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The Morality of Freedom

Oxford University Press (1986)

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  1. Should Future Generations Be Content with Plastic Trees and Singing Electronic Birds?Danielle Zwarthoed - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):219-236.
    The aim of this paper is to determine whether the present generation should preserve non-human living things for future generations, even if in the future all the contributions these organisms currently make to human survival in decent conditions were performed by adequate technology and future people's preferences were satisfied by this state of affairs. The paper argues it would be wrong to leave a world without non-human living plants, animals and other organisms to future generations, because such a world would (...)
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  • Returning to History: The Ethics of Researching Asylum Seeker Health in Australia.Deborah Zion, Linda Briskman & Bebe Loff - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2):48-56.
    Australia's policy of mandatory indefinite detention of those seeking asylum and arriving without valid documents has led to terrible human rights abuses and cumulative deterioration in health for those incarcerated. We argue that there is an imperative to research and document the plight of those who have suffered at the hands of the Australian government and its agents. However, the normal tools available to those engaged in health research may further erode the rights and well being of this population, requiring (...)
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  • A Defense of Epistemic Authority.Linda Zagzebski - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (2):293-306.
    In this paper I argue that epistemic authority can be justified in the same way as political authority in the tradition of political liberalism. I propose principlesof epistemic authority modeled on the general principles of authority proposed by Joseph Raz. These include the Content-Independence thesis, the Pre-emption thesis, the Dependency thesis, and the Normal Justification thesis. The focus is on the authority of a person’s beliefs, although the principles can be applied to the authority of another person’s testimony and the (...)
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  • Well-Being, Categorical Deprivation and Pleasure.Yossi Yonah - 2001 - Philosophia 28 (1-4):233-253.
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  • Well-Being, Categorical Deprivation and the Role of Education.Yossi Yonah - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 28 (2):191–204.
  • Conceptualising Meaningful Work as a Fundamental Human Need.Ruth Yeoman - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-17.
    In liberal political theory, meaningful work is conceptualised as a preference in the market. Although this strategy avoids transgressing liberal neutrality, the subsequent constraint upon state intervention aimed at promoting the social and economic conditions for widespread meaningful work is normatively unsatisfactory. Instead, meaningful work can be understood to be a fundamental human need, which all persons require in order to satisfy their inescapable interests in freedom, autonomy, and dignity. To overcome the inadequate treatment of meaningful work by liberal political (...)
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  • Republican Responsibility in Criminal Law.Ekow N. Yankah - 2015 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 9 (3):457-475.
    Retributivism so dominates criminal theory that lawyers, legal scholars and law students assert with complete confidence that criminal law is justified only in light of violations of another person’s rights. Yet the core tenet of retributivism views criminal law fundamentally through the lens of individual actors, rendering both offender and victim unrecognizably denuded from their social and civic context. Doing so means that retributivism is unable to explain even our most basic criminal law practices, such as why we punish recidivists (...)
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  • Legal Vices and Civic Virtue: Vice Crimes, Republicanism and the Corruption of Lawfulness. [REVIEW]Ekow N. Yankah - 2013 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (1):61-82.
    Vice crimes, crimes prohibited in part because they are viewed as morally corrupting, engage legal theorists because they reveal importantly contrasting views between liberals and virtue-centered theorists on the very limits of legitimate state action. Yet advocates and opponents alike focus on the role law can play in suppressing personal vice; the role of law is seen as suppressing licentiousness, sloth, greed etc. The most powerful advocates of the position that the law must nurture good character often draw on Aristotelian (...)
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  • Liberalism, Religion and Politics Again: A Reply to Gordon Graham.Robert N. Van Wyk - 1994 - Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (3):153-164.
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  • Noncomparabilism in Epistemology.Mark Emerson Wunderlich - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 142 (2):133 - 151.
    Contemporary epistemologists assume a view I call ‘comparabilism.’ They do not, however, argue for this view. I claim that noncomparabilism is a viable alternative. I further argue that noncomparabilism has advantages over comparabilism.
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  • Equality and the Significance of Coercion.Gabriel Wollner - 2011 - Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (4):363-381.
    Some political philosophers believe that equality emerges as a moral concern where and because people coerce each other. I shall argue that they are wrong. The idea of coercion as a trigger of equality is neither as plausible nor as powerful as it may initially appear. Those who rely on the idea that coercion is among the conditions that give rise to equality as a moral demand face a threefold challenge. They will have to succeed in jointly (a) offering a (...)
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  • It’s Good to Be Autonomous: Prospective Consent, Retrospective Consent, and the Foundation of Consent in the Criminal Law. [REVIEW]Jonathan Witmer-Rich - 2011 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 5 (3):377-398.
    What is the foundation of consent in the criminal law? Classically liberal commentators have offered at least three distinct theories. J.S. Mill contends we value consent because individuals are the best judges of their own interests. Joel Feinberg argues an individual’s consent matters because she has a right to autonomy based on her intrinsic sovereignty over her own life. Joseph Raz also focuses on autonomy, but argues that society values autonomy as a constituent element of individual well-being, which it is (...)
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  • On the Possibilities of Group Injury.Stephen Winter - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):393–413.
  • Learning the Virtues at Work.Christopher Winch - 2010 - Ethics and Education 5 (2):173-185.
    An influential view of education is that it prepares young people for adult life, usually in the areas of civic engagement, leisure and contemplation. Employment may be a locus for learning some worthwhile skills and knowledge, but it is not itself the possible locus or one of the possible loci of a worthwhile life. This article disputes that view by drawing attention to those aspects of employment that make it potentially an aspect of a worthwhile life. The exercise and development (...)
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  • Education and Broad Concepts of Agency.Christopher Winch - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):1-15.
    Drawing on recent debates about the relationship between propositional and practical knowledge, this article is concerned with broad concepts of agency. Specifically, it is concerned with agency that involves the forming and putting into effect of intentions over relatively extended periods, particularly in work contexts (called, for want of a better term, ?project management?). The main focus of interest is thus not on ?know-how? in the sense of ability to perform types of tasks but on the ability to form and (...)
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  • Developing Critical Rationality as a Pedagogical Aim.Christopher Winch - 2004 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 38 (3):467–484.
  • Justice, Legitimacy, and Constitutional Rights.Wilfried Hinsch - 2010 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (1):39-54.
  • What Does It Mean to Be Well-Educated?John White - 2011 - Think (28):9-16.
    A brief account of educational aims, focussing on preparation for a life of autonomous well-being.
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  • Two National Curricula ‐ Baker's and Stalin's. Towards a Liberal Alternative.John White - 1988 - British Journal of Educational Studies 36 (3):218-231.
  • Two National Curricula - Baker's and Stalin's. Towards a Liberal Alternative.John White - 1988 - British Journal of Educational Studies 36 (3):218 - 231.
  • The Dishwasher's Child: Education and the End of Egalitarianism.John White - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 28 (2):173–182.
  • The Comprehensive Ideal and the Rejection of Theory.John White - 1987 - British Journal of Educational Studies 35 (3):196 - 210.
  • The Comprehensive Ideal and the Rejection of Theory.John White - 1987 - British Journal of Educational Studies 35 (3):196-210.
  • Justifying Private Schools.John White - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (4):496-510.
    The paper looks at arguments for and against private schools, first in general and then, at greater length, in their British form. Here it looks first at defences against the charge that private schooling is unfair, discussing on the way problems with equality as an intrinsic value and with instrumental appeals to greater equality, especially in access to university and better jobs. It turns next to charges of social exclusiveness, before looking in more detail at claims about the dangers private (...)
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  • Humanisation and education: Issues for school reform.John White - 1991 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 11 (1):3-9.
    The ‘humanisation’ of education is one of the three leitmotifs in a recent Soviet planning document A Conception of General Education. It is suggested that Western education systems also need to be humanised, although not so radically as the Soviet, by the removal of obstacles to educating pupils as members of a liberal democratic society. A future joint research agenda between East and West should concentrate on improving mutual understanding of this goal, clarifying conceptual obstacles, and reflecting on means of (...)
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  • Abortion and Referrals for Abortion: Is the Law in Need of Change?Demian Whiting - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):1006-1008.
    In an article published recently in this journal Daniel Hill argues that it is unacceptable that British law allows doctors to refuse to terminate non-emergency pregnancies but not to refuse to refer given that many doctors who are opposed to non-emergency abortion will be opposed also to any action that aids non-emergency abortion, including the action of referral. In this reply, I argue that Hill’s argument fails to describe properly the correct function of the law, which has never been about (...)
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  • Deference as a Normative Power.Andrea C. Westlund - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 166 (3):455-474.
    Much of the literature on practical authority concerns the authority of the state over its subjects—authority to which we are, as G. E. M. Anscombe says, subject “willy nilly”. Yet many of our “willy” (or voluntary) relationships also seem to involve the exercise of practical authority, and this species of authority is in some ways even more puzzling than authority willy nilly. In this paper I argue that voluntary authority relies on a form of voluntary obligation that is akin (in (...)
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  • Slaves, Prisoners, and Republican Freedom.Fabian Wendt - 2011 - Res Publica 17 (2):175-192.
    Philip Pettit’s republican conception of freedom is presented as an alternative both to negative and positive conceptions of freedom. The basic idea is to conceptualize freedom as non-domination, not as non-interference or self-mastery. When compared to negative freedom, Pettit’s republican conception comprises two controversial claims: the claim that we are unfree if we are dominated without actual interference, and the claim that we are free if we face interference without domination. Because the slave is a widely accepted paradigm of the (...)
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  • Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):584-600.
    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, (...)
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  • Exploitation and International Clinical Research: The Disconnect Between Goals and Policy.Danielle M. Wenner - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag. pp. 563-574.
    A growing proportion of clinical research funded by pharmaceutical companies, high-income country research agencies, and not-for-profit funders is conducted in low- and middle-income settings. Disparities in wealth and access to healthcare between the populations where new interventions are often tested and those where many of them are ultimately marketed raise concerns about exploitation. This chapter examines several ethical requirements frequently advanced as mechanisms for protecting research subjects in underserved communities from exploitation and evaluates the effectiveness of those mechanisms as responses (...)
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  • Against Philosophical Anarchism.Fabian Wendt - 2020 - Law and Philosophy 39 (5):527-544.
    Philosophical anarchists claim that all states lack political authority and are illegitimate, but that some states are nevertheless morally justified and should not be abolished. I argue that philosophical anarchism is either incoherent or collapses into either statism or political anarchism.
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  • Political Efficacy, Respect for Agency, and Adaptive Preferences.Steven Weimer - 2017 - Journal of Global Ethics 13 (3):326-343.
    ABSTRACTSerene Khader and Rosa Terlazzo have each recently proposed theories of adaptive preferences which purport to both respect persons’ agency and provide an effective political tool. While Khader and Terlazzo thus share a similar goal, they take fundamentally different paths in its pursuit: Khader offers a perfectionist account of APs and Terlazzo an autonomy-based theory. In this paper, I argue first that if it is to adequately respect persons’ agency, a theory of APs should in some way include autonomy considerations. (...)
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  • “I Can’T Eat If I Don’T Plass”: Impoverished Plasma Donors, Alternatives, and Autonomy.Steven Weimer - 2015 - HEC Forum 27 (4):361-385.
    One of the central considerations to be taken into account in evaluating the ethics of compensation for donated plasma is respect for donor autonomy. And one of the main arguments against compensated donation systems is that many donors do or would come from circumstances of poverty that restrict their alternatives in a way that compromises those donors’ autonomy. In this paper, I develop and defend a novel version of this “compromised autonomy argument” which improves upon extant versions by employing a (...)
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  • Comments on The Mighty and The Almighty.Paul Weithman - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4:377-386.
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  • A Neutral Conception of Reasonableness?Daniel M. Weinstock - 2006 - Episteme 3 (3):234-247.
    Much liberal theorizing of the past twenty years has been built around a conception of neutrality and an accompanying virtue of reasonableness according to which citizens ought to be able to view public policy debates from a perspective detached from their comprehensive conceptions of the good. The view of “justifi catory neutrality” that emerges from this view is discussed and rejected as embodying controversial views about the relationship of individuals to their conceptions of the good. It is shown to be (...)
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  • The Right to Health Versus Good Medical Care?Albert Weale - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (4):473-493.
    There are two discourses that are used in connection with the provision of good healthcare: a rights discourse and a beneficial design discourse. Although the logical force of these two discourses overlaps, they have distinct and incompatible implications for practical reasoning about health policy. The language of rights can be interpreted as the ground of a well-designed healthcare system stressing the values of equality and inclusion, but it has less application when dealing with questions of cost-effectiveness. This difference reflects the (...)
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  • Why Liberal Neutralists Should Accept Educational Neutrality.Matt Sensat Waldren - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):71-83.
    Educational neutrality states that decisions about school curricula and instruction should be made independently of particular comprehensive doctrines. Many political philosophers of education reject this view in favor of some non-neutral alternative. Contrary to what one might expect, some prominent liberal neutralists have also rejected this view in parts of their work. This paper has two purposes. The first part of the paper concerns the relationship between liberal neutrality and educational neutrality. I examine arguments by Rawls and Nagel and argue (...)
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  • Public Reason Liberalism and Sex‐Neutral Marriage A Response to Francis J. Beckwith.Greg Walker - 2015 - Ratio Juris 28 (4):486-503.
    This article responds to an article by Francis J. Beckwith that argued that the consistent application of generic liberal principles requires that same-sex marriage not be recognised in civil law. This response demonstrates that Beckwith's article contains a series of interpretative and substantive flaws that render his argument unsuccessful. These relate to a misinterpretation of core liberal principles and a sidestepping of the matter of undue bias against same-sex partners. In correcting these flaws I tentatively propose a Voltairean argument in (...)
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  • Justice, Authority, and the World Order.A. Walton - 2009 - Journal of Global Ethics 5 (3):215 – 230.
    This paper defends the pertinence of global justice in the contemporary world. It accepts, for the sake of argument, Nagel's view that matters of justice arise only when political authority is asserted or exercised and, connectedly, his rejection of the cosmopolitan thesis. However, it challenges his conclusion that considerations of justice do not apply beyond the state. It argues that on any plausible account of the relationship between authority and justice international institutions, such as the World Trade Organisation, are now (...)
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  • Liberal Democracies and Encompassing Religious Communities: A Defense of Autonomy and Accommodation.Andrew K. Wahlstrom - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (1):31–48.
  • Disability, Dependency and Indebtedness?John Vorhaus - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (1):29–44.
    What does dependency reveal about human learning? All humans are dependent, largely because we are variously vulnerable and disabled at more than one stage in our lives. In this paper the subject of dependency is approached largely in the context of our vulnerable and disabled states, including in particular, states of profound disability. The primary contention is that our dependent states should feature in accounts of how we learn, and of relations between learner and teacher, in ways that compare with (...)
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  • Five Elements of Normative Ethics - A General Theory of Normative Individualism.Dietmar von der Pfordten - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (4):449 - 471.
    The article tries to inquire a third way in normative ethics between consequentialism or utilitarianism and deontology or Kantianism. To find such a third way in normative ethics, one has to analyze the elements of these classical theories and to look if they are justified. In this article it is argued that an adequate normative ethics has to contain the following five elements: (1) normative individualism, i. e., the view that in the last instance moral norms and values can only (...)
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  • XIV—The Truth in Political Instrumentalism.Daniel Viehoff - 2017 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (3):273-295.
    How can one person’s having political power over another be justified? This essay explores the idea that such justifications must be in an important sense derivative, and that this ‘Derivative Justification Constraint’ bars certain justifications widely endorsed in political and philosophical debates. After critically discussing the most prominent extant articulations of the Constraint (associated with a view often called ‘political instrumentalism’), the essay offers a novel account of what precisely the Constraint bars (in short: justification by appeal to non-derivative goods (...)
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  • Debate: Procedure and Outcome in the Justification of Authority.Daniel Viehoff - 2011 - Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (2):248-259.
    Why should one person obey another? Why (to ask the question from the first-person perspective) ought I to submit to another and follow her judgment rather than my own? In modern political thought, which denies that some are born rulers and others are born to be ruled, the most prominent answer has been: “Because I have consented to her authority.” By making authority conditional on the subjects’ consent, political philosophers have sought to reconcile authority’s hierarchical structure with the equal moral (...)
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  • On the Normativity of Intentions.Bruno Verbeek - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):87-101.
    Suppose you intend now to φ at some future time t. However, when t has come you do not φ. Something has gone wrong. This failing is not just a causal but also a normative failing. This raises the question how to characterize this failing. I discuss three alternative views. On the first view, the fact that you do not execute your intention to φ is blameworthy only if the balance of reasons pointed to φ-ing. The fact that you intended (...)
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  • Sobre the Tapestry of Reason: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Coherence and its Role in Legal Argument, de Amalia Amaya.Juan Vega Gómez - 2017 - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 46:131-218.
    En su libro The Tapestry of Reason: An Inquiry into the Nature of Coherence and its Role in Legal Argument,1 Amalia Amaya argumenta las ventajas de adoptar una postura coherentista en el derecho. Concretamente, su tesis principal es la siguiente...
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  • Direct-to-Consumer Genomics on the Scales of Autonomy.Effy Vayena - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):310-314.
  • Voluntary Euthanasia, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and the Right to Do Wrong.Jukka Varelius - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (3):1-15.
    It has been argued that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are morally wrong. Yet, a gravely suffering patient might insist that he has a moral right to the procedures even if they were morally wrong. There are also philosophers who maintain that an agent can have a moral right to do something that is morally wrong. In this article, I assess the view that a suffering patient can have a moral right to VE and PAS despite the moral (...)
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  • Rethinking Organizational Ethics: A Plea for Pluralism.J. van Oosterhout, Ben Wempe & Theo van Willigenburg - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):387-395.
    This paper challenges a pervasive, if not always explicit assumption of the present state of theorising in business ethics. This is the idea that a workable theory of organizational ethics must provide a unified perspective on its subject matter. In this paper we will sketch the broad outlines of an alternative understanding of business ethics, which focuses on constraints on corporate conduct that cannot reasonably be rejected. These constraints stem from at least three different levels or spheres of social reality, (...)
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  • Republican Dignity: The Importance of Taking Offence.Jan-Willem van der Rijt - 2009 - Law and Philosophy 28 (5):465-492.
    This paper analyses the republican notion of non-domination from the viewpoint of individual dignity. It determines the aspect of individual dignity that republicans are concerned with and scrutinises how it is safeguarded by non-domination. I argue that the notion of non-domination as it is formulated by Pettit contains a number of ambiguities that need to be addressed. I discuss these ambiguities and argue for specific solutions that place great importance on a person's moral beliefs and his status as a moral (...)
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