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Value-Free Science?: Purity and Power in Modern Knowledge

Harvard University Press (1991)

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  1. Review Essay: Sociology as a Political Project: Fuller's Argument Against Bioliberalism.Kei Yoshida - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):99-106.
    In his book, The New Sociological Imagination, Steve Fuller criticizes what he calls “bioliberalism.” According to him, the social sciences are challenged on two sides: humanistic and biological. In particular, Fuller finds the biological challenge serious. Fuller tries to reinvent sociology as a socialist project to counterattack bioliberalism as the biggest threat to the social sciences. First, the author will examine Fuller's argument against bioliberalism, referring to the so-called “liberal eugenics.” Then the author will criticize him. By reinventing sociology as (...)
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  • Normative Authority for Empirical Science.Wim de Muijnck - 2011 - Philosophical Explorations 14 (3):263-275.
    In this article I explore the hypothesis of normative authority by epistemic authority. This is the idea that scientifically warranted claims in psychology, in being claims about human needs, interests, and concerns, can acquire authority on which values do or do not merit endorsement. The hypothesis is applied to attachment research: it seems that on the basis of what is now known about attachment, specific normative conclusions seem warranted. I argue that although attachment research and theory are value-laden, they are (...)
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  • Nauka i wartościowania — uwagi o kondycji filozoficznej refleksji nad nauką.Trela Grzegorz - 2014 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 4 (2):277-298.
    Science and valuation — remarks about the condition of philosophical re ection on science this text is an attempt at a more general look at twentieth‐century philosophical re ection on science conceived as persistent trials to eliminate the non‐eliminateable, i.e. valuations. In this article, I recall the most important concepts of knowledge developed in the twentieth‐century philosophy of science by exposing assumed axiology in, among other things: the Vienna Circle, Karl raimund Popper’s falsi cationism, the historical and social approach of (...)
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  • Introduction to the Issue.Grzegorz Trela - 2014 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 4 (2):217-220.
  • After Mr. Nowhere: What Kind of Proper Self for a Scientist?Sandra Harding - 2015 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 1 (1):1-22.
    The conventional proper scientific self has an ethical obligation to strive to see everywhere in the universe from no particular location in that universe: he is to produce the view from nowhere. What different conceptions of the proper scientific self are created by the distinctive assumptions and research practices of social justice movements, such as feminism, anti-racism, and post-colonialism? Three such new ideals are: the multiple and conflicted knowing self; the researcher strategically located inside her research world; and the community (...)
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  • De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize).Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff - 2013 - Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is (...)
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  • Meeting the Challenges to Socially Responsible Science: Reply to Brown, Lacey, and Potter.Janet A. Kourany - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):93-103.
    The main message of Philosophy of Science after Feminism is twofold: that philosophy of science needs to locate science within its wider societal context, ceasing to analyze science as if it existed in a social/political/economic vacuum; and correlatively, that philosophy of science needs to aim for an understanding of scientific rationality that is appropriate to that context, a scientific rationality that integrates the ethical with the epistemic. The ideal of socially responsible science that the book puts forward, in fact, maintains (...)
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  • Naturalism Radicalized.Javier Rodríguez-alcázar - 1996 - Metaphilosophy 27 (4):356-380.
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  • Scientific Experts and the Controversy About Teaching Creation/Evolution in the UK Press.Joachim Allgaier - 2010 - Science & Education 19 (6-8):797-819.
  • Précis of Objectivity and Diversity: Another Logic of Scientific Research.Sandra Harding - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (7):1801-1806.
  • Objectivity in Science.Flavia Padovani, Alan Richardson & Jonathan Y. Tsou (eds.) - 2015 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, vol. 310. Springer.
    This highly multidisciplinary collection discusses an increasingly important topic among scholars in science and technology studies: objectivity in science. It features eleven essays on scientific objectivity from a variety of perspectives, including philosophy of science, history of science, and feminist philosophy. Topics addressed in the book include the nature and value of scientific objectivity, the history of objectivity, and objectivity in scientific journals and communities. Taken individually, the essays supply new methodological tools for theorizing what is valuable in the pursuit (...)
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  • Environmental Ethics.Roberta L. Millstein - 2013 - In K. Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    A number of areas of biology raise questions about what is of value in the natural environment and how we ought to behave towards it: conservation biology, environmental science, and ecology, to name a few. Based on my experience teaching students from these and similar majors, I argue that the field of environmental ethics has much to teach these students. They come to me with pent-up questions and a feeling that more is needed to fully engage in their subjects, and (...)
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  • New Roles for Rhetoric: From Academic Critique to Civic Affirmation.Richard Harvey Brown - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (1):9-22.
    The classical conception of rhetoric as the method of reasoned political judgment survived into the Renaissance but was reduced to academic critiques of style and "empty" public rhetoric with the rise of modern science and its representationalist theories of language. Recently, however, rhetoric, textuality, and the "linguistic turn" generally, have become central metaphors in the human sciences. This renewed rhetorical perspective not only fosters a critique of positive philosophy and of scientism in public discourse, it also offers affirmative methods by (...)
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  • Education for Life Scientists on the Dual-Use Implications of Their Research: Commentary on “Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes”.Kathryn Nixdorff - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (4):1487-1490.
    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about life’s vital processes. While this knowledge is essential for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists as (...)
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  • Philosophy as Self-Knowledge.Alfred I. Tauber - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):1-23.
    An autobiographical account is offered of how the medical study of self (immunology) became a chapter in the philosophical study of human agency (from Nietzsche and Thoreau to Freud by way of Wittgenstein). Whether viewed scientifically or philosophically, several themes converge on the intractable instability of any notion of selfhood—epistemological or moral. How this problematic motivated an extended analysis of selfhood refracts the psychology of the author and his pursuit of philosophy as self‐knowledge.
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  • A Socially Relevant Philosophy of Science? Resources From Standpoint Theory's Controversiality.Sandra Harding - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (1):25-47.
    Feminist standpoint theory remains highly controversial: it is widely advocated, used to guide research and justify its results, and yet is also vigorously denounced. This essay argues that three such sites of controversy reveal the value of engaging with standpoint theory as a way of reflecting on and debating some of the most anxiety-producing issues in contemporary Western intellectual and political life. Engaging with standpoint theory enables a socially relevant philosophy of science.
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  • Value-Bifurcation in Bioscience: The Rhetoric of Research Justification.Laurie Anne Whitt - 1999 - Perspectives on Science 7 (4):413-446.
  • Value-Free yet Policy-Relevant? The Normative Views of Climate Scientists and Their Bearing on Philosophy.Torbjørn Gundersen - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):89-118.
    The proper role of non-epistemic values such as moral, political, and social values in practices of justification of policy-relevant hypotheses has recently become one of the central questions in philosophy of science. This strand of research has yielded conceptual clarifications and significant insight into the complex and notoriously contentious issue of the proper relationship between science, non-epistemic values, and policymaking. A central part of this discussion revolves around whether scientists should aspire for the value-free ideal, according to which non-epistemic values (...)
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  • Gender and Scientists’ Views About the Value-Free Ideal.Daniel Steel, Chad Gonnerman, Aaron M. McCright & Itai Bavli - 2018 - Perspectives on Science 26 (6):619-657.
    A small but growing body of philosophically informed survey work calls into question whether the value-free ideal is a dominant viewpoint among scientists. However, the survey instruments in used in these studies have important limitations. Previous work has also made little headway in developing hypotheses that might predict or explain differing views about the value-free ideal among scientists. In this article, we review previous survey work on this topic, describe an improved survey instrument, report results from an initial administration of (...)
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  • Epistemic Standards for Participatory Technology Assessment: Suggestions Based Upon Well-Ordered Science.Juan M. Durán & Zachary Pirtle - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1709-1741.
    When one wants to use citizen input to inform policy, what should the standards of informedness on the part of the citizens be? While there are moral reasons to allow every citizen to participate and have a voice on every issue, regardless of education and involvement, designers of participatory assessments have to make decisions about how to structure deliberations as well as how much background information and deliberation time to provide to participants. After assessing different frameworks for the relationship between (...)
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  • ‘Never Let a Good Crisis Go to Waste’: Moral Entrepreneurship, or the Fine Art of Recycling Evil Into Good.Steve Fuller - 2013 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 22 (1):118-129.
    Moral entrepreneurship is the fine art of recycling evil into good by taking advantage of situations given or constructed as crises. It should be seen as the ultimate generalisation of the entrepreneurial spirit, whose peculiar excesses have always sat uneasily with homo oeconomicus as the constrained utility maximiser, an image that itself has come to be universalised. A task of this essay is to reconcile the two images in terms of what by the end I call ‘superutilitarianism’, which draws on (...)
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  • Practical Values and Uncertainty in Regulatory Decision‐Making.José Luis Luján, Javier Rodríguez Alcázar & Oliver Todt - 2010 - Social Epistemology 24 (4):349-362.
    Regulatory science, which generates knowledge relevant for regulatory decision?making, is different from standard academic science in that it is oriented mainly towards the attainment of non?epistemic (practical) aims. The role of uncertainty and the limits to the relevance of academic science are being recognized more and more explicitly in regulatory decision?making. This has led to the introduction of regulation?specific scientific methodologies in order to generate decision?relevant data. However, recent practical experience with such non?standard methodologies indicates that they, too, may be (...)
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  • La Ciencia de la Ciudadanía: Más Allá de la Necesidad de Expertos.Steve Fuller - 2003 - Isegoría 28:33-53.
    Comienzo examinando algunas pistas, en gran medida falsas, que se han seguido desde los griegos para definir la naturaleza de la ciudadanía científica en una democracia. Sin embargo, el linaje que va desde Platón al positivismo proporciona un contexto útil para entender la evolución de la concepción moderna de conocimiento experto y de los diferentes problemas que éste plantea a las democracias modernas. Estos problemas giran en torno a las cuestiones de la institucionalización —en concreto, a cómo diseñar instituciones que (...)
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  • Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison * Objectivity. [REVIEW]Nick Jardine - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (4):885-893.
  • Culturing Cancer in the American Century. [REVIEW]Michael G. Svoboda - 1999 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 19 (3):219-230.
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  • Post-Normal Science in Practice at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.Jeroen P. van der Sluijs, Eva Kunseler, Maria Hage, Albert Cath & Arthur C. Petersen - 2011 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 36 (3):362-388.
    About a decade ago, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency unwittingly embarked on a transition from a technocratic model of science advising to the paradigm of ‘‘post-normal science’’. In response to a scandal around uncertainty management in 1999, a Guidance for ‘‘Uncertainty Assessment and Communication’’ was developed with advice from the initiators of the PNS concept and was introduced in 2003. This was followed in 2007 by a ‘‘Stakeholder Participation’’ Guidance. In this article, the authors provide a combined insider/outsider perspective on (...)
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  • Values and Decisions: Cognitive and Noncognitive Values in Knowledge Generation and Decision Making.José Luis Luján & Oliver Todt - 2014 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 39 (5):720-743.
    The relevance of scientific knowledge for science and technology policy and regulation has led to a growing debate about the role of values. This article contributes to the clarification of what specific functions cognitive and noncognitive values adopt in knowledge generation and decisions, and what consequences the operation of values has for policy making and regulation. For our analysis, we differentiate between three different types of decision approaches, each of which shows a particular constellation of cognitive and noncognitive values. Our (...)
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  • Science, Equity, and the War Against Carbon.Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen - 2003 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 28 (1):69-92.
    The scientific evidence is reviewed for claims that a global transition to “green” fuels and technologies by global treaty obligations is needed. The likely equity implications of these efforts are discussed, and it is argued that this evidence remains shaky. Measures based on this contested knowledge cannot be defended on grounds of either environmental effectiveness or equity. Rather, they rely on commercial expectations and promises of secondary benefits usually requiring state intervention. Poorer groups and nations are unlikely to benefit from (...)
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  • Prolegomena to a Sociology of Philosophy in the Twentieth-Century English-Speaking World.Steve Fuller - 2002 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2):151-177.
    In the twentieth century, philosophy came to be dominated by the English-speaking world, first Britain and then the United States. Accompanying this development was an unprecedented professionalization and specialization of the discipline, the consequences of which are surveyed and evaluated in this article. The most general result has been a decline in philosophy's normative mission, which roughly corresponds to the increasing pursuit of philosophy in isolation from public life and especially other forms of inquiry, including ultimately its own history. This (...)
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  • The Integration of Theological Perspectives in Communication Studies.Juan D. Rogers - 2002 - Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies 19 (4):233-243.
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  • The Ethics of Reality and Virtual Reality: Latour, Facts and Values.Mariam Fraser - 2006 - History of the Human Sciences 19 (2):45-72.
    In the context of the question of the extent to which science studies is able to mount an adequate critique of contemporary developments in science and technology, and in view of the proliferating interest in ethics across the social sciences, this article has two aims. Firstly to address some of the implications for ethics of Bruno Latour's, and to a lesser extent Alfred North Whitehead’s, conceptions of reality, both of which have a bearing on the long-standing dichotomy between facts and (...)
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  • Review of C. Koopman, Pragmatism as Transition. Historicity and Hope in James, Dewey, and Rorty. [REVIEW]Roberto Frega - 2009 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 1 (1).
  • Deepening Transparency About Value-Laden Assumptions in Energy and Environmental Modelling: Improving Best Practices for Both Modellers and Non-Modellers.Mark Budolfson, John Bistline & Blake Francis - 2020 - Climate Policy 20.
    Transparency and openness are broadly endorsed in energy and environmental modelling and analysis, but too little attention is given to the transparency of value-laden assumptions. Current practices for transparency focus on making model source code and data available, documenting key equations and parameter values, and ensuring replicability of results. We argue that, even when followed, these guidelines are insufficient for achieving deep transparency, in the sense that results often remain driven by implicit value-laden assumptions that are opaque to other modellers (...)
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  • Gender, Development, and Post-Enlightenment Philosophies of Science.Sandra Harding - 1998 - Hypatia 13 (3):146 - 167.
    Recent "gender, environment, and sustainable development" accounts raise pointed questions about the complicity of Enlightenment philosophies of science with failures of Third World development policies and the current environmental crisis. The strengths of these analyses come from distinctive ways they link androcentric, economistic, and nature-blind aspects of development thinking to "the Enlightenment dream." In doing so they share perspectives with and provide resources for other influential schools of science studies.
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  • A Socially Relevant Philosophy of Science? Resources From Standpoint Theory's Controversiality.Sandra Harding - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (1):25-47.
    : Feminist standpoint theory remains highly controversial: it is widely advocated, used to guide research and justify its results, and yet is also vigorously denounced. This essay argues that three such sites of controversy reveal the value of engaging with standpoint theory as a way of reflecting on and debating some of the most anxiety-producing issues in contemporary Western intellectual and political life. Engaging with standpoint theory enables a socially relevant philosophy of science.
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  • Objectivity, Scientificity, and the Dualist Epistemology of Medicine.Thomas V. Cunningham - 2015 - In P. Huneman (ed.), Classification, Disease, and Evidence. Springer Science + Business. pp. 01-17.
    This paper considers the view that medicine is both “science” and “art.” It is argued that on this view certain clinical knowledge – of patients’ histories, values, and preferences, and how to integrate them in decision-making – cannot be scientific knowledge. However, by drawing on recent work in philosophy of science it is argued that progress in gaining such knowledge has been achieved by the accumulation of what should be understood as “scientific” knowledge. I claim there are varying degrees of (...)
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  • The Scope and Limits of Value-Freedom in Science.Panu Raatikainen - 2006 - In Heikki J. Koskinen Sami Pihlstrom & Risto Vilkko (eds.), Science – A Challenge to Philosophy?
    The issue of whether science is, or can be, value-free has been debated for more than a century. The idea of value-free science is of course as old as science itself, and so are the arguments against this idea. Plato defended it..
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  • Voiko ihmistiede olla arvovapaata?Panu Raatikainen - 2006 - In Etiikkaa ihmistieteilijöille. Helsinki: SKS.
    Kysymys siitä, onko tiede ja voiko se olla arvovapaata, on herättänyt vilkasta ja jopa kiivastakin keskustelua. Erityisen polttava tämä kysymys on ihmistieteissä. Yhdessä ääripäässä on kuva tieteellisestä tutkimuksesta kaikenlaisten eettisten ja yhteiskunnallisten kysymysten yläpuolella olevana intressittömänä toimintana. Toisessa päässä on väite, ettei tiede voi koskaan olla arvovapaata vaan että tieteellinen tutkimus ja sen tulokset ovat läpeensä arvojen värittämiä. Näiden välille mahtuu monenlaisia maltillisempia välittäviä kantoja.
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  • Deafness as Disability: Countering Aspects of the Medical View.Boaz Ahad Ha'am - 2017 - Public Reason 9 (1-2).
    This article argues that deafness as disability from a medical view does not rest on the scientific aspect of medicine. Rather there are ideological biases and prejudices that are masked under the medical view of deafness as disability. The article reveals these and counters them.
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  • Abstracts.[author unknown] - 2014 - Russian Sociological Review 13 (1):268-287.
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  • From Doubt to its Social Articulation: Pragmatist Insights.Mathias Girel - 2013 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 5 (2):6-23.
    In addition to providing a rebuttal of the “paper-doubts” of the would-be skeptic, pragmatists have also been quite responsive to the social dimensions of doubt. This is true concerning the causes of doubt. This is true also regarding its consequences: doubt has consequences on epistemic trust; on the way we discuss truths, either about the sciences or about the “construction of good”. Readers of Dewey’s The Quest for Certainty and of some of his most important political writings can easily see (...)
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  • The Truth of the Trace : Constructing the Power of the Medical Image.Anne Beaulieu - unknown
    This thesis traces the developments of imaging technologies used for medical diagnosis. Giddens' sociological theory of modernity serves as a basis for the consideration of the bureaucratisation of medicine and the use of the patient file as source of information about health. The importance of 'inscriptions', in relation to scientific knowledge and power, is analysed through Bruno Latour's theory. Donna Haraway's call to rethink objectivity, not as a quality of universal knowledge, but as a given point of view, also influence (...)
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  • Acerca de la vigencia del ideal de objetividad científica.Alberto Cupani - 2011 - Scientiae Studia 9 (3):501-525.
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  • Beyond.Ilya Matveev - 2013 - Russian Sociological Review 12 (1):24-33.
    During the 20th century there have been many attempts to reconstitute political knowledge as objective, value-neutral empirical science. One of such attempts was the “behavioral revolution” in political science. However, apart from this tendency a different one can be traced: scholars strived to openly acknowledged political goals and values as a factor in their own work. In this case one can speak of “engaged knowledge”. Pierre Bourdieu, a representative of this tradition, spoke of the need to give up an image (...)
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  • The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom.Steve Fuller - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):164-177.
    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of 'judgement'. This article traces the roots of 'judgement' back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature feature of German idealism, and to its gradual loss of salience as both a philosophical and a psychological concept. This trajectory has been accompanied by a general shrinking in the (...)
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  • Social and Ethical Dimensions of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research.Aldrin E. Sweeney - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):435-464.
    Continuing advances in human ability to manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular levels (i.e. nanoscale science and engineering) offer many previously unimagined possibilities for scientific discovery and technological development. Paralleling these advances in the various science and engineering subdisciplines is the increasing realization that a number of associated social, ethical, environmental, economic and legal dimensions also need to be explored. An important component of such exploration entails the identification and analysis of the ways in which current and prospective researchers (...)
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  • Object-Oriented Philosophy and the Comprehension of Scientific Realities.Paloma García Díaz - 2011 - Athenea Digital 11 (1):225-238.
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  • Why Science Cannot Be Value-Free.Agnieszka Lekka-Kowalik - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):33-41.
    Against the ideal of value-free science I argue that science is not––and cannot be––value-free and that relevant values are both cognitive and moral. I develop an argument by indicating various aspects of the value-ladenness of science. The recognition of the value-ladenness of science requires rethinking our understanding of the rationality and responsibility of science. Its rationality cannot be seen as merely instrumental––as it was seen by the ideal of value-free science––for this would result in limiting the autonomy of science and (...)
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  • Agriculture and Food 2050: Visions to Promote Transformation Driven by Science and Society.Elisabeth Gebhard, Nikolas Hagemann, Loni Hensler, Steffen Schweizer & Carla Wember - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (3):497-516.
    Today’s food production and consumption go hand in hand with immense damages to humans and nature. Change is needed, but where to start and which direction to go? This article tries to give an interdisciplinary answer by taking recourse to a vision, that is, an ideal image of the future which is drawn upon ethical reflection and beyond the limits of actual political and economic constraints. The main purpose of this paper is to show that generating and discussing visions can (...)
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  • Rethinking Disability in Amartya Sen’s Approach: ICT and Equality of Opportunity. [REVIEW]Mario Toboso - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):107-118.
    This article presents an analysis of the concept of disability in Amartya Sen’s capabilities and functionings approach in the context of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Following a critical review of the concept of disability—from its traditional interpretation as an essentially medical concept to its later interpretation as a socially constructed category—we will introduce the concept of functional diversity. The importance of human diversity in the capabilities and functionings approach calls for incorporating this concept into the analysis of well-being and (...)
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