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  1. Beyond the Circle of Life.Gregory Nixon (ed.) - 2017 - New York: QuantumDream.
    It seems certain to me that I will die and stay dead. By “I”, I mean me, Greg Nixon, this person, this self-identity. I am so intertwined with the chiasmus of lives, bodies, ecosystems, symbolic intersubjectivity, and life on this particular planet that I cannot imagine this identity continuing alone without them. However, one may survive one’s life by believing in universal awareness, perfection, and the peace that passes all understanding. Perhaps, we bring this back with us to the Source (...)
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  • Theories of Consciousness & Death.Gregory Nixon (ed.) - 2016 - New York, USA: QuantumDream.
    What happens to the inner light of consciousness with the death of the individual body and brain? Reductive materialism assumes it simply fades to black. Others think of consciousness as indicating a continuation of self, a transformation, an awakening or even alternatives based on the quality of life experience. In this issue, speculation drawn from theoretic research are presented. -/- Table of Contents Epigraph: From “The Immortal”, Jorge Luis Borges iii Editor’s Introduction: I Killed a Squirrel the Other Day, Gregory (...)
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  • Correction To: Preface of the Special Issue: International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement” - Second Part.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2018 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):5-5.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10699-021-09793-2.
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  • Representing Attitudes Towards Ambiguity in Hilbert Space: Foundations and Applications.Sandro Sozzo - 2020 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):103-128.
    We provide here a general mathematical framework to model attitudes towards ambiguity which uses the formalism of quantum theory as a “purely mathematical formalism, detached from any physical interpretation”. We show that the quantum-theoretic framework enables modelling of the Ellsberg paradox, but it also successfully applies to more concrete human decision-making tests involving financial, managerial and medical decisions. In particular, we elaborate a mathematical representation of various empirical studies which reveal that attitudes of managers towards uncertainty shift from ambiguity seeking (...)
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  • Quantum Theory Methods as a Possible Alternative for the Double-Blind Gold Standard of Evidence-Based Medicine: Outlining a New Research Program.Diederik Aerts, Lester Beltran, Suzette Geriente, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo, Rembrandt Van Sprundel & Tomas Veloz - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):217-225.
    We motivate the possibility of using notions and methods derived from quantum physics, and more specifically from the research field known as ‘quantum cognition’, to optimally model different situations in the field of medicine, its decision-making processes and ensuing practices, particularly in relation to chronic and rare diseases. This also as a way to devise alternative approaches to the generally adopted double-blind gold standard.
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  • Can Resources Save Rationality? ‘Anti-Bayesian’ Updating in Cognition and Perception.Eric Mandelbaum, Isabel Won, Steven Gross & Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 143:e16.
    Resource rationality may explain suboptimal patterns of reasoning; but what of “anti-Bayesian” effects where the mind updates in a direction opposite the one it should? We present two phenomena — belief polarization and the size-weight illusion — that are not obviously explained by performance- or resource-based constraints, nor by the authors’ brief discussion of reference repulsion. Can resource rationality accommodate them?
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  • The Heart of an Image: Quantum Superposition and Entanglement in Visual Perception.Jonito Aerts Arguëlles - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):757-778.
    We analyse the way in which the principle that ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’ manifests itself with phenomena of visual perception. For this investigation we use insights and techniques coming from quantum cognition, and more specifically we are inspired by the correspondence of this principle with the phenomenon of the conjunction effect in human cognition. We identify entities of meaning within artefacts of visual perception and rely on how such entities are modelled for corpuses of (...)
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  • Sciences of Observation.Chris Fields - 2018 - Philosophies 3 (4):29-0.
    Multiple sciences have converged, in the past two decades, on a hitherto mostly unremarked question: what is observation? Here, I examine this evolution, focusing on three sciences: physics, especially quantum information theory, developmental biology, especially its molecular and “evo-devo” branches, and cognitive science, especially perceptual psychology and robotics. I trace the history of this question to the late 19th century, and through the conceptual revolutions of the 20th century. I show how the increasing interdisciplinary focus on the process of extracting (...)
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  • Modeling Human Decision-Making: An Overview of the Brussels Quantum Approach.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):27-54.
    We present the fundamentals of the quantum theoretical approach we have developed in the last decade to model cognitive phenomena that resisted modeling by means of classical logical and probabilistic structures, like Boolean, Kolmogorovian and, more generally, set theoretical structures. We firstly sketch the operational-realistic foundations of conceptual entities, i.e. concepts, conceptual combinations, propositions, decision-making entities, etc. Then, we briefly illustrate the application of the quantum formalism in Hilbert space to represent combinations of natural concepts, discussing its success in modeling (...)
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  • Being Realist About Bayes, and the Predictive Processing Theory of Mind.Matteo Colombo, Lee Elkin & Stephan Hartmann - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (1):185-220.
    Some naturalistic philosophers of mind subscribing to the predictive processing theory of mind have adopted a realist attitude towards the results of Bayesian cognitive science. In this paper, we argue that this realist attitude is unwarranted. The Bayesian research program in cognitive science does not possess special epistemic virtues over alternative approaches for explaining mental phenomena involving uncertainty. In particular, the Bayesian approach is not simpler, more unifying, or more rational than alternatives. It is also contentious that the Bayesian approach (...)
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  • What Are the Appropriate Axioms of Rationality for Reasoning Under Uncertainty with Resource-Constrained Systems?Harald Atmanspacher, Irina Basieva, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Andrei Y. Khrennikov, Emmanuel M. Pothos, Richard M. Shiffrin & Zheng Wang - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    When constrained by limited resources, how do we choose axioms of rationality? The target article relies on Bayesian reasoning that encounter serioustractabilityproblems. We propose another axiomatic foundation: quantum probability theory, which provides for less complex and more comprehensive descriptions. More generally, defining rationality in terms of axiomatic systems misses a key issue: rationality must be defined by humans facing vague information.
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  • Bayesian Cognitive Science, Monopoly, and Neglected Frameworks.Matteo Colombo & Stephan Hartmann - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (2):451–484.
    A widely shared view in the cognitive sciences is that discovering and assessing explanations of cognitive phenomena whose production involves uncertainty should be done in a Bayesian framework. One assumption supporting this modelling choice is that Bayes provides the best approach for representing uncertainty. However, it is unclear that Bayes possesses special epistemic virtues over alternative modelling frameworks, since a systematic comparison has yet to be attempted. Currently, it is then premature to assert that cognitive phenomena involving uncertainty are best (...)
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  • The Quantum-Like Approach to Modeling Classical Rationality Violations: An Introduction.Franco Vaio - 2019 - Mind and Society 18 (1):105-123.
    Psychological empirical research has shown that human choice behavior often violates the assumptions of classical rational choice models. In the last few decades a new research field has emerged which aims to account for the observed choice behavior by resorting to the concepts and mathematical techniques developed in the realm of quantum physics, such as the “mental state vector” defined in a Hilbert space and the interference of quantum probability. This article is a short introduction to the quantum-like approach to (...)
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  • Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?Bartosz W. Wojciechowski & Emmanuel M. Pothos - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Reintroducing the Concept of Complementarity Into Psychology.Zheng Wang & Jerome Busemeyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and Its Application to Data Representation.Tomas Veloz & Sylvie Desjardins - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Quantum Probability Theory as a Common Framework for Reasoning and Similarity.Jennifer S. Trueblood, Emmanuel M. Pothos & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Uses and Abuses of the Coherence – Correspondence Distinction.Andrea Polonioli - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Quantum-Like Model of Unconscious–Conscious Dynamics.Andrei Khrennikov - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Bayesian Boom: Good Thing or Bad?Ulrike Hahn - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Bayesian Reasoning with Ifs and Ands and Ors.Nicole Cruz, Jean Baratgin, Mike Oaksford & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World.Diederik Aerts - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • A Quantum Question Order Model Supported by Empirical Tests of an A Priori and Precise Prediction.Zheng Wang & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):689-710.
    Question order effects are commonly observed in self-report measures of judgment and attitude. This article develops a quantum question order model (the QQ model) to account for four types of question order effects observed in literature. First, the postulates of the QQ model are presented. Second, an a priori, parameter-free, and precise prediction, called the QQ equality, is derived from these mathematical principles, and six empirical data sets are used to test the prediction. Third, a new index is derived from (...)
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  • Comments on Quantum Probability Theory.Steven Sloman - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):47-52.
    Quantum probability theory (QP) is the best formal representation available of the most common form of judgment involving attribute comparison (inside judgment). People are capable, however, of judgments that involve proportions over sets of instances (outside judgment). Here, the theory does not do so well. I discuss the theory both in terms of descriptive adequacy and normative appropriateness.
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  • What Are the “True” Statistics of the Environment?Jacob Feldman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (7):1871-1903.
    A widespread assumption in the contemporary discussion of probabilistic models of cognition, often attributed to the Bayesian program, is that inference is optimal when the observer's priors match the true priors in the world—the actual “statistics of the environment.” But in fact the idea of a “true” prior plays no role in traditional Bayesian philosophy, which regards probability as a quantification of belief, not an objective characteristic of the world. In this paper I discuss the significance of the traditional Bayesian (...)
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  • Naive Probability: Model‐Based Estimates of Unique Events.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Max Lotstein & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1216-1258.
    We describe a dual-process theory of how individuals estimate the probabilities of unique events, such as Hillary Clinton becoming U.S. President. It postulates that uncertainty is a guide to improbability. In its computer implementation, an intuitive system 1 simulates evidence in mental models and forms analog non-numerical representations of the magnitude of degrees of belief. This system has minimal computational power and combines evidence using a small repertoire of primitive operations. It resolves the uncertainty of divergent evidence for single events, (...)
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  • Sometimes It Does Hurt to Ask: The Constructive Role of Articulating Impressions.Lee C. White, Emmanuel M. Pothos & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2014 - Cognition 133 (1):48-64.
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  • Interference Effects of Categorization on Decision Making.Zheng Wang & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2016 - Cognition 150:133-149.
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  • Processes Models, Environmental Analyses, and Cognitive Architectures: Quo Vadis Quantum Probability Theory?—ERRATUM.Julian N. Marewski & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):463-463.
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  • Spin and Wind Directions II: A Bell State Quantum Model.Diederik Aerts, Jonito Aerts Arguëlles, Lester Beltran, Suzette Geriente, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):337-365.
    In the first half of this two-part article, we analyzed a cognitive psychology experiment where participants were asked to select pairs of directions that they considered to be the best example of Two Different Wind Directions, and showed that the data violate the CHSH version of Bell’s inequality, with same magnitude as in typical Bell-test experiments in physics. In this second part, we complete our analysis by presenting a symmetrized version of the experiment, still violating the CHSH inequality but now (...)
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  • Parapsychological Phenomena Examples of Generalized Nonlocal Correlations – A Theoretical Framework.Harald Walach - 2014 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 28 (4).
    Scientific facts are constituted as consensus about observable phenomena against the background of an accepted, or at least plausible, theory. Empirical data without a theoretical framework are at best curiosities and anomalies, at worst they are neglected. The problem of parapsychological research since its inception with the foundation of the Society of Psychical Research in 1882 was that no sound theoretical basis existed. On the contrary, the proponents of the SPR often indulged in a theoretical model that ran contrary to (...)
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  • Quantum-Like Models Cannot Account for the Conjunction Fallacy.Thomas Boyer-Kassem, Sébastien Duchêne & Eric Guerci - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (4):479-510.
    Human agents happen to judge that a conjunction of two terms is more probable than one of the terms, in contradiction with the rules of classical probabilities—this is the conjunction fallacy. One of the most discussed accounts of this fallacy is currently the quantum-like explanation, which relies on models exploiting the mathematics of quantum mechanics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical adequacy of major quantum-like models which represent beliefs with quantum states. We first argue that they (...)
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  • Decompositional Equivalence: A Fundamental Symmetry Underlying Quantum Theory.Chris Fields - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (3):279-311.
    Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using a simple thought experiment, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer’s principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human—or any—observers identify or agree about what constitutes a “system of interest”?
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  • Contextuality in the Integrated Information Theory.J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor & Leonardo De Assis - forthcoming - In J. A. de Barros, B. Coecke & E. Pothos (eds.), Lecture Notes on Computer Science.
    Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is one of the most influential theories of consciousness, mainly due to its claim of mathematically formalizing consciousness in a measurable way. However, the theory, as it is formulated, does not account for contextual observations that are crucial for understanding consciousness. Here we put forth three possible difficulties for its current version, which could be interpreted as a trilemma. Either consciousness is contextual or not. If contextual, either IIT needs revisions to its axioms to include contextuality, (...)
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  • Can Quantum Probability Help Analyze the Behavior of Functional Brain Networks?Arpan Banerjee & Barry Horwitz - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):278 - 279.
    Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) argue how key concepts of quantum probability, for example, order/context, interference, superposition, and entanglement, can be used in cognitive modeling. Here, we suggest that these concepts can be extended to analyze neurophysiological measurements of cognitive tasks in humans, especially in functional neuroimaging investigations of large-scale brain networks.
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  • The Potential of Using Quantum Theory to Build Models of Cognition.Zheng Wang, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Harald Atmanspacher & Emmanuel M. Pothos - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):672-688.
    Quantum cognition research applies abstract, mathematical principles of quantum theory to inquiries in cognitive science. It differs fundamentally from alternative speculations about quantum brain processes. This topic presents new developments within this research program. In the introduction to this topic, we try to answer three questions: Why apply quantum concepts to human cognition? How is quantum cognitive modeling different from traditional cognitive modeling? What cognitive processes have been modeled using a quantum account? In addition, a brief introduction to quantum probability (...)
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  • Quantum Cognition: A New Theoretical Approach to Psychology.Peter D. Bruza, Zheng Wang & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (7):383-393.
  • Mental, Behavioural and Physiological Nonlocal Correlations Within the Generalized Quantum Theory Framework.Harald Walach, Patrizio Tressoldi & Luciano Pederzoli - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (3):313-328.
    Generalized Quantum Theory seeks to explain and predict quantum-like phenomena in areas usually outside the scope of quantum physics, such as biology and psychology. It draws on fundamental theories and uses the algebraic formalism of quantum theory that is used in the study of observable physical matter such as photons, electrons, etc. In contrast to quantum theory proper, GQT is a very generalized form that does not allow for the full application of formalism. For instance neither a commutator, such as (...)
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  • Models, Mechanisms, and Animal Minds.Colin Allen - 2014 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (S1):75-97.
    In this paper, I describe grounds for dissatisfaction with certain aspects of the sciences of animal cognition and argue that a turn toward mathematical modeling of animal cognition is warranted. I consider some objections to this call and argue that the implications of such a turn are not as drastic for ordinary, commonsense understanding of animal minds as they might seem.
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