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  1. Varieties of Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia: A New Theory of Phenomenological and Behavioural Differences.Jamie Ward, Ryan Li, Shireen Salih & Noam Sagiv - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):913-931.
    Recent research has suggested that not all grapheme-colour synaesthetes are alike. One suggestion is that they can be divided, phenomenologically, in terms of whether the colours are experienced in external or internal space. Another suggestion is that they can be divided according to whether it is the perceptual or conceptual attributes of a stimulus that is critical. This study compares the behavioural performance of 7 projector and 7 associator synaesthetes. We demonstrate that this distinction does not map on to behavioural (...)
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  • William James and Kitaro Nishida on “Pure Experience”, Consciousness, and Moral Psychology.Joel Krueger - 2007 - Dissertation, Purdue University
    The question “What is the nature of experience?” is of perennial philosophical concern. It deals not only with the nature of experience qua experience, but additionally with related questions about the experiencing subject and that which is experienced. In other words, to speak of the philosophical problem of experience, one must also address questions about mind, world, and the various relations that link them together. Both William James and Kitarō Nishida were deeply concerned with these issues. Their shared notion of (...)
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  • “What is It Like to Be a Bat?”—A Pathway to the Answer From the Integrated Information Theory.Tsuchiya Naotsugu - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (3):e12407.
    What does it feel like to be a bat? Is conscious experience of echolocation closer to that of vision or audition? Or do bats process echolocation nonconsciously, such that they do not feel anything about echolocation? This famous question of bats' experience, posed by a philosopher Thomas Nagel in 1974, clarifies the difficult nature of the mind–body problem. Why a particular sense, such as vision, has to feel like vision, but not like audition, is totally puzzling. This is especially so (...)
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  • Iconicity in the Lab: A Review of Behavioral, Developmental, and Neuroimaging Research Into Sound-Symbolism.Gwilym Lockwood & Mark Dingemanse - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-14.
    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism—from infants to adults, and from Sapir’s foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with (...)
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  • Multisensory Consciousness and Synesthesia.Berit Brogaard & Elijah Chudnoff - forthcoming - In Routledge Handbook of Consciousness. Oxford: Routledge.
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  • Experimental Study of Phantom Colours in a Colour Blind Synaesthete.M. Hochel, E. G. Milan, A. González, F. Tornay, K. McKenney, R. Díaz Caviedes, J. L. Mata Martín, Rodriguez Artacho, E. Domínguez García & J. Vila - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (4):75-95.
    Synaesthesia is a condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces photisms, i.e. mental percepts of colours. R is a 20 year old colour blind subject who, in addition to the relatively common grapheme-colour synaesthesia, presents a rarely reported cross modal perception in which a variety of visual stimuli elicit aura-like percepts of colour. In R, photisms seem to be closely related to the affective valence of stimuli and (...)
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  • Neural Plasticity and Consciousness.Susan L. Hurley & Alva Noë - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):131-168.
    and apply it to various examples of neural plasticity in which input is rerouted intermodally or intramodally to nonstandard cortical targets. In some cases but not others, cortical activity ‘defers’ to the nonstandard sources of input. We ask why, consider some possible explanations, and propose a dynamic sensorimotor hypothesis. We believe that this distinction is important and worthy of further study, both philosophical and empirical, whether or not our hypothesis turns out to be correct. In particular, the question of how (...)
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  • Inherent Emotional Quality of Human Speech Sounds.Blake Myers-Schulz, Maia Pujara, Richard C. Wolf & Michael Koenigs - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1105-1113.
    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes--the human speech sounds that constitute words--have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional (...)
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  • Synesthesia Vs. Crossmodal Illusions.Casey O'Callaghan - 2017 - In Ophelia Deroy (ed.), Sensory Blendings: New Essays on Synaesthesia. Oxford, UK: pp. 45-58.
    We can discern two opposing viewpoints regarding synesthesia. According to the first, it is an oddity, an outlier, or a disordered condition. According to the second, synesthesia is pervasive, driving creativity, metaphor, or language itself. Which is it? Ultimately, I favor the first perspective, according to which cross-sensory synesthesia is an outlying condition. But the second perspective is not wholly misguided. My discussion has three lessons. First, synesthesia is just one of a variety of effects in which one sense modality (...)
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  • Cross-Modal Iconicity: A Cognitive Semiotic Approach to Sound Symbolism.Felix Ahlner & Jordan Zlatev - 2010 - Sign Systems Studies 38 (1/4):298-346.
    It is being increasingly recognized that the Saussurean dictum of “the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign” is in conflict with the pervasiveness of the phenomenon commonly known as “sound symbolism”. After first presenting a historical overview of the debate, however, we conclude that both positions have been exaggerated, and that an adequate explanation of sound symbolism is still lacking. How can there, for example, be similarity between expressionsand contents across different sensory modalities? We offer an answer, based on the Peircian (...)
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  • N1 Enhancement in Synesthesia During Visual and Audio–Visual Perception in Semantic Cross-Modal Conflict Situations: An ERP Study.Christopher Sinke, Janina Neufeld, Daniel Wiswede, Hinderk M. Emrich, Stefan Bleich, Thomas F. Münte & Gregor R. Szycik - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • Back to the Future: Synaesthesia Could Be Due to Associative Learning.Daniel Yon & Clare Press - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Age of Acquisition Predicts Rate of Lexical Evolution.Padraic Monaghan - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):530-534.
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  • Validating a Standardised Test Battery for Synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery Reliably Detect Synesthesia?D. A. Carmichael, M. P. Down, R. C. Shillcock, D. M. Eagleman & J. Simner - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:375-385.
  • What is the Link Between Synaesthesia and Sound Symbolism?Kaitlyn Bankieris & Julia Simner - 2015 - Cognition 136:186-195.
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  • Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting.Kongmeng Liew, PerMagnus Lindborg, Ruth Rodrigues & Suzy J. Styles - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Arbitrariness, Iconicity, and Systematicity in Language.Mark Dingemanse, Damián E. Blasi, Gary Lupyan, Morten H. Christiansen & Padraic Monaghan - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (10):603-615.
    The notion that the form of a word bears an arbitrary relation to its meaning accounts only partly for the attested relations between form and meaning in the languages of the world. Recent research suggests a more textured view of vocabulary structure, in which arbitrariness is complemented by iconicity (aspects of form resemble aspects of meaning) and systematicity (statistical regularities in forms predict function). Experimental evidence suggests these form-to-meaning correspondences serve different functions in language processing, development, and communication: systematicity facilitates (...)
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  • Korean Mothers Attune the Frequency and Acoustic Saliency of Sound Symbolic Words to the Linguistic Maturity of Their Children.Jinyoung Jo & Eon-Suk Ko - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.Ophelia Deroy, Charles Spence & Uta Noppeney - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (10):736-747.
    Are two senses more certain than one? Subjective confidence, as an instance of metacognition, has mostly been investigated on a sense-by-sense basis. Yet perception is most frequently multisensory. Here we consider the implications and relevance of understanding confidence at the multisensory level.
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  • A Systematic, Large-Scale Study of Synaesthesia: Implications for the Role of Early Experience in Lexical-Colour Associations.Anina N. Rich, John L. Bradshaw & Jason B. Mattingley - 2005 - Cognition 98 (1):53-84.
  • Two Plus Blue Equals Green: Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Allows Cognitive Access to Numerical Information Via Color.J. Daniel McCarthy, Lianne N. Barnes, Bryan D. Alvarez & Gideon Paul Caplovitz - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1384-1392.
  • Synesthetic Grapheme-Color Percepts Exist for Newly Encountered Hebrew, Devanagari, Armenian and Cyrillic Graphemes.Christopher David Blair & Marian E. Berryhill - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):944-954.
    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience color, not physically present, when viewing symbols. Synesthetes cannot remember learning these associations. Must synesthetic percepts be formed during a sensitive period? Can they form later and be consistent? What determines their nature? We tested grapheme-color synesthete, MC2, before, during and after she studied Hindi abroad. We investigated whether novel graphemes elicited synesthetic percepts, changed with familiarity, and/or benefited from phonemic information. MC2 reported color percepts to novel Devanagari and Hebrew graphemes. MC2 monitored these percepts over 6 (...)
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  • Japanese Sound-Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in English-Speaking Children.Katerina Kantartzis, Mutsumi Imai & Sotaro Kita - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (3):575-586.
    Sound-symbolism is the nonarbitrary link between the sound and meaning of a word. Japanese-speaking children performed better in a verb generalization task when they were taught novel sound-symbolic verbs, created based on existing Japanese sound-symbolic words, than novel nonsound-symbolic verbs (Imai, Kita, Nagumo, & Okada, 2008). A question remained as to whether the Japanese children had picked up regularities in the Japanese sound-symbolic lexicon or were sensitive to universal sound-symbolism. The present study aimed to provide support for the latter. In (...)
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  • Framework of Consciousness From Semblance of Activity at Functionally LINKed Postsynaptic Membranes.Kunjumon I. Vadakkan - 2010 - Frontiers in Psychology 1.
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  • Cortical Color and the Cognitive Sciences.Berit Brogaard & Dimitria Electra Gatzia - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):135-150.
    Back when researchers thought about the various forms that color vision could take, the focus was primarily on the retinal mechanisms. Since that time, research on human color vision has shifted from an interest in retinal mechanisms to cortical color processing. This has allowed color research to provide insight into questions that are not limited to early vision but extend to cognition. Direct cortical connections from higher-level areas to lower-level areas have been found throughout the brain. One of the classic (...)
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  • Coloured Vowels: Wittgenstein on Synaesthesia and Secondary Meaning.Michel ter Hark - 2009 - Philosophia 37 (4):589-604.
    The aim of this article is to give both a sustained interpretation of Wittgenstein’s obscure remarks on the experience of meaning of language, synthaesthesia and secondary use and to apply his insights to recent philosophical discussions about synthaesthesia. I argue that synthaesthesia and experience of meaning are conceptually related to aspect-seeing. The concept of aspect-seeing is not reducible to either seeing or imaging but involves a modified notion of experience. Likewise, synthaesthesia involves a modified notion of experience. In particular, the (...)
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  • Brains, Genes, and Language Evolution: A New Synthesis.Morten H. Christiansen & Nick Chater - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):537-558.
    Our target article argued that a genetically specified Universal Grammar (UG), capturing arbitrary properties of languages, is not tenable on evolutionary grounds, and that the close fit between language and language learners arises because language is shaped by the brain, rather than the reverse. Few commentaries defend a genetically specified UG. Some commentators argue that we underestimate the importance of processes of cultural transmission; some propose additional cognitive and brain mechanisms that may constrain language and perhaps differentiate humans from nonhuman (...)
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  • Chimpanzees Process Structural Isomorphisms Across Sensory Modalities.Andrea Ravignani & Ruth Sonnweber - 2017 - Cognition 161:74-79.
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  • Rethinking Synesthesia.Michael Sollberger - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (2):171 - 187.
    Synesthetes are people who report having perceptual experiences that are very unusual, such as ?seeing? sounds as colors or ?smelling? colors as odors. It is commonly assumed these days that such synesthetic experiences must be instances of misperceptions. Against this widespread assumption, I will highlight that there is reason to think that at least some synesthetic experiences can be viewed as truly veridical perceptions, and not as illusions or hallucinations. On this view, which I will back up by conceptual arguments (...)
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  • Iconicity.Nicolas Fay, Mark Ellison & Simon Garrod - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):244-263.
    This paper explores the role of iconicity in spoken language and other human communication systems. First, we concentrate on graphical and gestural communication and show how semantically motivated iconic signs play an important role in creating such communication systems from scratch. We then consider how iconic signs tend to become simplified and symbolic as the communication system matures and argue that this process is driven by repeated interactive use of the signs. We then consider evidence for iconicity at the level (...)
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  • Synaesthesia in a Logographic Language: The Colouring of Chinese Characters and Pinyin/Bopomo Spellings.Julia Simner, Wan-Yu Hung & Richard Shillcock - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1376-1392.
    Studies of linguistic synaesthesias in English have shown a range of fine-grained language mechanisms governing the associations between colours on the one hand, and graphemes, phonemes and words on the other. However, virtually nothing is known about how synaesthetic colouring might operate in non-alphabetic systems. The current study shows how synaesthetic speakers of Mandarin Chinese come to colour the logographic units of their language. Both native and non-native Chinese speakers experienced synaesthetic colours for characters, and for words spelled in the (...)
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  • Connections of Grasping and Horizontal Hand Movements with Articulation in Czech Speakers.Mikko Tiainen, Jiří Lukavský, Kaisa Tiippana, Martti Vainio, Juraj Šimko, Fatima Felisberti & Lari Vainio - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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  • Neither Touch nor Vision: Sensory Substitution as Artificial Synaesthesia?Mirko Farina - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):639-655.
    Block (Trends Cogn Sci 7:285–286, 2003) and Prinz (PSYCHE 12:1–19, 2006) have defended the idea that SSD perception remains in the substituting modality (auditory or tactile). Hurley and Noë (Biol Philos 18:131–168, 2003) instead argued that after substantial training with the device, the perceptual experience that the SSD user enjoys undergoes a change, switching from tactile/auditory to visual. This debate has unfolded in something like a stalemate where, I will argue, it has become difficult to determine whether the perception acquired (...)
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  • Ideophones in Japanese Modulate the P2 and Late Positive Complex Responses.Gwilym Lockwood & Jyrki Tuomainen - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • It Does Belong Together: Cross-Modal Correspondences Influence Cross-Modal Integration During Perceptual Learning.Lionel Brunel, Paulo F. Carvalho & Robert L. Goldstone - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Zen and the Art of Surfboard Design.Daniel Webber - 2008 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 8 (1):1-7.
    The aim of this paper is to show (a) how motion has ontological priority over space and (b) how the relationship between motion and form underpins mindness. The analysis of spatial perception reveals an interplay between spatial and temporal relations that is evident in language and surfing. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , Volume 8, Edition 1 May 2008.
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  • Seeing What You Hear: Cross-Modal Illusions and Perception.Casey O'Callaghan - 2008 - Philosophical Issues 18 (1):316-338.
    Cross-modal perceptual illusions occur when a stimulus to one modality impacts perceptual experience associated with another modality. Unlike synaesthesia, cross-modal illusions are intelligible as results of perceptual strategies for dealing with sensory stimulation to multiple modalities, rather than as mere quirks. I argue that understanding cross-modal illusions reveals an important flaw in a widespread conception of the senses, and of their role in perceptual experience, according to which understanding perception and perceptual experience is a matter of assembling independently viable stories (...)
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  • The Multisensory Perception of Flavor.Malika Auvray & Charles Spence - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1016-1031.
    Following on from ecological theories of perception, such as the one proposed by [Gibson, J. J. . The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin] this paper reviews the literature on the multisensory interactions underlying the perception of flavor in order to determine the extent to which it is really appropriate to consider flavor perception as a distinct perceptual system. We propose that the multisensory perception of flavor may be indicative of the fact that the taxonomy currently used to (...)
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  • Metaphor Between Embodiment and Imaginative Processes.Tiziana Giudice - 2008 - Anthropology and Philosophy 9 (1/2):42-57.
    In this paper I will analyse the relationship between metaphor and imagination. This issue has been recently studied by cognitive linguists who appreciate its importance, while other semantic perspectives neglect it. I will analyse the thesis which affirms that metaphors are based on cognitive components which are not logical-propositional but imaginative: the “image schemata” are recurrent models of corporeal experiences, centres of knowledge organization which structure – in a non-propositional form – an amount of salient information. This information emerges from (...)
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  • Can Tracking Representationalism Make Sense of Synesthesia?Casey Landers - unknown
    Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which a single stimulus typically associated with one sensory modality automatically and involuntarily produces sensations not typically associated with that modality. I argue that synesthesia elucidates how two naturalistic theories of representation and phenomenal experience conflict. Strong representationalism holds that what an experience is like is determined by the experience’s representational content. Informational semantics holds that representational content is determined by causal co-variation between a representation and an external object or property. I argue that (...)
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  • The Neurological Fallacy.Reuven Tsur - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (3):429-446.
    This non-article explores the limitations of applying brain science in “higher” disciplines. Many brain scientists believe that it is only a matter of time that everything human will be accounted for by the findings of brain science. Michael Polányi in the nineteen-sixties and recently Michael Gazzaniga argued against such determinism. They say that while “lower-level” processes constrain “higher-level” ones, they cannot determine them. The human mind is an emergent process, and it cannot be predicted from brain structure anymore than traffic (...)
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  • What is the Relationship Between Synaesthesia and Visuo-Spatial Number Forms?Noam Sagiv, Julia Simner, James Collins, Brian Butterworth & Jamie Ward - 2006 - Cognition 101 (1):114-28.
  • Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning.Mutsumi Imai, Sotaro Kita, Miho Nagumo & Hiroyuki Okada - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):54-65.
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  • Cross-Cultural Differences in Crossmodal Correspondences Between Basic Tastes and Visual Features.Xiaoang Wan, Andy T. Woods, Jasper J. F. van den Bosch, Kirsten J. McKenzie, Carlos Velasco & Charles Spence - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Semantic Mechanisms May Be Responsible for Developing Synesthesia.Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Danko Nikolić - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-13.
  • The Sweetest Thing: The Influence of Angularity, Symmetry, and the Number of Elements on Shape-Valence and Shape-Taste Matches.Alejandro Salgado-Montejo, Jorge A. Alvarado, Carlos Velasco, Carlos J. Salgado, Kendra Hasse & Charles Spence - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Synesthesia and Release Phenomena in Sensory and Motor Grounding. Cases of Disinhibited Embodiment?Brian F. Gray & Julia Simner - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Human Uniqueness, Bodily Mimesis and the Evolution of Language.Jordan Zlatev - 2014 - Humana Mente 7 (27).
    I argue that an evolutionary adaptation for bodily mimesis, the volitional use of the body as a representational devise, is the “small difference” that gave rise to unique and yet pre-linguistic features of humanity such as imitation, pedagogy, intentional communication and the possibility of a cumulative, representational culture. Furthermore, it is this that made the evolution of language possible. In support for the thesis that speech evolved atop bodily mimesis and a transitional multimodal protolanguage, I review evidence for the extensive (...)
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  • The Interactive Origin of Iconicity.Mónica Tamariz, Seán G. Roberts, J. Isidro Martínez & Julio Santiago - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):334-349.
    We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend (...)
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