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The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics

New Haven: Yale University Press (1970)

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  1. Cultural Context and Consent: An Anthropological View.M. Patrão Neves - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):93-98.
    The theme of consent is, without question, associated with the origins of bioethics and is one of its most significant paradigms that has remained controversial to the present, as is confirmed by the proposal for its debate during the last World Congress of Bioethics. Seen broadly as a compulsory minimum procedure in the field of biomedical ethics, even today it keeps open the issues that it has raised from the start: whether it is really necessary and whether it can be (...)
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  • Body Matters: Rethinking the Ethical Acceptability of Non-Beneficial Clinical Research with Children.Eva De Clercq, Domnita Oana Badarau, Katharina M. Ruhe & Tenzin Wangmo - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):421-431.
    The involvement of children in non-beneficial clinical research is extremely important for improving pediatric care, but its ethical acceptability is still disputed. Therefore, various pro-research justifications have been proposed throughout the years. The present essay aims at contributing to the on-going discussion surrounding children’s participation in non-beneficial clinical research. Building on Wendler’s ‘contribution to a valuable project’ justification, but going beyond a risk/benefit analysis, it articulates a pro-research argument which appeals to a phenomenological view on the body and vulnerability. It (...)
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  • Involving Children in Non-Therapeutic Research: On the Development Argument. [REVIEW]Linus Broström & Mats Johansson - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):53-60.
    Non-therapeutic research on children raises ethical concerns. Such research is not only conducted on individuals who are incapable of providing informed consent. It also typically involves some degree of risk or discomfort, without prospects of medically benefiting the participating children. Therefore, these children seem to be instrumentalized. Some ethicists, however, have tried to sidestep this problem by arguing that the children may indirectly benefit from participating in such research, in ways not related to the medical intervention as such. It has (...)
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  • The Internet Doctor and Medical Ethics Ethical Implications of the Introduction of the Internet Into Medical Encounters.Göran Collste - 2002 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):121-125.
    In this article, consultation via the Internet and the use of the Internet as a source of medical information is examined from an ethical point of view. It is argued that important ethical aspects of the clinical interaction, such as dialogue and trust will be difficult to realise in an Internet-consultation. Further, it is doubtful whether an Internet doctor will accept responsibility. However, medical information via the Internet can be a valuable resource for patients wanting to know more about their (...)
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  • An Ethical Justification for Research with Children.Ariella Binik - unknown
    This thesis is a contribution to the ethical justification for clinical research with children. A research subject’s participation in a trial is usually justified, in part, by informed consent. Informed consent helps to uphold the moral principle of respect for persons. But children’s limited ability to make informed choices gives rise to a problem. It is unclear what, if anything, justifies their participation in research. Some research ethicists propose to resolve this problem by appealing to social utility, proxy consent, arguments (...)
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  • On Death & Dying: Revisiting the Roots of Palliative Care and a Path Forward.Zachary S. Sager & Susan D. Block - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (12):51-54.
    Volume 19, Issue 12, December 2019, Page 51-54.
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  • Holistic Model as a Challenge for the Medical Profession.Nina Putała - 2020 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 10 (1):173-194.
    The article presents a doctor–patient relationship model based on the assumptions of a holistic approach to the patient. The author draws attention to selected patients’ needs, ones taken into account in this model. These are the right to autonomy and an individualised approach to the patient. These issues, considered in relation to philosophy, show a conflict between patients’ values and aspirations and doctors’ values and their experience. Nowadays, patients’ needs are protected by consumer rights as well as being strengthened by (...)
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  • How Can You Be Transparent About Labeling the Living as Dead?David Rodríguez-Arias, Dominic Wilkinson & Stuart Youngner - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (5):24-25.
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  • Brain Death and Organ Donation: A Crisis of Public Trust.Melissa Moschella - 2018 - Christian Bioethics 24 (2):133-150.
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  • Taking Our Meds Faithfully? Christian Engagements with Psychiatric Medication.Warren A. Kinghorn - 2018 - Christian Bioethics 24 (3):216-223.
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  • Do Healthcare Professionals Have Different Views About Healthcare Rationing Than College Students? A Mixed Methods Study in Portugal.Micaela Pinho, Ana Pinto Borges & Richard Cookson - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (1):90-102.
    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the views of healthcare professionals in Portugal about healthcare rationing, and compare them with the views of college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 60 healthcare professionals and 180 college students. Respondents faced a hypothetical rationing dilemma where they had to order four patients and justify their choices. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test for differences in orderings, and content analysis to categorize the (...)
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  • Covering Ethics Through Analysis and Commentary: A Case Study.David A. Craig - 2002 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (1):53-68.
    In this article I use a case study of 3 newspaper pieces about assisted suicide and euthanasia to show how journalists can use analysis and commentary to highlight the ethical dimension of an important public issue. Using an approach grounded in ethical theory, I examine how these pieces-from the Christian Science Monitor, Los Angeles Times, and New York Times-shed light on ethical issues including matters of duties and consequences. It is argued that an analytical approach that openly frames a topic (...)
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  • A Framework for Evaluating Coverage of Ethics in Professions and Society.David A. Craig - 1999 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (1):16-27.
    Media scholars have used ethical theory extensively to evaluate journalists' own ethical practices. However, they have given little attention to how ethical theory could be used to assess the way journalists cover the ethics of others. In light of the important role that medicine and other professions play in the lives of individuals and society, this article proposes a framework to evaluate news coverage of ethical issues that involve professions and in society. After making the case for the need for (...)
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  • Relative Versus Absolute Standards for Everyday Risk in Adolescent HIV Prevention Trials: Expanding the Debate.Jeremy Snyder, Cari L. Miller & Glenda Gray - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):5 - 13.
    The concept of minimal risk has been used to regulate and limit participation by adolescents in clinical trials. It can be understood as setting an absolute standard of what risks are considered minimal or it can be interpreted as relative to the actual risks faced by members of the host community for the trial. While commentators have almost universally opposed a relative interpretation of the environmental risks faced by potential adolescent trial participants, we argue that the ethical concerns against the (...)
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  • Reopening Old Divisions.David B. Resnik - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):19 - 21.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 19-21, June 2011.
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  • End-of-Life Treatment Decisions: The Opportunity to Care.Alan Jotkowitz - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):59-60.
  • Health Literacy, Access to Care and Outcomes of Care.Alan Jotkowitz & Avi Porath - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (11):25 – 27.
  • Reflexive Biomedicalization and Alternative Healing Systems.Stephen Lyng - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):53-69.
    The utilization of alternative medical therapies and practitioners has increased dramatically in the U.S. in the last two to three decades. This trend seems paradoxical when one considers the rapid advances taking place in biomedical knowledge and technology during this same time period. Observers both inside and outside of the medical profession have attempted to explain the rising popularity of alternative medicine by proposing that it signals a growing sense of dissatisfaction and disenchantment with professional biomedical practices on the part (...)
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  • Troubling Practices of Control: Re-Visiting Hannah Arendt's Ideas of Human Action as Praxis of the Unpredictable.Helen Kohlen - 2015 - Nursing Philosophy 16 (3):161-166.
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  • The Seminal Contribution of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein to the Development of Modern Jewish Medical Ethics.Alan Jotkowitz - 2014 - Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (2):285-309.
    The purpose of this essay is to show how, on a wide variety of issues, Rabbi Moshe Feinstein broke new ground with the established Orthodox rabbinic consensus and blazed a new trail in Jewish medical ethics. Rabbi Feinstein took power away from the rabbis and let patients decide their treatment, he opened the door for a Jewish approach to palliative care, he supported the use of new technologies to aid in reproduction, he endorsed altruistic living organ donation and recognized brain (...)
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  • Comforting When We Cannot Heal: The Ethics of Palliative Sedation.Gilbert Meilaender - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (3):211-220.
    This essay considers whether palliative sedation is or is not appropriate medical care. This requires one to consider whether, in addition to the good of health, relief of suffering is also a proper end of medicine; whether unconsciousness can ever be a good for a human being; and how double-effect reasoning can help us think about difficult cases. The author concludes that palliative sedation may be proper medical care, but only in a limited range of cases.
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  • How (Not) to Think of the ‘Dead-Donor’ Rule.Adam Omelianchuk - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (1):1-25.
    Although much has been written on the dead-donor rule in the last twenty-five years, scant attention has been paid to how it should be formulated, what its rationale is, and why it was accepted. The DDR can be formulated in terms of either a Don’t Kill rule or a Death Requirement, the former being historically rooted in absolutist ethics and the latter in a prudential policy aimed at securing trust in the transplant enterprise. I contend that the moral core of (...)
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  • Psychopathy: Morally Incapacitated Persons.Heidi Maibom - 2017 - In Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1109-1129.
    After describing the disorder of psychopathy, I examine the theories and the evidence concerning the psychopaths’ deficient moral capacities. I first examine whether or not psychopaths can pass tests of moral knowledge. Most of the evidence suggests that they can. If there is a lack of moral understanding, then it has to be due to an incapacity that affects not their declarative knowledge of moral norms, but their deeper understanding of them. I then examine two suggestions: it is their deficient (...)
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  • Respect for Persons in Bioethics: Towards a Human Rights-Based Account.Johan Brännmark - 2017 - Human Rights Review 18 (2):171-187.
    Human rights have increasingly been put forward as an important framework for bioethics. In this paper, it is argued that human rights offer a potentially fruitful approach to understanding the notion of Respect for Persons in bioethics. The idea that we are owed a certain kind of respect as persons is relatively common, but also quite often understood in terms of respecting people’s autonomous choices. Such accounts do however risk being too narrow, reducing some human beings to a second-class moral (...)
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  • Narrativity and medicine: some critical reflections.Rolf Ahlzén - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-10.
    During the last three decades there has been a wave of interest in narrative and narrativity in the humanistic and the social sciences. This “narrative turn” has spilled over to medicine, where narrative medicine has gained a considerable influence.However, there have also appeared second thoughts on the role of narratives in our lives, as well as on what narratives may mean in relation to clinical medicine.This article presents some influential voices in this debate and scrutinizes the assumptions of narrative medicine (...)
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  • Genetics and Bioethics: How Our Thinking has Changed Since 1969.LeRoy Walters - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (1):83-95.
    In 1969, the field of human genetics was in its infancy. Amniocentesis was a new technique for prenatal diagnosis, and a newborn genetic screening program had been established in one state. There were also concerns about the potential hazards of genetic engineering. A research group at the Hastings Center and Paul Ramsey pioneered in the discussion of genetics and bioethics. Two principal techniques have emerged as being of enduring importance: human gene transfer research and genetic testing and screening. This essay (...)
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  • Doctor-Cared Dying Instead of Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Perspective From Germany. [REVIEW]Fuat S. Oduncu & Stephan Sahm - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (4):371-381.
    The current article deals with the ethics and practice of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and dying. The debate about PAS must take the important legal and ethical context of medical acts at the end of life into consideration, and cannot be examined independently from physicians’ duties with respect to care for the terminally ill and dying. The discussion in Germany about active euthanasia, limiting medical intervention at the end of life, patient autonomy, advanced directives, and PAS is not fundamentally different in (...)
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  • Philosophy of Medicine as the Source for Medical Ethics.David C. Thomasma & Edmund D. Pellegrino - 1981 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (1):5-11.
    The article offers an approach to inquiry about, the foundation of medical ethics by addressing three areas of conceptual presupposition basic to medical ethical theory. First, medical ethics must presuppose a view about the nature of medicine. it is argued that the view required by a cogent medical morality entails that medicine be seen both as a healing relationship and as a practical art. Three ways in which medicine inherently involves values and valuation are presented as important, i.e., in being (...)
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  • Tracing the Soul: Medical Decisions at the Margins of Life.W. Glannon - 2000 - Christian Bioethics 6 (1):49-69.
    Most religious traditions hold that what makes one a person is the possession of a soul and that this gives one moral status. This status in turn gives persons interests and rights that delimit the set of actions that are permitted to be done to them. In this paper, I identify the soul with the capacity for consciousness and mental life and examine the ethical aspects of medical decision-making at the beginning and end of life in cases of patients who (...)
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  • Contemporary Transplantation Initiatives: Where's the Harm in Them?David P. T. Price - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (2):139-149.
    Two contemporary strategies in cadaver organ transplantation, both with the potential to affect significantly expanding organ transplant waiting list sizes, have evolved: elective ventilation and use of nonheart-beating donors. Both are undergoing a period of critical review. It is not clear how widely EV is practiced around the world. In Great Britain, the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital was the first hospital to develop an EV protocol, in 1988, after which other British hospitals followed suit. In the 1980s, new NHBD (...)
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  • Contemporary Transplantation Initiatives: Where's the Harm in Them?David P. T. Price - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (2):139-149.
    Two contemporary strategies in cadaver organ transplantation, both with the potential to affect significantly expanding organ transplant waiting list sizes, have evolved: elective ventilation and use of nonheart-beating donors. Both are undergoing a period of critical review. It is not clear how widely EV is practiced around the world. In Great Britain, the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital was the first hospital to develop an EV protocol, in 1988, after which other British hospitals followed suit. In the 1980s, new NHBD (...)
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  • In Defense of the Hopkins Lead Abatement Studies.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):50-57.
    In August 2001, the Maryland Court of Appeals harshly criticized the Kennedy Krieger Institute of Johns Hopkins University for knowingly exposing poor children to lead-based paint. The court’s decision made national news, and is worth examining because it raises several very important issues for research ethics.The research conducted by the Institute was an attempt to understand how successful different lead abatement programs were in reducing continued lead exposure to children. Previously, Julian Chisolm and Mark Farfel, of John Hopkins University, had (...)
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  • In Defense of the Hopkins Lead Abatement Studies.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):50-57.
    In August 2001, the Maryland Court of Appeals harshly criticized the Kennedy Krieger Institute of Johns Hopkins University for knowingly exposing poor children to lead-based paint. The court’s decision made national news, and is worth examining because it raises several very important issues for research ethics.The research conducted by the Institute was an attempt to understand how successful different lead abatement programs were in reducing continued lead exposure to children. Previously, Julian Chisolm and Mark Farfel, of John Hopkins University, had (...)
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  • Pediatric Participation in Non-Therapeutic Research.Marilyn C. Morris - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):665-672.
    Pediatric participation in non-therapeutic research that poses greater than minimal risk has been the subject of considerable thought-provoking debate in the research ethics literature. While the need for more pediatric research has been called morally imperative, and concerted efforts have been made to increase pediatric medical research, the importance of protecting children from undue research risks remains paramount.United States research regulations are derived largely from the deliberations and report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical (...)
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  • Justice, Fairness, and Membership in a Class: Conceptual Confusions and Moral Puzzles in the Regulation of Human Subjects Research.Ana S. Iltis - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):488-501.
    Much of the human research conducted in the United States or by U.S. researchers is regulated by the Common Rule. The Common Rule reflects the decision of 17 federal agencies, including the Department of Health and Human Services, to require that investigators follow the same rules for conducting human research., though there is significant overlap with the Common Rule.) Many of the obligations delineated in the Common Rule can be traced back to the work of the National Commission for the (...)
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  • Guinea Pig Duties: 8. Another Way.T. J. Steiner - 2006 - Research Ethics 2 (4):132-135.
    This series of articles have explored the need that society has for clinical research to be done and the consequent sets of duties that call on the one hand upon investigators to carry it out and on the other upon patients to be subjects of it. The purpose of the discussions has been to understand what should be the relationship between investigators and patient-subjects in order that both might meet their obligations effectively, efficiently, safely and with mutual respect. Here I (...)
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  • Guinea Pig Duties: 7. Contingent Rights of Patients in Clinical Research.T. J. Steiner - 2006 - Research Ethics 2 (3):85-91.
    In these articles I have so far explored the set of duties that call upon patients to participate in clinical research as subjects of it. Here I consider whether they acquire a set of rights in consequence of participation, and what these rights may be.
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  • The Holocaust and Medical Ethics: The Voices of the Victims.A. Jotkowitz - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (12):869-870.
    Fifty-nine years ago, Dr Leo Alexander published his now famous report on medicine under the Nazis. In his report he describes the two major crimes of German physicians. The participation of physicians in euthanasia and genocide and the horrible experiments performed on concentration camp prisoners in the name of science. In response to this gross violation of human rights by physicians, the Nuremberg military tribunal, which investigated and prosecuted the perpetrators of the Nazi war crimes, established ten principles of ethical (...)
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  • Paradoxical Traps in Therapeutics: Some Dilemmas in Medical Ethics.U. Lowental - 1979 - Journal of Medical Ethics 5 (1):22-25.
    The doctor-patient relationship is examined an emphasis on the comparison between professional and moral principles. Many therapeutic measures have opposite-directed alternative steps with an equal degree of justification, so that no logical preference is attainable and conflicts ensue. Thus patients come for relief and are ordered to endure further pain and discomfort; or weaker individuals exaggerate their complaints hypochomdriacally, and thus need a great deal of understanding, yet paradoxically they are prone to receive less support than stronger ones. Further conflicts (...)
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  • World Health Organisation Biomedical Research Guidelines and the Conduct of Clinical Trials.W. Rudowski - 1980 - Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (2):58-60.
  • Can Fluids and Electrolytes Be 'Extraordinary' Treatment?C. Strong - 1981 - Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (2):83-85.
  • Theological Reflections on Donation After Circulatory Death: The Wisdom of Paul Ramsey and Moshe Feinstein.A. Jotkowitz - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (10):706-709.
    Due to the worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation, there has been an increased use of organs obtained after circulatory death alone. A protocol for this procedure has recently been approved by a major transplant consortium. This development raises serious moral and ethical concerns. Two renowned theologians of the previous generation, Paul Ramsey and Moshe Feinstein, wrote extensively on the ethical issues relating to transplantation, and their work has much relevance to current moral dilemmas. Their writings relating to definition of (...)
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  • The Family Rule: A Framework for Obtaining Ethical Consent for Medical Interventions From Children.D. M. Foreman - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):491-500.
    Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in (...)
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  • Never Solo: Gratitude for My Academic Journey.James F. Childress - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (4-5):410-416.
    Tom Beauchamp and I were asked by the editors of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy to prepare “intellectual autobiographies,” with particular attention to sources and influences on our work, including but not limited to Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Of course, it is artificial and even impossible to try fully to separate the “intellectual” from other aspects of our lives. So, while emphasizing the “intellectual” aspects of my autobiography, I have attended to other aspects, too. The huge debts of gratitude (...)
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  • What is Christian About Christian Bioethics?B. Waters - 2005 - Christian Bioethics 11 (3):281-295.
    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? The short answer to this question is that the Incarnation should shape the form and content of Christian bioethics. In explicating this answer it is argued that contemporary medicine is unwittingly embracing and implementing the transhumanist dream of transforming humans into posthumans. Contemporary medicine does not admit that there are any limits in principle to the extent to which it should intervene to improve the quality of human life. This largely inarticulate, yet ambitious, agenda (...)
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  • The Order of Widows: What the Early Church Can Teach Us About Older Women and Health Care.M. C. Kaveny - 2005 - Christian Bioethics 11 (1):11-34.
    This article argues that the early Christian ?order of widows? provides a fruitful model for Christian ethicists struggling to address the medical and social problems of elderly women today. After outlining the precarious state of the ?almanah? - or widow - in biblical times, it describes the emergence of the order of widows in the early Church. Turning to the contemporary situation, it argues that demographics both in the United States and around the globe suggest that meeting the needs of (...)
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  • The Commercialization of Human Body Parts: A Reappraisal From a Protestant Perspective.Larry Torcello & Stephen Wear - 2000 - Christian Bioethics 6 (2):153-169.
    The idea of a market in human organs has traditionally met with widespread and emphatic rejection from both secular and religious fronts alike. However, as numerous human beings continue to suffer an uncertain fate on transplant waiting lists, voices are beginning to emerge that are willing at least to explore the option of human organ sales. Anyone who argues for such an option must contend, however, with what seem to be largely emotional rejections of the idea. Often it seems that (...)
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  • On the Content and Purview of Christian Bioethics.H. Y. Vanderpool - 1999 - Christian Bioethics 5 (3):220-231.
    The author argues that to explore what is distinctly Christian about Christian bioethics requires clarity about what is Christian. He distinguishes between the Christian (that which can be identified as authentically Christian), Christianity (the sum of that which is authentically Christian), and ecclesiastical traditions (the historic communities of faith and practice that are predicated upon both Christian and extra-Christian tradition) to critically assess what is to be declared Christian. In addition to exploring the role of New Testament scripture in identifying (...)
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  • The Recent History of Christian Bioethics Critically Reassessed.H. T. Engelhardt - 2014 - Christian Bioethics 20 (2):146-167.
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  • The Body for Charity, Profit and Holiness: Commerce in Human Body Parts.M. J. Cherry - 2000 - Christian Bioethics 6 (2):127-138.
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