Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. What Can an Evolutionary Explanation Bring to The Demarcation of The Normal From The Pathological in Psychiatry? Nesse’s Case of Depression.Chrysi Malouchou Kanellopoulou - unknown
    Randolph Nesse argues that evolutionary theory is the key element in elaborating a valid criterion demarcating the normal from the pathological in psychiatry. By focusing on the application of Nesse’s criterion on the demarcation of normal low mood from pathological depression, I argue – contrary to Nesse’s claims – that evolutionary theory cannot generate a valid criterion from the differentiation of normal low mood states from pathological depression. Indeed, expression in conformity to evolved functions cannot constitute a sufficient condition for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Diseases Are Not Adaptations and Neither Are Their Causes: A Response to Ardern’s "Dysfunction, Disease, and the Limits of Selection".Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2020 - Biological Theory 15 (3):136-142.
    In a recent article in this journal, Zachary Ardern criticizes our view that the most promising candidate for a naturalized criterion of disease is the "selected effects" account of biological function and dysfunction. Here we reply to Ardern’s criticisms and, more generally, clarify the relationship between adaptation and dysfunction in the evolution of health and disease.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Normal and Abnormal Anxiety in the Age of DSM-5 and ICD-11.Dan J. Stein & Randolph M. Nesse - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (3):223-229.
    Despite the effort on DSM-5 and ICD-11, few appear satisfied with these classification systems. We suggest that the core reason for dissatisfaction is expecting too much from them; they do not provide discrete categories that map to specific causes of disease, they describe clinical syndromes intended to guide treatment choices. Here we review work on anxiety and anxiety disorders to argue that while clinicians draw a pragmatic distinction between normal and abnormal emotions based on considerations such as severity and duration, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Law, Stigma, and Meaning: Implications for Obesity and HIV Prevention.Michael V. Stanton & Jason A. Smith - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (4):492-501.
    Public health law has focused primarily on combatting stigma through laws targeting discrimination based on attributes, when the reach of stigma extends far beyond mere appearances. By exploring the lived experience of stigmatized individuals, policy makers might more deeply understand public health problems, more appropriately create health policies, and more effectively promote positive health behaviors. Efforts to address stigma must focus on all aspects of stigma to be effective.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Evolution, Dysfunction, and Disease: A Reappraisal: Table 1.Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):301-327.
    Some ‘naturalist’ accounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction, whilst others use a ‘selected effect’ account. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account offers the best hope for a naturalist account of disease. We show that the selected effect account survives the criticisms levelled by these authors relatively unscathed, and has significant advantages over the BST. Moreover, unlike the BST, it has a strong theoretical rationale and can provide substantive reasons to decide difficult cases. This is (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Is Psychopathy a Harmful Dysfunction?Marko Jurjako - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (5):1-23.
    In their paper “Is psychopathy a mental disease?”, Thomas Nadelhoffer and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argue that according to any plausible account of mental disorder, neural and psychological abnormalities correlated with psychopathy should be regarded as signs of a mental disorder. I oppose this conclusion by arguing that at least on a naturalistically grounded account, such as Wakefield’s ‘Harmful Dysfunction’ view, currently available empirical data and evolutionary considerations indicate that psychopathy is not a mental disorder. For an online version of the paper, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Research Traditions and Evolutionary Explanations in Medicine.Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):75-90.
    In this article, I argue that distinguishing ‘evolutionary’ from ‘Darwinian’ medicine will help us assess the variety of roles that evolutionary explanations can play in a number of medical contexts. Because the boundaries of evolutionary and Darwinian medicine overlap to some extent, however, they are best described as distinct ‘research traditions’ rather than as competing paradigms. But while evolu- tionary medicine does not stand out as a new scientific field of its own, Darwinian medicine is united by a number of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Evolutionary Medicine at Twenty: Rethinking Adaptationism and Disease. [REVIEW]Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):241-261.
    Two decades ago, the eminent evolutionary biologist George C. Williams and his physician coauthor, Randolph Nesse, formulated the evolutionary medicine research program. Williams and Nesse explicitly made adaptationism a core component of the new program, which has served to undermine the program ever since, distorting its practitioners’ perceptions of evidentiary burdens and in extreme cases has served to warp practitioner’s understandings of the relationship between evolutionary benefits/detriments and medical ones. I show that the Williams and Nesse program more particularly embraces (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Why Disease Persists: An Evolutionary Nosology. [REVIEW]Robert L. Perlman - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):343-350.
    Although natural selection might be expected to reduce the incidence and severity of disease, disease persists. Natural selection leads to increases in the mean fitness of populations and so will reduce the frequency of disease-associated alleles, but other evolutionary processes, such as mutation and gene flow, may introduce or increase the frequency of these deleterious alleles. The pleiotropic actions of genes and the epistatic interactions between them complicate the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and may result in the preservation of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Defining Disease Beyond Conceptual Analysis: An Analysis of Conceptual Analysis in Philosophy of Medicine.Maël Lemoine - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):309-325.
    Conceptual analysis of health and disease is portrayed as consisting in the confrontation of a set of criteria—a “definition”—with a set of cases, called instances of either “health” or “ disease.” Apart from logical counter-arguments, there is no other way to refute an opponent’s definition than by providing counter-cases. As resorting to intensional stipulation is not forbidden, several contenders can therefore be deemed to have succeeded. This implies that conceptual analysis alone is not likely to decide between naturalism and normativism. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • Human Brain Evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-Depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of Fear-Circuitry-Related Traits in Dsm-V and for Studying Resilience to Warzone-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Dr H. Stefan Bracha - 2006 - Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:827-853.
    The DSM-III, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 have judiciously minimized discussion of etiologies to distance clinical psychiatry from Freudian psychoanalysis. With this goal mostly achieved, discussion of etiological factors should be reintroduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A research agenda for the DSM-V advocated the "development of a pathophysiologically based classification system". The author critically reviews the neuroevolutionary literature on stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders and related amygdala-driven, species-atypical fear behaviors of clinical severity in adult (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Why Mental Disorders Are Just Mental Dysfunctions (and Nothing More): Some Darwinian Arguments.Andreas De Block - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):338-346.
    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, ‘what is a mental disorder?’. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Why Mental Disorders Are Just Mental Dysfunctions : Some Darwinian Arguments.Andreas De Block - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):338-346.
    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • "Scared Stiff": Catatonia as an Evolutionary-Based Fear Response.Andrew K. Moskowitz - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (4):984-1002.