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  1. Measuring Unethical Consumer Behavior Across Four Countries.Vince W. Mitchell, George Balabanis, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & T. Bettina Cornwell - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):395-412.
    The huge amounts spent on store security and crime prevention worldwide, not only costs international businesses, but also amounts to a hidden tax on those law-binding consumers who bear higher prices. Most previous research has focused on shoplifting and ignored many other ways in which consumers cheat businesses. Using a hybrid of both qualitative research and survey approaches in four countries, an index of 37 activities was developed to examine consumers’ unethical activities across UK, US, France, and Austria. The findings (...)
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  • Anger Strays, Fear Refrains: The Differential Effect of Negative Emotions on Consumers’ Ethical Judgments.Jatinder J. Singh, Nitika Garg, Rahul Govind & Scott J. Vitell - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (1):235-248.
    Although various factors have been studied for their influence on consumers’ ethical judgments, the role of incidental emotions has received relatively less attention. Recent research in consumer behavior has focused on studying the effect of specific incidental emotions on various aspects of consumer decision making. This paper investigates the effect of two negative, incidental emotional states of anger and fear on ethical judgment in a consumer context using a passive unethical behavior scenario. The paper presents two experimental studies. Study 1 (...)
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong, and USA.Charles C. Cui, Vince Mitchell, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & Bettina Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57 - 71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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  • Business Unethicality as an Impediment to Consumer Trust: The Moderating Role of Demographic and Cultural Characteristics. [REVIEW]Leonidas C. Leonidou, Olga Kvasova, Constantinos N. Leonidou & Simos Chari - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):397-415.
    The article reports the findings of a study conducted among 387 consumers regarding their perceptions of the unethicality of business practices of firms and how these affect their response behavior, in terms of trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study confirmed that high levels of perceived corporate unethicality decrease consumer trust. This in turn reduces consumer satisfaction, which ultimately has negative effects on customer loyalty. It was also revealed that, although both consumer gender and urbanity have a moderating effect on the (...)
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  • The End of Religion? Examining the Role of Religiousness, Materialism, and Long-Term Orientation on Consumer Ethics in Indonesia.Denni Arli & Fandy Tjiptono - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (3):1-16.
    Various studies on the impact of religiousness on consumer ethics have produced mixed results and suggested further clarification on the issue. Therefore, this article examines the effect of religiousness, materialism, and long-term orientation on consumer ethics in Indonesia. The results from 356 respondents in Indonesia, the largest Muslim population in the world, showed that intrinsic religiousness positively affected consumer ethics, while extrinsic social religiousness negatively affected consumer ethics. However, extrinsic personal religiousness did not affect consumer ethical beliefs dimensions. Unlike other (...)
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  • Why is It (Un-)Ethical? Comparing Potential European Partners: A Western Christian and an Eastern Islamic Country – on Arguments Used in Explaining Ethical Judgments. [REVIEW]Katharina J. Srnka, A. Ercan Gegez & S. Burak Arzova - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (2):101 - 118.
    Located at the crossroads of the Eastern and Western world, Turkey today is characterized by a demographically versatile and modernizing society as well as a rapidly developing economy. Currently, the country is negotiating its accession to the European Union. This article yields some factual grounding into the ongoing value-related debate concerning Turkey's potential EU-membership. It describes a mixed-methodology study on moral reasoning in Austria and Turkey. In this study, the arguments given by individuals when evaluating ethically problematic situations in business (...)
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  • When Idealists Evade Taxes: The Influence of Personal Moral Philosophy on Attitudes to Tax Evasion – a Lebanese Study.Yusuf M. Sidani, Abdul Jalil Ghanem & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 23 (2):183-196.
    This paper explores attitudes regarding tax evasion and the relationship between personal moral philosophy and such attitudes in a weak tax environment. The results confirm the multidimensionality of tax evasion attitudes. Idealism was negatively related to self-interest tax evasion attitudes while relativism was positively related to such attitudes. Idealism was also positively related to tax evasion attitudes stemming from concerns about the justice of the tax system. Idealists in a weak tax environment seemingly go through a cognitive reframing process where (...)
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  • Using Best–Worst Scaling Methodology to Investigate Consumer Ethical Beliefs Across Countries.Pat Auger, Timothy M. Devinney & Jordan J. Louviere - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):299-326.
    This study uses best–worst scaling experiments to examine differences across six countries in the attitudes of consumers towards social and ethical issues that included both product related issues (such as recycled packaging) and general social factors (such as human rights). The experiments were conducted using over 600 respondents from Germany, Spain, Turkey, USA, India, and Korea. The results show that there is indeed some variation in the attitudes towards social and ethical issues across these six countries. However, what is more (...)
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  • Moral Philosophy, Materialism, and Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Indonesia. [REVIEW]Long-Chuan Lu & Chia-Ju Lu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):193 - 210.
    Although the ethical judgment of consumers in the United States and other industrialized countries has received considerable attention, consumer ethics in Asian-market settings have seldom been explored. The purchase and making of counterfeit products are considered common, but disreputable, attributes of Southeast Asian consumers. According to the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Indonesia ranks third among the leading countries of counterfeit items in Asia. Retail revenue losses attributed to counterfeiting amounted to US $183 million in 2004. Therefore, elucidating the (...)
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  • A Cross-National Investigation on How Ethical Consumers Build Loyalty Toward Fair Trade Brands.Gwang-Suk Kim, Grace Y. Lee & Kiwan Park - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):589 - 611.
    Although Fair Trade has recently experienced rapid growth around the world, there is lack of consumer research that investigates what determines consumers' loyalty toward Fair Trade brands. In this research, we investigate how ethical consumption values (ECV) and two mediating variables, Fair Trade product beliefs (FTPB) and Fair Trade corporate evaluation, (FTCE) determine Fair Trade brand loyalty (FTBL). On the basis of two empirical studies that use samples from the U.S. and Korea, we provide evidence demonstrating that the manner in (...)
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  • Examining the Roles of Collectivism, Attitude Toward Business, and Religious Beliefs on Consumer Ethics in China.Chun-Chen Huang & Long-Chuan Lu - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):505-514.
    Chinese consumers comprise a unique subculture that exerts a considerable influence on the market and are treated as a collective group by researchers. However, few studies have examined the effects of collectivism and consumer attitudinal attributes on consumer ethics. Although the practice of religion was prohibited in China before economic reforms in the late 1970s, religion remains a major factor that affects the ethical judgment of consumers. The present study, based on the Hunt–Vitell model, examines the influence of culture and (...)
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  • Does Consumer Unethical Behavior Relate to Birthplace? Evidence From China.BaoChun Zhao & ShanShan Xu - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):475-488.
    This study explores the relationship between individual birthplace [rural birthplace (RB) and urban birthplace (UB)] and consumer unethical behavior (CUB). As a result, CUB is verified to closely relate to individual birthplace, and those new urban residents with RB are found to behave more ethically than the patrimonial urban residents with UB in CUB4 (“no harm/no foul”). This study also finds that the differentiation of CUB between two categories of consumers is correlated with the personal moral ideology or Machiavellianism (MA) (...)
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  • The Impacts of Ethical Ideology, Materialism, and Selected Demographics on Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Study in China.Chun-Chen Huang, Long-Chuan Lu, Ching-Sing You & Szu-Wei Yen - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):315 - 331.
    This study attempts to investigate the relationships among the ethical beliefs of Chinese consumers and orientations based on attitudinal attributes: materialism and moral philosophies (idealism and relativism). In addition, this study examines Chinese consumers' ethical beliefs in relation to five selected demographic characteristics (gender, age, religion, family income and education). Based on this exploratory study of 284 Chinese consumers, the following statistically significant findings were discovered. First, Chinese consumers regard that a passively benefiting activity is more ethical, but actively benefiting (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics Among Youths in Indonesia: Do Gender and Religiosity Matter?Fandy Tjiptono, Albert & Tita Elfitasari - 2018 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):137-149.
    The current study aims to examine the role of religiosity and gender in affecting consumer ethics among Indonesian youths. A convenience sample of 482 students in a large private university in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, participated in the research. Established scales were adopted to measure the key constructs. Intrinsic religiosity and gender were used as the independent variables, while each dimension of consumer ethics was treated as the dependent variables. The results of seven multiple regression analyses indicated that gender and (...)
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  • Why Is It Ethical? Comparing Potential European Partners: A Western Christian and An Eastern Islamic Country – On Arguments Used in Explaining Ethical Judgments.Katharina J. Srnka, A. Ercan Gegez & S. Burak Arzova - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (2):101-118.
    Located at the crossroads of the Eastern and Western world, Turkey today is characterized by a demographically versatile and modernizing society as well as a rapidly developing economy. Currently, the country is negotiating its accession to the European Union. This article yields some factual grounding into the ongoing value-related debate concerning Turkey's potential EU-membership. It describes a mixed-methodology study on moral reasoning in Austria and Turkey. In this study, the arguments given by individuals when evaluating ethically problematic situations in business (...)
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  • Examining the Effects of Moral Development Level, Self-Concept, and Self-Monitoring on Consumers’ Ethical Attitudes.Bahtışen Kavak, Eda Gürel, Canan Eryiğit & Öznur Özkan Tektaş - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):115-135.
    This study investigates the possible effects of self-concept, self-monitoring, and moral development level on dimensions of consumers' ethical attitudes. "Actively benefiting from illegal activities," "actively benefiting from deceptive practices," and "no harm/no foul 1—2" are defined by factor analysis as four dimensions of Turkish consumers' ethical attitudes. Logistic regression analysis is applied to data collected from 516 Turkish households. Results indicate that self-monitoring and moral development level predicted consumer ethics in relation to "actively benefiting from questionable practices" and "no harm/no (...)
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  • Examining the Effects of Moral Development Level, Self-Concept, and Self-Monitoring on Consumers' Ethical Attitudes.Bahtışen Kavak, Eda Gürel, Canan Eryiğit & Öznur Özkan Tektaş - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):115 - 135.
    This study investigates the possible effects of self-concept, self-monitoring, and moral development level on dimensions of consumers' ethical attitudes. "Actively benefiting from illegal activities," "actively benefiting from deceptive practices," and "no harm/no foul 1—2" are defined by factor analysis as four dimensions of Turkish consumers' ethical attitudes. Logistic regression analysis is applied to data collected from 516 Turkish households. Results indicate that self-monitoring and moral development level predicted consumer ethics in relation to "actively benefiting from questionable practices" and "no harm/no (...)
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  • Them’s Fightin’ Words: The Effects of Violent Rhetoric on Ethical Decision Making in Business.Joshua R. Gubler, Nathan P. Kalmoe & David A. Wood - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (3):705-716.
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA.C. C. Cui, V. Mitchell, B. Schlegelmilch & T. B. Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57-71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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