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Paraconsistent logic

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008)

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  1. Reflections on Orlov.Graham Priest - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (2):118-128.
    In 1928 Ivan Orlov published a remarkable paper which contains the first formulation of a relevant logic. The paper remained largely unknown to English-speakers until this discovery of relevant log...
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  • Natural Deduction for Three-Valued Regular Logics.Yaroslav Petrukhin - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2):197–206.
    In this paper, I consider a family of three-valued regular logics: the well-known strong and weak S.C. Kleene’s logics and two intermedi- ate logics, where one was discovered by M. Fitting and the other one by E. Komendantskaya. All these systems were originally presented in the semantical way and based on the theory of recursion. However, the proof theory of them still is not fully developed. Thus, natural deduction sys- tems are built only for strong Kleene’s logic both with one (...)
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  • Are We Paraconsistent? On the Luca-Penrose Argument and the Computational Theory of Mind.Jason L. Megill - 2004 - Auslegung 27 (1):23-30.
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  • God, Gluts and Gaps: Examining an Islamic Traditionalist Case for a Contradictory Theology.Safaruk Zaman Chowdhury - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (1):17-43.
    In this paper, I examine the deep theological faultline generated by divergent understandings of the divine attributes among two early antagonistic Muslim groups – the traditionalists (main...
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  • Saving the Square of Opposition.Pieter A. M. Seuren - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (1):72-96.
    Contrary to received opinion, the Aristotelian Square of Opposition (square) is logically sound, differing from standard modern predicate logic (SMPL) only in that it restricts the universe U of cognitively constructible situations by banning null predicates, making it less unnatural than SMPL. U-restriction strengthens the logic without making it unsound. It also invites a cognitive approach to logic. Humans are endowed with a cognitive predicate logic (CPL), which checks the process of cognitive modelling (world construal) for consistency. The square is (...)
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  • A Natural Deduction System for First Degree Entailment.Allard M. Tamminga & Koji Tanaka - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (2):258-272.
    This paper is concerned with a natural deduction system for First Degree Entailment (FDE). First, we exhibit a brief history of FDE and of combined systems whose underlying idea is used in developing the natural deduction system. Then, after presenting the language and a semantics of FDE, we develop a natural deduction system for FDE. We then prove soundness and completeness of the system with respect to the semantics. The system neatly represents the four-valued semantics for FDE.
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  • Making Sense of Sense Containment.Antonio Negro - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (4):364-385.
    Proposition 5.122 of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus has been the source of much puzzlement among interpreters, so much so that no fully satisfactory account is yet available. This is unfortunate, if only because the containment account of logical consequence has a venerable tradition behind it. Pasquale Frascolla’s interpretation of proposition 5.122 is based on a valid argument and one true premise. However, the argument explains sense containment only in an indirect way, leaving some crucial questions unanswered. Besides, Frascolla does not address the (...)
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  • Algebraization of Jaśkowski’s Paraconsistent Logic D2.Janusz Ciuciura - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 42 (1):173-193.
    The aim of this paper is to present an algebraic approach to Jaśkowski’s paraconsistent logic D2. We present: a D2-discursive algebra, Lindenbaum- Tarski algebra for D2 and D2-matrices. The analysis is mainly based on the results obtained by Jerzy Kotas in the 70s.
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  • Doctrinal Orthodoxy and Philosophical Heresy: A Theologian’s Reflections on Beall’s Proposal.Tom McCall - 2019 - Journal of Analytic Theology 7 (1):473-487.
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  • Complete Symposium on Jc Beall's Christ – A Contradiction: A Defense of Contradictory Christology.Jc Beall, Timothy Pawl, Thomas McCall, A. J. Cotnoir & Sara L. Uckelman - 2019 - Journal of Analytic Theology 7 (1):400-577.
    The fundamental problem of Christology is the apparent contradiction of Christ as recorded at Chalcedon. Christ is human and Christ is divine. Being divine entails being immutable. Being human entails being mutable. Were Christ two different persons there’d be no apparent contradiction. But Chalcedon rules as much out. Were Christ only partly human or only partly divine there’d be no apparent contradiction. But Chalcedon rules as much out. Were the very meaning of ‘mutable’ and/or ‘immutable’ other than what they are, (...)
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  • John Buridan’s Sophismata and Interval Temporal Semantics.Sara L. Uckelman & Spencer Johnston - 2010 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 13 (1):131-147.
    In this paper we look at the suitability of modern interval-based temporal logic for modeling John Buridan’s treatment of tensed sentences in his Sophismata. Building on the paper, we develop Buridan’s analysis of temporal logic, paying particular attention to his notions of negation and the absolute/relative nature of the future and the past.We introduce a number of standard modern propositional interval temporal logics to illustrate where Buridan’s interval-based temporal analysis differs from the standard modern approaches. We give formal proofs of (...)
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  • On Bivalent Semantics and Natural Deduction for Some Infectious Logics.Alex Belikov - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    In this work, we propose a variant of so-called informational semantics, a technique elaborated by Voishvillo, for two infectious logics, Deutsch’s ${\mathbf{S}_{\mathbf{fde}}}$ and Szmuc’s $\mathbf{dS}_{\mathbf{fde}}$. We show how the machinery of informational semantics can be effectively used to analyse truth and falsity conditions of disjunction and conjunction. Using this technique, it is possible to claim that disjunction and conjunction can be rightfully regarded as such, a claim which was disputed in the recent literature. Both ${\mathbf{S}_{\mathbf{fde}}}$ and $\mathbf{dS}_{\mathbf{fde}}$ are formalized in (...)
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  • Reasoning From Conflicting Sources.Gilbert Plumer & Kenneth Olson - 2007 - In Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson & David M. Godden (eds.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Proceedings 2007 [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. pp. 1-9.
    One might ask of two or more texts—what can be inferred from them, taken together? If the texts happen to contradict each other in some respect, then the unadorned answer of standard logic is EVERYTHING. But it seems to be a given that we often successfully reason with inconsistent information from multiple sources. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to develop an adequate approach to accounting for this given.
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  • A Return to the Analogy of Being.Kris McDaniel - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):688 - 717.
    Recently, I’ve championed the doctrine that fundamentally different sorts of things exist in fundamentally different ways.1 On this view, what it is for an entity to be can differ across ontological categories.2 Although historically this doctrine was very popular, and several important challenges to this doctrine have been dealt with, I suspect that contemporary metaphysicians will continue to treat this view with suspicion until it is made clearer when one is warranted in positing different modes of existence.3 I address this (...)
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  • Philosophy of Information: Revolution in Philosophy. Towards an Informational Metaphilosophy of Science.Kun Wu & Joseph Brenner - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (4):22.
    In the most general if unconventional terms, science is the study of how man is part of the universe. Philosophy is the study of man’s ideas of the universe and how man differs from the rest of the universe. It has of course been recognized that philosophy and science are not totally disjointed. Science is in any case not a monolithic entity but refers to knowledge as the results of reasoning and both invasive and non-invasive experiment. We argue that the (...)
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  • Kripke-Completeness and Cut-elimination Theorems for Intuitionistic Paradefinite Logics With and Without Quasi-Explosion.Norihiro Kamide - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (6):1185-1212.
    Two intuitionistic paradefinite logics N4C and N4C+ are introduced as Gentzen-type sequent calculi. These logics are regarded as a combination of Nelson’s paraconsistent four-valued logic N4 and Wansing’s basic constructive connexive logic C. The proposed logics are also regarded as intuitionistic variants of Arieli, Avron, and Zamansky’s ideal paraconistent four-valued logic 4CC. The logic N4C has no quasi-explosion axiom that represents a relationship between conflation and paraconsistent negation, but the logic N4C+ has this axiom. The Kripke-completeness and cut-elimination theorems for (...)
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  • The Parmenides: A Dialetheic Interpretation.Graham Priest - 2012 - Plato Journal 12.
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  • Jaina Logic: A Contemporary Perspective.Graham Priest - 2008 - History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (3):263-278.
    Jaina philosophy provides a very distinctive account of logic, based on the theory of ?sevenfold predication?. This paper provides a modern formalisation of the logic, using the techniques of many-valued and modal logic. The formalisation is applied, in turn, to some of the more problematic aspects of Jaina philosophy, especially its relativism.
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  • Aristotle’s Theory of Deduction and Paraconsistency.Evandro Luís Gomes & Itala M. Loffredo D'Ottaviano - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 14 (1):71-97.
    In the Organon Aristotle describes some deductive schemata in which inconsistencies do not entail the trivialization of the logical theory involved. This thesis is corroborated by three different theoretical topics by him discussed, which are presented in this paper. We analyse inference schema used by Aristotle in the Protrepticus and the method of indirect demonstration for categorical syllogisms. Both methods exemplify as Aristotle employs classical reductio ad absurdum strategies. Following, we discuss valid syllogisms from opposite premises studied by the Stagerian (...)
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  • Enciclopédia de Termos Lógico-Filosóficos.João Branquinho, Desidério Murcho & Nelson Gonçalves Gomes (eds.) - 2006 - São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Martins Fontes.
    Esta enciclopédia abrange, de uma forma introdutória mas desejavelmente rigorosa, uma diversidade de conceitos, temas, problemas, argumentos e teorias localizados numa área relativamente recente de estudos, os quais tem sido habitual qualificar como «estudos lógico-filosóficos». De uma forma apropriadamente genérica, e apesar de o território teórico abrangido ser extenso e de contornos por vezes difusos, podemos dizer que na área se investiga um conjunto de questões fundamentais acerca da natureza da linguagem, da mente, da cognição e do raciocínio humanos, bem (...)
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  • Maddy On The Multiverse.Claudio Ternullo - 2019 - In Deniz Sarikaya, Deborah Kant & Stefania Centrone (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. Berlin: Springer Verlag. pp. 43-78.
    Penelope Maddy has recently addressed the set-theoretic multiverse, and expressed reservations on its status and merits ([Maddy, 2017]). The purpose of the paper is to examine her concerns, by using the interpretative framework of set-theoretic naturalism. I first distinguish three main forms of 'multiversism', and then I proceed to analyse Maddy's concerns. Among other things, I take into account salient aspects of multiverse-related mathematics , in particular, research programmes in set theory for which the use of the multiverse seems to (...)
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  • Theories of Truth Based on Four-Valued Infectious Logics.Damian Szmuc, Bruno Da Re & Federico Pailos - 2020 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 28 (5):712-746.
    Infectious logics are systems that have a truth-value that is assigned to a compound formula whenever it is assigned to one of its components. This paper studies four-valued infectious logics as the basis of transparent theories of truth. This take is motivated as a way to treat different pathological sentences differently, namely, by allowing some of them to be truth-value gluts and some others to be truth-value gaps and as a way to treat the semantic pathology suffered by at least (...)
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  • Paraconsistency and Plausible Argumentation in Generative Grammar: A Case Study. [REVIEW]András Kertész & Csilla Rákosi - 2013 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (2):195-230.
    While the analytical philosophy of science regards inconsistent theories as disastrous, Chomsky allows for the temporary tolerance of inconsistency between the hypotheses and the data. However, in linguistics there seem to be several types of inconsistency. The present paper aims at the development of a novel metatheoretical framework which provides tools for the representation and evaluation of inconsistencies in linguistic theories. The metatheoretical model relies on a system of paraconsistent logic and distinguishes between strong and weak inconsistency. Strong inconsistency is (...)
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  • Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications.Francesco Berto, Edwin Mares, Koji Tanaka & Francesco Paoli (eds.) - 2013 - Springer.
    A logic is called 'paraconsistent' if it rejects the rule called 'ex contradictione quodlibet', according to which any conclusion follows from inconsistent premises. While logicians have proposed many technically developed paraconsistent logical systems and contemporary philosophers like Graham Priest have advanced the view that some contradictions can be true, and advocated a paraconsistent logic to deal with them, until recent times these systems have been little understood by philosophers. This book presents a comprehensive overview on paraconsistent logical systems to change (...)
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  • Is Classical Mathematics Appropriate for Theory of Computation?Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    Throughout this paper, we are trying to show how and why our Mathematical frame-work seems inappropriate to solve problems in Theory of Computation. More exactly, the concept of turning back in time in paradoxes causes inconsistency in modeling of the concept of Time in some semantic situations. As we see in the first chapter, by introducing a version of “Unexpected Hanging Paradox”,first we attempt to open a new explanation for some paradoxes. In the second step, by applying this paradox, it (...)
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  • Concerning Peter Vickers’s Recent Treatment of ‘Paraconsistencitis’.Dunja Šešelja & Christian Straßer - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):325-340.
  • What Theories of Truth Should Be Like (but Cannot Be).Hannes Leitgeb - 2007 - Philosophy Compass 2 (2):276–290.
  • The Logic of the Catuskoti.Graham Priest - 2010 - Comparative Philosophy 1 (2):24-54.
    In early Buddhist logic, it was standard to assume that for any state of a ff airs there were four possibilities: that it held, that it did not, both, or neither. This is the catuskoti (or tetralemma). Classical logicians have had a hard time mak­ing sense of this, but it makes perfectly good sense in the se­mantics of various paraconsistent logics, such as First Degree Entailment. Matters are more complicated for later Buddhist thinkers, such as Nagarjuna, who appear to suggest (...)
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  • Paracomplete Logics Which Are Dual to the Paraconsistent Logics L3A and L3B.Alejandro Hernández-Tello, Verónica Borja-Macı́as & Marcelo E. Coniglio - 2020 - LANMR 2019: Proceedings of the 12th Latin American Workshop on Logic/Languages, Algorithms and New Methods of Reasoning.
    In 2016 Beziau, introduce a more restricted concept of paraconsistency, namely the genuine paraconsistency. He calls genuine paraconsistent logic those logic rejecting φ, ¬φ |- ψ and |- ¬(φ ∧ ¬φ). In that paper the author analyzes, among the three-valued logics, which of these logics satisfy this property. If we consider multiple-conclusion consequence relations, the dual properties of those above mentioned are: |- φ, ¬φ, and ¬(ψ ∨ ¬ψ) |- . We call genuine paracomplete logics those rejecting the mentioned properties. (...)
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  • Game Theoretical Semantics for Some Non-Classical Logics.Can Başkent - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 26 (3):208-239.
    Paraconsistent logics are the formal systems in which absurdities do not trivialise the logic. In this paper, we give Hintikka-style game theoretical semantics for a variety of paraconsistent and non-classical logics. For this purpose, we consider Priest’s Logic of Paradox, Dunn’s First-Degree Entailment, Routleys’ Relevant Logics, McCall’s Connexive Logic and Belnap’s four-valued logic. We also present a game theoretical characterisation of a translation between Logic of Paradox/Kleene’s K3 and S5. We underline how non-classical logics require different verification games and prove (...)
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  • Some Non-Classical Approaches to the Brandenburger–Keisler Paradox.Can Başkent - 2015 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 23 (4):533-552.
  • Loogikavigade lubatavusest.Jüri Eintalu - 2008 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (3):29-42.
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  • Paraconsistent Logics From a Philosophical Point of View.Diogo Dias - 2012 - Cognitio-Estudos 9 (2):139-148.
    This article begins with a general and abstract definition of logic and, particularly, of paraconsistent logics, to establish a common ground for the discussion. Briefly stating, these kinds of logics have the property of being non-explosive, that is, it is not possible to infer any conclusion from contradictory premises. Using these definitions, it is possible to analyze some of the philosophical aspects of paraconsistent logics, in particular, the relation between the notion of explosion and the law of non-contradiction, as well (...)
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  • Pyrrhonism and the Law of Non-Contradiction.Diego E. Machuca - 2011 - In D. E. Machuca (ed.), Pyrrhonism in Ancient, Modern, and Contemporary Philosophy. Springer.
    The question of whether the Pyrrhonist adheres to certain logical principles, criteria of justification, and inference rules is of central importance for the study of Pyrrhonism. Its significance lies in that, whereas the Pyrrhonist describes his philosophical stance and argues against the Dogmatists by means of what may be considered a rational discourse, adherence to any such principles, criteria, and rules does not seem compatible with the radical character of his skepticism. Hence, if the Pyrrhonist does endorse them, one must (...)
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  • Information and Information Flow.Manuel Bremer & Daniel Cohnitz - 2004 - De Gruyter.
    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow.
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  • Making Sense of Paraconsistent Logic: The Nature of Logic, Classical Logic and Paraconsistent Logic.Koji Tanaka - 2013 - In Francesco Berto, Edwin Mares, Koji Tanaka & Francesco Paoli (eds.), Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Springer. pp. 15--25.
    Max Cresswell and Hilary Putnam seem to hold the view, often shared by classical logicians, that paraconsistent logic has not been made sense of, despite its well-developed mathematics. In this paper, I examine the nature of logic in order to understand what it means to make sense of logic. I then show that, just as one can make sense of non-normal modal logics (as Cresswell demonstrates), we can make `sense' of paraconsistent logic. Finally, I turn the tables on classical logicians (...)
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  • DLEAC: A Dialetheic Logic with Exclusive Assumptions and Conclusions.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):379-388.
    This paper proposes a new dialetheic logic, a Dialetheic Logic with Exclusive Assumptions and Conclusions ), including classical logic as a particular case. In \, exclusivity is expressed via the speech acts of assuming and concluding. In the paper we adopt the semantics of the logic of paradox extended with a generalized notion of model and we modify its proof theory by refining the notions of assumption and conclusion. The paper starts with an explanation of the adopted philosophical perspective, then (...)
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  • Disagreeing with Myself: Doxastic Commitments and Intrapersonal Disagreement.Annalisa Coliva - 2019 - American Philosophical Quarterly 56 (1):1-14.
    This paper explores the idea of disagreement with oneself, in both its diachronic and synchronic forms. A puzzling case of synchronic intrapersonal disagreement is presented and the paper considers its implications. One is that belief is a genus that comes in two species: as disposition and as commitment. Another is that self-deception consists in a conflict between one's beliefs as dispositions and one's beliefs as commitments. Synchronic intrapersonal disagreement also has implications for the condition that needs to be fulfilled in (...)
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  • Truth and the Unprovability of Consistency.H. Field - 2006 - Mind 115 (459):567-606.
    It might be thought that we could argue for the consistency of a mathematical theory T within T, by giving an inductive argument that all theorems of T are true and inferring consistency. By Gödel's second incompleteness theorem any such argument must break down, but just how it breaks down depends on the kind of theory of truth that is built into T. The paper surveys the possibilities, and suggests that some theories of truth give far more intuitive diagnoses of (...)
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  • Heidegger's Ereignis and Wittgenstein on the Genesis of Language.Richard McDonough - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):416-431.
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  • What If? The Exploration of an Idea.Graham Priest - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Logic 14 (1).
    A crucial question here is what, exactly, the conditional in the naive truth/set comprehension principles is. In 'Logic of Paradox', I outlined two options. One is to take it to be the material conditional of the extensional paraconsistent logic LP. Call this "Strategy 1". LP is a relatively weak logic, however. In particular, the material conditional does not detach. The other strategy is to take it to be some detachable conditional. Call this "Strategy 2". The aim of the present essay (...)
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  • Three Schools of Paraconsistency.Koji Tanaka - 2003 - Australasian Journal of Logic 1:28-42.
    A logic is said to be paraconsistent if it does not allow everything to follow from contradictory premises. There are several approaches to paraconsistency. This paper is concerned with several philosophical positions on paraconsistency. In particular, it concerns three ‘schools’ of paraconsistency: Australian, Belgian and Brazilian. The Belgian and Brazilian schools have raised some objections to the dialetheism of the Australian school. I argue that the Australian school of paraconsistency need not be closed down on the basis of the Belgian (...)
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  • Much Ado About Nothing.Graham Priest - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Logic 11 (2).
    The point of this paper is to bring together three topics: non-existent objects, mereology, and nothing. There are important inter-connections, which it is my aim to spell out, in the service of an account of the last of these.
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  • Review of C. Mortensen, Inconsistent Geometry[REVIEW]J. P. Van Bendegem - 2012 - Philosophia Mathematica 20 (3):365-372.
  • Paths to Triviality.Tore Øgaard - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (3):237-276.
    This paper presents a range of new triviality proofs pertaining to naïve truth theory formulated in paraconsistent relevant logics. It is shown that excluded middle together with various permutation principles such as A → (B → C)⊩B → (A → C) trivialize naïve truth theory. The paper also provides some new triviality proofs which utilize the axioms ((A → B)∧ (B → C)) → (A → C) and (A → ¬A) → ¬A, the fusion connective and the Ackermann constant. An (...)
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  • Buddhist Philosophy of Logic.Koji Tanaka - 2013 - In Steven Michael Emmanuel (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 320-330.
    Logic in Buddhist Philosophy concerns the systematic study of anumāna (often translated as inference) as developed by Dignāga (480-540 c.e.) and Dharmakīti (600-660 c.e.). Buddhist logicians think of inference as an instrument of knowledge (pramāṇa) and, thus, logic is considered to constitute part of epistemology in the Buddhist tradition. According to the prevalent 20th and early 21st century ‘Western’ conception of logic, however, logical study is the formal study of arguments. If we understand the nature of logic to be formal, (...)
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  • The Doctrinal Paradox, the Discursive Dilemma, and Logical Aggregation Theory.Philippe Mongin - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):315-355.
    Judgment aggregation theory, or rather, as we conceive of it here, logical aggregation theory generalizes social choice theory by having the aggregation rule bear on judgments of all kinds instead of merely preference judgments. It derives from Kornhauser and Sager’s doctrinal paradox and List and Pettit’s discursive dilemma, two problems that we distinguish emphatically here. The current theory has developed from the discursive dilemma, rather than the doctrinal paradox, and the final objective of the paper is to give the latter (...)
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  • Dialectic and Dialetheic.Graham Priest - 1989 - Science and Society 53 (4):388 - 415.
  • The AGM Theory and Inconsistent Belief Change.Koji Tanaka - 2005 - Logique Et Analyse 48 (189-192):113-150.
    The problem of how to accommodate inconsistencies has attracted quite a number of researchers, in particular, in the area of database theory. The problem is also of concern in the study of belief change. For inconsistent beliefs are ubiquitous. However, comparatively little work has been devoted to discussing the problem in the literature of belief change. In this paper, I examine how adequate the AGM theory is as a logical framework for belief change involving inconsistencies. The technique is to apply (...)
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  • Inconsistency, Paraconsistency and Ω-Inconsistency.Bruno Da Ré - 2018 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 22 (1):171-188.
    In this paper I’ll explore the relation between ω-inconsistency and plain inconsistency, in the context of theories that intend to capture semantic concepts. In particular, I’ll focus on two very well known inconsistent but non-trivial theories of truth: LP and STTT. Both have the interesting feature of being able to handle semantic and arithmetic concepts, maintaining the standard model. However, it can be easily shown that both theories are ω- inconsistent. Although usually a theory of truth is generally expected to (...)
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