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  1. A Tale of Two Cities: Emotion and Reason in the Formation of Moral Judgement and Possible Metaethical Implications.Susana Cadilha - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-27.
    The project of naturalizing ethics has multiple contributions, from cognitive and moral psychology to primatology, neuroscience or evolutionary theory. One of the strategies for naturalizing ethics has been to argue that moral norms and values can be explained away if we focus on their causal history, if it is possible to offer both an ultimate and proximate causal explanation for them. In this article, I will focus on the contribution of cognitive and moral psychology as a way of offering a (...)
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  • The Contribution of Empathy to Ethics.Sarah Songhorian - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):244-264.
    ABSTRACTEmpathy has been taken to play a crucial role in ethics at least since the Scottish Enlightenment. More recently, a revival of moral sentimentalism and empirical research on moral behavior has prompted a renewed interest in empathy and related concepts and on their contribution to moral reasoning and to moral behavior. Furthermore, empathy has recently entered our public discourse as having the power to ameliorate our social and political interactions with others.The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent (...)
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  • Finding Empathy: How Neuroscientific Measures, Evidence and Conceptualizations Interact.Riana J. Betzler - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):224-243.
    ABSTRACTQuestions about how empathy should be conceptualized have long been a preoccupation of the field of empathy research. There are numerous definitions of empathy that have been proposed and that often overlap with other concepts such as sympathy and compassion. This makes communication between research groups or across disciplines difficult. Many researchers seem to see the diversity of definitions as a problem rather than a form of benign pluralism. Within this debate about conceptualization, researchers sometimes suggest that more neuroscientific evidence (...)
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  • Relational Empathy.Mark Fagiano - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):162-179.
    ABSTRACT This work explains the practical benefits of a new and pluralistic notion of empathy that I call relational empathy. Rather than defining empathy as a thing or an activity, as most scholars have done, I define empathy as a set of three conceptually distinct though experientially overlapping relations: the relations of feeling into, feeling with, and feeling for. I then turn to historical discourses about empathy from the late 1700s to the present to demonstrate how different conceptualizations and definitions (...)
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  • Empathizing with Patients: The Role of Interaction and Narratives in Providing Better Patient Care.Carter Hardy - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (2):237-248.
    Recent studies have revealed a drop in the ability of physicians to empathize with their patients. It is argued that empathy training needs to be provided to both medical students and physicians in order to improve patient care. While it may be true that empathy would lead to better patient care, it is important that the right theory of empathy is being encouraged. This paper examines and critiques the prominent explanation of empathy being used in medicine. Focusing on the component (...)
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  • From Empathic Mind to Moral Behaviour: The “Who”, “Why” and “How”.Marie Challita - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (4):517-522.
    In this paper, I start by suggesting a new definition of empathy. I go on by answering the question of “Who feels empathy?”. I list some examples of people, illustrating how the level of feeling empathy differs from one category of people to another. It’s actually almost everybody who feels empathy: the baby, the good Samaritan and the other two priests, the tax evader, the psychopath, the judges, juries, lawyers, the politician, the bully adolescent, the therapist, etc.… Then I explain, (...)
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  • Empathy: A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing? [REVIEW]Reidar Pedersen - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (3):325-335.
    Empathy is generally regarded as important and positive. However, descriptions of empathy are often inadequate and deceptive. Furthermore, there is a widespread lack of critical attention to such deficiencies. This critical review of the medical discourse of empathy shows that tendencies to evade and misrepresent the understanding subject are common. The understanding subject’s contributions to the empathic process are often neglected or described as something that can and should be avoided or controlled. Furthermore, the intrinsic and closely interwoven relationship between (...)
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  • The Role of Empathy and Compassion in Conflict Resolution.Olga M. Klimecki - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (4):310-325.
    Empathy and empathy-related processes, such as compassion and personal distress, are recognized to play a key role in social relations. This review examines the role of empathy in interpersonal and...
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  • Human-Animal Similarity and the Imageability of Mental State Concepts for Mentalizing Animals.Esmeralda G. Urquiza-Haas & Kurt Kotrschal - 2022 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 22 (3-4):220-245.
    The attribution of mental states to other species typically follows a scala naturae pattern. However, “simple” mental states, including emotions, sensing, and feelings are attributed to a wider range of animals as compared to the so-called “higher” cognitive abilities. We propose that such attributions are based on the perceptual quality of mental representations related to MS concepts. We hypothesized that the attribution of highly imaginable MS is more dependent on the familiarity of participants with animals when compared to the attribution (...)
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  • “Of What Use Are the Odes? ” Cognitive Science, Virtue Ethics, and Early Confucian Ethics.Edward Slingerland - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (1):80-109.
    In his well-known 1994 work Descartes’ Error, the neuroscientist Antonio Damasio describes his work with patients suffering from damage to the prefrontal cortex, a center of emotion processing in the brain. The accidents or strokes that had caused this damage had spared these patients’ “higher” cognitive faculties: their short- and long-term memories, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical aptitude, and performance on standard IQ tests were completely unimpaired. They were also perfectly healthy physically, with no apparent motor or sensory disabilities. Nonetheless, these (...)
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  • Mitigating Negative Emotions Through Virtual Reality and Embodiment.Maria Sansoni, Giovanni Scarzello, Silvia Serino, Elena Groff & Giuseppe Riva - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    Oncological treatments are responsible for many of the physical changes associated with cancer. Because of this, cancer patients are at high risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative Virtual Reality training that uses a somatic technique to create a bridge with the bodily dimension of cancer. After undergoing a psycho-educational procedure, a combination of exposure, out-of-body experience, and body swapping will gradually train the patient to cope with cancer-related difficulties, increasing stress (...)
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  • Live Theatre as Exception and Test Case for Experiencing Negative Emotions in Art.Thalia R. Goldstein - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
    Distancing and then embracing constitutes a useful way of thinking about the paradox of aesthetic pleasure. However, the model does not account for live theatre. When live actors perform behaviors perceptually close to real life and possibly really experienced by the actors, audiences may experience autonomic reactions, with less distance, or may have to distance post-experiencing/embracing their emotions.
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  • Empathy and the Limits of Thought Experiments.Erick Ramirez - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):504-526.
    This article criticizes what it calls perspectival thought experiments, which require subjects to mentally simulate a perspective before making judgments from within it. Examples include Judith Thomson's violinist analogy, Philippa Foot's trolley problem, and Bernard Williams's Jim case. The article argues that advances in the philosophical and psychological study of empathy suggest that the simulative capacities required by perspectival thought experiments are all but impossible. These thought experiments require agents to consciously simulate necessarily unconscious features of subjectivity. To complete these (...)
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  • Empathy.Karsten Stueber - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Despite its linguistic roots in ancient Greek, the concept of empathy is of recent intellectual heritage. Yet its history has been varied and colorful, a fact that is also mirrored in the multiplicity of definitions associated with the empathy concept in a number of different scientific and non-scientific discourses. In its philosophical heyday at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, empathy had been hailed as the primary means for gaining knowledge of other minds and as the method (...)
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  • Pleasure.Leonard D. Katz - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Pleasure, in the inclusive usages most important in moral psychology, ethical theory, and the studies of mind, includes all joy and gladness — all our feeling good, or happy. It is often contrasted with similarly inclusive pain, or suffering, which is similarly thought of as including all our feeling bad. Contemporary psychology similarly distinguishes between positive affect and negative affect.[1..
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  • Animal Consciousness.Colin Allen & Michael Trestman - 2005 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Origins of the Qualitative Aspects of Consciousness: Evolutionary Answers to Chalmers' Hard Problem.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2013 - In Liz Swan (ed.), Origins of Mind. Springer. pp. 259--269.
    According to David Chalmers, the hard problem of consciousness consists of explaining how and why qualitative experience arises from physical states. Moreover, Chalmers argues that materialist and reductive explanations of mentality are incapable of addressing the hard problem. In this chapter, I suggest that Chalmers’ hard problem can be usefully distinguished into a ‘how question’ and ‘why question,’ and I argue that evolutionary biology has the resources to address the question of why qualitative experience arises from brain states. From this (...)
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  • Grandparental Investment: Past, Present, and Future.David A. Coall & Ralph Hertwig - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (1):1-19.
    What motivates grandparents to their altruism? We review answers from evolutionary theory, sociology, and economics. Sometimes in direct conflict with each other, these accounts of grandparental investment exist side-by-side, with little or no theoretical integration. They all account for some of the data, and none account for all of it. We call for a more comprehensive theoretical framework of grandparental investment that addresses its proximate and ultimate causes, and its variability due to lineage, values, norms, institutions (e.g., inheritance laws), and (...)
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  • A Cognitive-Semiotic Approach to Agency: Assessing Ideas from Cognitive Science and Neuroscience.Juan Mendoza-Collazos & Jordan Zlatev - 2022 - Biosemiotics 15 (1):141-170.
    Following the levels of intentionality and semiosis distinguished by the Semiotic Hierarchy, and the distinction between original agency and enhanced agency, we propose a model of an agency hierarchy, consisting of six layers. Consistent with the phenomenological orientation of cognitive semiotics, a central claim is that agency and subjectivity are complementary aspects of intentionality. Hence, there is no agency without at least the minimal sense/feeling of agency. This perspective rules out all artefacts as genuine agents, as well as simple organisms, (...)
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  • Decoding Emotions in Expressive Music Performances: A Multi-Lab Replication and Extension Study.Jessica Akkermans, Renee Schapiro, Daniel Müllensiefen, Kelly Jakubowski, Daniel Shanahan, David Baker, Veronika Busch, Kai Lothwesen, Paul Elvers, Timo Fischinger, Kathrin Schlemmer & Klaus Frieler - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (6):1099-1118.
    ABSTRACTWith over 560 citations reported on Google Scholar by April 2018, a publication by Juslin and Gabrielsson presented evidence supporting performers’ abilities to communicate, with hig...
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  • Toward an Integrative Framework of Grandparental Investment.David A. Coall & Ralph Hertwig - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (1):40-59.
    This response outlines more reasons why we need the integrative framework of grandparental investments and intergenerational transfers that we advocated in the target article. We discusses obstacles that stand in the way of such a framework and of a better understanding of the effects of grandparenting in the developed world. We highlight new research directions that have emerged from the commentaries, and we end by discussing some of the things in our target article about which we may have been wrong.
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  • From Imitation to Reciprocation and Mutual Recognition.Claudia Passos-Ferreira & Philippe Rochat - 2008 - In Jaime A. Pineda (ed.), Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition. Springer Science. pp. 191-212.
    Imitation and mirroring processes are necessary but not sufficient conditions for children to develop human sociality. Human sociality entails more than the equivalence and connectedness of perceptual experiences. It corresponds to the sense of a shared world made of shared values. It originates from complex ‘open’ systems of reciprocation and negotiation, not just imitation and mirroring processes that are by definition ‘closed’ systems. From this premise, we argue that if imitation and mirror processes are important foundations for sociality, human inter-subjectivity (...)
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  • Helping Others in Interaction.Alessandro Salice & Glenda Satne - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (4):608-627.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  • The Will to Care: Performance, Expectation, and Imagination.Maurice Hamington - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):675 - 695.
    This article addresses the world's contemporary crisis of care, despite the abundance of information about distant others, by exploring motivations for caring and the rok of imagination. The ethical significance of caring is found in performance. Applying Victor Vroom's expectancy theory, caring performances are viewed as extensions of rational expectations regarding the efficacy of actions. The imagination creates these positive or negative expectations regarding the ability to effectively care. William James s notion of the will to believe offers a unique (...)
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  • Feeling Without Thinking: Lessons From the Ancients on Emotion and Virtue-Acquisition.Amy Coplan - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (1-2):132-151.
    By briefly sketching some important ancient accounts of the connections between psychology and moral education, I hope to illuminate the significance of the contemporary debate on the nature of emotion and to reveal its stakes. I begin the essay with a brief discussion of intellectualism in Socrates and the Stoics, and Plato's and Posidonius's respective attacks against it. Next, I examine the two current leading philosophical accounts of emotion: the cognitive theory and the noncognitive theory. I maintain that the noncognitive (...)
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  • Distortions of Mind Perception in Psychopathology.Kurt Gray, Adrianna C. Jenkins, Andrea S. Heberlein & Daniel M. Wegner - 2011 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (2):477-479.
    It has long been known that psychopathology can influence social perception, but a 2D framework of mind perception provides the opportunity for an integrative understanding of some disorders. We examined the covariation of mind perception with three subclinical syndromes—autism-spectrum disorder, schizotypy, and psychopathy—and found that each presents a unique mind-perception profile. Autism-spectrum disorder involves reduced perception of agency in adult humans. Schizotypy involves increased perception of both agency and experience in entities generally thought to lack minds. Psychopathy involves reduced perception (...)
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  • Empathic Engagement with Narrative Fictions.Amy Coplan - 2004 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (2):141–152.
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  • Autism, Empathy and Questions of Moral Agency.Timothy Krahn & Andrew Fenton - 2009 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (2):145-166.
    In moral psychology, it has long been argued that empathy is a necessary capacity of both properly developing moral agents and developed moral agency . This view stands in tension with the belief that some individuals diagnosed with autism—which is typically characterized as a deficiency in social reciprocity —are moral agents. In this paper we propose to explore this tension and perhaps trouble how we commonly see those with autism. To make this task manageable, we will consider whether high functioning (...)
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  • The Interprocessual-Self Theory in Support of Human Neuroscience Studies.Elkin O. Luis, Kleio Akrivou, Elena Bermejo-Martins, Germán Scalzo & José Víctor Orón - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Rather than occurring abstractly, ethical growth occurs in interpersonal relationships. It requires optimally functioning cognitive processes [attention, working memory, episodic/autobiographical memory, inhibition, flexibility, among others], emotional processes, processes surrounding ethical, intimacy, and identity issues, and other psychological processes. Without intending to be reductionist, we believe that these aspects are essential for optimally engaging in IRs and for the personal constitution. While they are all integrated into our daily life, in research and academic work, it is hard to see how they (...)
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  • Empathy at the Gates: Reassessing Its Role in Moral Decision Making.Afreen S. Khalid & Stephan Dickert - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
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  • The Convenient Disregard for the Rattus Species in the Laboratory Environment: Implications for Animal Welfare and Science.Elena T. Contreras & Bernard E. Rollin - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (2):12-30.
    This article encourages a rethinking of how rats are regarded within the laboratory research environment. The rat’s remarkable intellect and cognitive capacities are well known yet conveniently ignored. An understanding of the five domains of animal welfare and the telos of the rat necessitate that the rat’s circumstances, namely habitat accommodations, in the research arena be reassessed. The rat-ness of being a rat must be considered, celebrated, and elevated to significantly higher standards. We advocate for a new research paradigm if (...)
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  • Motion, Emotion and Empathy in Esthetic Experience.David Freedberg & Vittorio Gallese - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (5):197-203.
  • Animal Passions and Beastly Virtues: Cognitive Ethology as the Unifying Science for Understanding the Subjective, Emotional, Empathic, and Moral Lives of Animals.Marc Bekoff - 2006 - Zygon 41 (1):71-104.
  • Moralizing Biology: The Appeal and Limits of the New Compassionate View of Nature.Maurizio Meloni - 2013 - History of the Human Sciences 26 (3):82-106.
    In recent years, a proliferation of books about empathy, cooperation and pro-social behaviours has significantly influenced the discourse of the life-sciences and reversed consolidated views of nature as a place only for competition and aggression. In this article I describe the recent contribution of three disciplines – moral psychology, primatology and the neuroscience of morality – to the present transformation of biology and evolution into direct sources of moral phenomena, a process here named the ‘moralization of biology’. I conclude by (...)
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  • Moralizing Biology: The Appeal and Limits of the New Compassionate View of Nature.Maurizio Meloni - 2013 - History of the Human Sciences 26 (3):82-106.
    In recent years, a proliferation of books about empathy, cooperation and pro-social behaviours (Brooks, 2011a) has significantly influenced the discourse of the life-sciences and reversed consolidated views of nature as a place only for competition and aggression. In this article I describe the recent contribution of three disciplines – moral psychology (Jonathan Haidt), primatology (Frans de Waal) and the neuroscience of morality – to the present transformation of biology and evolution into direct sources of moral phenomena, a process here named (...)
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  • Political Deliberation and the Challenge of Bounded Rationality.Andrew F. Smith - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (3):269-291.
    Many proponents of deliberative democracy expect reasonable citizens to engage in rational argumentation. However, this expectation runs up against findings by behavioral economists and social psychologists revealing the extent to which normal cognitive functions are influenced by bounded rationality. Individuals regularly utilize an array of biases in the process of making decisions, which inhibits our argumentative capacities by adversely affecting our ability and willingness to be self-critical and to give due consideration to others’ interests. Although these biases cannot be overcome, (...)
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  • Relational Empathy as an Instrument of Democratic Hope in Action.Mark Fagiano - 2019 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 33 (2):200-219.
    Historically, philosophers have understood hope in relation to an individual's character and have questioned whether or not hope is rational. American pragmatists, however, have tended to characterize hope as fundamentally social and have been concerned with the problems that arise when different hopes for a better future conflict with one another. Pragmatism's philosophy of social hope is often referred to as meliorism, the idea that the world can be made better with human effort. But in a democratic, open society, what (...)
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  • Pluralistic Conceptualizations of Empathy.Mark Fagiano - 2016 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 30 (1):27-44.
    Imagine you are driving up a long and winding road in the mountains. It is nighttime; there are no streetlights or traffic lights, no moon illuminating the sky, and barely shining through a few clouds, the faint, flickering stars above grant you only a fraction of light to see the path ahead. The quiet, serene scene of this moonless, cool night coupled with the sweet scent of pine reminds you of the wonders and beauty of nature. Then, unexpectedly, as you (...)
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  • Did Jesus Discover Forgiveness?Anthony Bash - 2013 - Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (3):382-399.
    This essay explores Hannah Arendt's claim that Jesus was the “discoverer” of forgiveness. It assesses Charles Griswold's view that person-to-person forgiveness is in evidence in Greek culture and practice before Jesus. The essay refines Griswold's view and suggests that person-to-person forgiveness is a cultural universal. The essay makes observations about the significance of the different words that denote person-to-person forgiveness; it also explores the implications of reading the New Testament writings on person-to-person forgiveness in the chronological order in which they (...)
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  • Chinese Companion Animal Caretakers’ Attachment Influences Their Attribution of Emotions to Their Animals.Bingtao Su & Pim Martens - 2020 - Society and Animals 30 (2):131-150.
    It is well-documented that in developed countries, companion animal caretakers often show strong attachments to their animals. However, very little research has incorporated caretakers’ attachment to companion animals in developing countries such as China. This research analyzed the correlation between the attachment level of Chinese dog and cat caretakers and their attribution of emotions to their animals. The results indicated a trend that respondents frequently attributed primary emotions to companion animals rather than secondary emotions. Respondents who had frequent and multiple (...)
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  • Copresence.Celeste Campos-Castillo & Steven Hitlin - 2013 - Sociological Theory 31 (2):168-192.
    Copresence, the idea that the presence of other actors shapes individual behavior, links macro- and micro-theorizing about social interaction. Traditionally, scholars have focused on the physical proximity of other people, assuming copresence to be a given, objective condition. However, recent empirical evidence on technologically mediated (e.g., e-mail), imaginary (e.g., prayer), and parasocial (e.g., watching a television show) interactions challenges classic copresence assumptions. In this article we reconceptualize copresence to provide theoretical building blocks (definitions, assumptions, and propositions) for a revitalized research (...)
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  • Social Neuroscience and Theistic Evolution: Intersubjectivity, Love, and the Social Sphere.Michael L. Spezio - 2013 - Zygon 48 (2):428-438.
    After providing a brief overview of social neuroscience in the context of strong embodiment and the cognitive sciences, this paper addresses how perspectives from the field may inform how theological anthropology approaches the origins of human persons-in-community. An overview of the Social Brain Hypothesis and of simulation theory reveals a simultaneous potential for receptive/projective processes to facilitate social engagement and the need for intentional spontaneity in the form of a spiritual formation that moves beyond simulation to empathy and love. Finally, (...)
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  • Consciousness and Self in Animals: Some Reflections.Marc Bekoff - 2003 - Zygon 38 (2):229-245.
    In this essay I argue that many nonhuman animal beings are conscious and have some sense of self. Rather than ask whether they are conscious, I adopt an evolutionary perspective and ask why consciousness and a sense of self evolved---what are they good for? Comparative studies of animal cognition, ethological investigations that explore what it is like to be a certain animal, are useful for answering this question. Charles Darwin argued that the differences in cognitive abilities and emotions among animals (...)
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  • Cognitive and Evolutionary Factors in the Emergence of Human Altruism.James A. Van Slyke - 2010 - Zygon 45 (4):841-859.
    One of the central tenets of Christian theology is the denial of self for the benefit of another. However, many views on the evolution of altruism presume that natural selection inevitably leads to a self-seeking human nature and that altruism is merely a façade to cover underlying selfish motives. I argue that human altruism is an emergent characteristic that cannot be reduced to any one particular evolutionary explanation. The evolutionary processes at work in the formation of human nature are not (...)
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  • Empathy and Vicarious Experience. Congruence or Identical Emotion?Patricia C. Brunsteins - 2018 - Philosophies 3 (2):6-0.
    Feeling empathy is something that happens, an experience we can remember once we have had it, or an experience we would like to have. I consider empathy, from an integral point of view, as the capacity of putting oneself in the place of others. Although, by this time, my general characterization of empathy will not be discussed, I will focus on one question about empathy for which there is still no agreement: whether the emotion of the person experiencing empathy must (...)
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  • Morality Without Mindreading.Susana Monsó - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (3):338-357.
    Could animals behave morally if they can’t mindread? Does morality require mindreading capacities? Moral psychologists believe mindreading is contingently involved in moral judgements. Moral philosophers argue that moral behaviour necessarily requires the possession of mindreading capacities. In this paper, I argue that, while the former may be right, the latter are mistaken. Using the example of empathy, I show that animals with no mindreading capacities could behave on the basis of emotions that possess an identifiable moral content. Therefore, at least (...)
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  • What Are Modules and What is Their Role in Development?Stephen Andrew Butterfill - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (4):450–473.
    Modules are widely held to play a central role in explaining mental development and in accounts of the mind generally. But there is much disagreement about what modules are, which shows that we do not adequately understand modularity. This paper outlines a Fodoresque approach to understanding one type of modularity. It suggests that we can distinguish modular from nonmodular cognition by reference to the kinds of process involved, and that modular cognition differs from nonmodular forms of cognition in being a (...)
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  • Moral Apes, Human Uniqueness, and the Image of God.Oliver Putz - 2009 - Zygon 44 (3):613-624.
    Recent advances in evolutionary biology and ethology suggest that humans are not the only species capable of empathy and possibly morality. These findings are of no little consequence for theology, given that a nonhuman animal as a free moral agent would beg the question if human beings are indeed uniquely created in God's image. I argue that apes and some other mammals have moral agency and that a traditional interpretation of the imago Dei is incorrectly equating specialness with exclusivity. By (...)
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  • From Biology to Consciousness to Morality.Ursula Goodenough & Terrence W. Deacon - 2003 - Zygon 38 (4):801-819.
    Social animals are provisioned with pro-social orientations that transcend self-interest. Morality, as used here, describes human versions of such orientations. We explore the evolutionary antecedents of morality in the context of emergentism, giving considerable attention to the biological traits that undergird emergent human forms of mind. We suggest that our moral frames of mind emerge from our primate pro-social capacities, transfigured and valenced by our symbolic languages, cultures, and religions.
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  • Toward a Second-Person Neuroscience.Bert Timmermans, Vasudevi Reddy, Alan Costall, Gary Bente, Tobias Schlicht, Kai Vogeley & Leonhard Schilbach - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):393-414.
    In spite of the remarkable progress made in the burgeoning field of social neuroscience, the neural mechanisms that underlie social encounters are only beginning to be studied and could —paradoxically— be seen as representing the ‘dark matter’ of social neuroscience. Recent conceptual and empirical developments consistently indicate the need for investigations, which allow the study of real-time social encounters in a truly interactive manner. This suggestion is based on the premise that social cognition is fundamentally different when we are in (...)
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