Lend a Voice to Suffering is a Condition for All Truth’: Adorno and International Political Thought.Kate Schick - 2009 - Journal of International Political Theory 5 (2):138-160.
    This paper explores the ways in which a fuller attention to suffering in the tradition of the early Frankfurt School might valuably inform international political thought. Recent poststructural writing argues that trauma is silenced to prevent it disrupting narratives of order and progress and instead advocates a continual ‘encircling’ of trauma that refuses incorporation into a broader historical narrative. This paper welcomes this challenge to mainstream international ethics: attention to particular suffering provides an important challenge to the abstraction, instrumentalism and (...)
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  • Territorial Rights and Exclusion.Lea Ypi - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (3):241-253.
    Is it possible to justify territorial rights? Provided a justification for territorial rights can be found, does it ground claims toparticularterritories? And provided a claim to particular territories can be justified, what kind of claim is it? Is it a claim to jurisdiction? A claim to control resources? A claim to control the movement of people across borders? In this paper I review some prominent accounts seeking to answer these questions. After outlining their main features, I focus on some difficulties (...)
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  • National Responsibility and Global Justice.David Miller - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    This chapter outlines the main ideas of my book National responsibility and global justice. It begins with two widely held but conflicting intuitions about what global justice might mean on the one hand, and what it means to be a member of a national community on the other. The first intuition tells us that global inequalities of the magnitude that currently exist are radically unjust, while the second intuition tells us that inequalities are both unavoidable and fair once national responsibility (...)
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  • Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice.Toby Svoboda, Klaus Keller, Marlos Goes & Nancy Tuana - 2011 - Public Affairs Quarterly 25 (3):157-180.
    Some authors have called for increased research on various forms of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some of the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, would be a just response to climate change. In particular, we examine problems sulfate aerosol geoengineering (SAG) faces in meeting the requirements of distributive, intergenerational, and procedural justice. We argue (...)
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  • What Liberals Should Tolerate Internationally.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2021 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 24 (1):64-86.
  • Climate Change, Collective Harm and Legitimate Coercion.Elizabeth Cripps - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):171-193.
    Liberalism faces a tension between its commitment to minimal interference with individual liberty and the urgent need for strong collective action on global climate change. This paper attempts to resolve that tension. It does so on the one hand by defending an expanded model of collective moral responsibility, according to which a set of individuals can be responsible, qua ?putative group?, for harm resulting from the predictable aggregation of their individual acts. On the other, it defends a collectivized version of (...)
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  • Distributive and Relational Equality.Christian Schemmel - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):123-148.
    Is equality a distributive value or does it rather point to the quality of social relationships? This article criticizes the distributive character of luck egalitarian theories of justice and fleshes out the central characteristics of an alternative, relational approach to equality. It examines a central objection to distributive theories: that such theories cannot account for the significance of how institutions treat people (as opposed to the outcomes they bring about). I discuss two variants of this objection: first, that distributive theories (...)
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  • Measuring Poverty Around the World, Anthony B. Atkinson. Princeton University Press, 2019, Xxvii + 464 Pages. [REVIEW]Lucio Esposito & Blanca Zuluaga - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):156-161.
  • To Every Thing There is a Season: Theory, History, and Global Justice.Amnon Lev - forthcoming - Constellations.
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  • Famine, Affluence, and Procreation: Peter Singer and Anti-Natalism Lite.David Benatar - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):415-431.
    Peter Singer has argued that the affluent have very extensive duties to the world’s poor. His argument has some important implications for procreation, most of which have not yet been acknowledged. These implications are explicated in this paper. First, the rich should desist from procreation and instead divert to the poor those resources that would have been used to rear the children that would otherwise have been produced. Second, the poor should desist from procreation because doing so can prevent the (...)
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  • Food Justice for All?: Searching for the ‘Justice Multiple’ in UK Food Movements.Helen Coulson & Paul Milbourne - 2021 - Agriculture and Human Values 38 (1):43-58.
    In this paper, we examine diverse political philosophical conceptualisations of justice and interrogate how these contested understandings are drawn upon in the burgeoning food justice scholarship. We suggest that three interconnected dimensions of justice—plurality, the spatial–temporal and the more-than-human—deserve further analytical attention and propose the notion of the ‘justice multiple’ to bring together a multiplicity of framings and situated practices of justice. Given the lack of critical engagement food justice has received as both a concept and social movement in the (...)
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  • Poverty, Ethics and Justice Revisited.H. Lötter - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (3):343-361.
    In this article I respond to the thoughtful criticisms of my book articulated by Gillian Brock, Thaddeus Metz, and Darrel Moellendorf. Their critical questioning offers me an opportunity to reformulate aspects of the book so that I more accurately say exactly what I had in mind when writing the book. The first section contains a reworking of my definition of poverty to eliminate any ambiguity and demonstrate what kind of comparative judgements the definition allows us to make. The second section (...)
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  • African Values and Human Rights as Two Sides of the Same Coin: Reply to Oyowe.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - African Human Rights Law Journal 14 (2):306-21.
    In an article previously published in this Journal, Anthony Oyowe critically engages with my attempt to demonstrate how the human rights characteristic of South Africa’s Constitution can be grounded on a certain interpretation of Afro-communitarian values that are often associated with talk of ‘ubuntu’. Drawing on recurrent themes of human dignity and communal relationships in the sub-Saharan tradition, I have advanced a moral-philosophical principle that I argue entails and plausibly explains a wide array of individual rights to civil liberties, political (...)
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  • Citizenship and Justice.Andrew Mason - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (3):263-281.
    Are the rights, duties, and virtues of citizenship grounded exclusively in considerations of justice, or do some or all of them have other sources? This question is addressed by distinguishing three different accounts of the justification of these rights, duties, and virtues, namely, the justice account, the common-good account, and the equal-membership account. The common-good account is rejected on the grounds that it provides an implausible way of understanding what it is to act as a citizen. It is then argued (...)
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  • Una moral de la opacidad: Hume y la virtud del ocultamiento.Juan Samuel Santos Castro - 2018 - Isegoría 58:55-76.
    Are there any conditions under which to justify deliberately hiding or manipulating the expression of our opinions, emotions or character traits in front of others? this article examines David Hume’s answer to this question by discussing the practices that he calls good manners and impudence. the conclusion is that Hume’s description of the moral point of view allows for two conditions under which practices of opacity such as good manners and impudence can be morally assessed.
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  • In a Democracy, What Makes an External Self-Determination Claim Reasonable? Some Reflections on the Moral Aspect of the Question.Joan Vergés - 2021 - Las Torres de Lucca. International Journal of Political Philosophy 10 (18):19-42.
    The central part of this article deals with the morality of secession. We present the three main "pure" theories about the morality of secession and suggest the greatest justifying power of an "impure" or mixed theory. At the same time, however, we advocate the need for a proper understanding of the question of the morality of secession. More specifically, we suggest that the best way to raise it is by introducing the notion of "reasonableness" into the question itself.
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  • Ubuntu, Cosmopolitanism, and Distribution of Natural Resources.Edwin Etieyibo - 2017 - Philosophical Papers 46 (1):139-162.
    In this paper, I argue that Ubuntu can be construed as a strict form of cosmopolitan moral and political theory. The implication of this is that the duty or obligation that humans owe other humans arises in virtue of humanity or the notion of human-ness. That is, one is a person insofar as he or she forms humane relations and it is this particular way of beingness that makes every person both an object and subject of duty. On this cosmopolitan (...)
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  • Expanding Motivations for Global Justice: A Dialogue Between Public Christian Social Ethics and Ubuntu Ethics as Afro-Communitarianism.Andreas Rauhut - 2017 - Journal of Global Ethics 13 (2):138-156.
    Faced with the ongoing tragedy of poverty, ethicists call for effective measures of global justice to set up just institutional structures. Their arguments for a transnational obligation to help however remain contested, one of the main reasons for that being the lack of motivational support for trans-national visions of global justice. This articles suggests that the debate will gain new and helpful insights if it studies the motivational mechanisms at work in the dominant religious and cultural traditions, asking: How do (...)
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