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Elements of Symbolic Logic

London: Dover Publications (1947)

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  1. Frege's Theory of Sense and Reference: Some Exegetical Notes.Saul A. Kripke - 2008 - Theoria 74 (3):181-218.
    Frege's theory of indirect contexts and the shift of sense and reference in these contexts has puzzled many. What can the hierarchy of indirect senses, doubly indirect senses, and so on, be? Donald Davidson gave a well-known 'unlearnability' argument against Frege's theory. The present paper argues that the key to Frege's theory lies in the fact that whenever a reference is specified (even though many senses determine a single reference), it is specified in a particular way, so that giving a (...)
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  • On Referring to Oneself.Maximilian de Gaynesford - 2004 - Theoria 70 (2-3):121-161.
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  • Arthur Prior and Hybrid Logic.Patrick Blackburn - 2006 - Synthese 150 (3):329-372.
    Contemporary hybrid logic is based on the idea of using formulas as terms, an idea invented and explored by Arthur Prior in the mid-1960s. But Prior’s own work on hybrid logic remains largely undiscussed. This is unfortunate, since hybridisation played a role that was both central to and problematic for his philosophical views on tense. In this paper I introduce hybrid logic from a contemporary perspective, and then examine the role it played in Prior’s work.
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  • Temporal Semantics in a Superficially Tenseless Language.Lisa Matthewson - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (6):673 - 713.
    This paper contributes to the debate about ‘tenseless languages’ by defending a tensed analysis of a superficially tenseless language. The language investigated is St’át’imcets (Lillooet Salish). I argue that although St’át’imcets lacks overt tense morphology, every finite clause in the language possesses a phonologically covert tense morpheme; this tense morpheme restricts the reference time to being non-future. Future interpretations, as well as ‘past future’ would-readings, are obtained by the combination of covert tense with an operator analogous to Abusch’s (1985) WOLL. (...)
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  • Conversational Impliciture.Kent Bach - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (2):124-162.
    Confusion in terms inspires confusion in concepts. When a relevant distinction is not clearly marked or not marked at all, it is apt to be blurred or even missed altogether in our thinking. This is true in any area of inquiry, pragmatics in particular. No one disputes that there are various ways in which what is communicated in an utterance can go beyond sentence meaning. The problem is to catalog the ways. It is generally recognized that linguistic meaning underdetermines speaker (...)
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  • As Time Goes By.Michael Lockwood - 1997 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (1):35 – 51.
    The concept of temporal flow has been attacked both on the grounds that it is logically incoherent, and on the grounds that it conflicts with the theory of relativity. I argue that the charge of incoherence cannot be made to stick: McTaggart's argument commits the fallacy of equivocation, and arguments deployed by Smart and others turn out to be question-begging. But objections arising from relativity, so I claim, have considerably more force than Lucas acknowledges. Moreover, the idea of equating the (...)
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  • Laws, Modalities and Counterfactuals.Wesley C. Salmon - 1977 - Synthese 35 (2):191-229.
  • Conversational Coherency.Rachel Reichman - 1978 - Cognitive Science 2 (4):283-327.
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  • Time, Context, and Cross-Temporal Claims.Giuliano Torrengo - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (2):281-296.
    I present a new problem for the tense realist concerning the evaluation of cross-temporal claims, such as ‘John is now taller than Michael was in 1984’. Time can play two different roles in the evaluation of an utterance of a sentence: either as an element that completes the content expressed by the utterance (the completion role), or as part of the circumstances against which the content is evaluated (the evaluation role). It is this latter role that time plays in the (...)
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  • On Nonindexical Contextualism.Wayne A. Davis - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (2):561-574.
    Abstract MacFarlane distinguishes “context sensitivity” from “indexicality,” and argues that “nonindexical contextualism” has significant advantages over the standard indexical form. MacFarlane’s substantive thesis is that the extension of an expression may depend on an epistemic standard variable even though its content does not. Focusing on ‘knows,’ I will argue against the possibility of extension dependence without content dependence when factors such as meaning, time, and world are held constant, and show that MacFarlane’s nonindexical contextualism provides no advantages over indexical contextualism. (...)
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  • The View of Language.Michael Studdert-Kennedy - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):758-759.
  • Could Demonstratives Be Descriptions?Steven Rieber - 1998 - Philosophia 26 (1-2):65-77.
  • The Syntax and Interpretation of Temporal Expressions in English.Carlota S. Smith - 1978 - Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (1):43 - 99.
    The only obligatory temporal expression in English is tense, yet Hans Reichenbach (1947) has argued convincingly that the simplest sentence is understood in terms of three temporal notions. Additional possibilities for a simple sentence are limited: English sentences have one time adverbial each. It is not immediately clear how to resolve these matters, that is, how (if at all) Reichenbach's account can be reconciled with the facts of English. This paper attempts to show that they can be reconciled, and presents (...)
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  • Reference Time and the English Past Tenses.W. P. M. Meyer-Viol & H. S. Jones - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (3):223-256.
    We offer a formal account of the English past tenses. We see the perfect as having reference time at speech time and the preterite as having reference time at event time. We formalize four constraints on reference time, which we bundle together under the term ‘perspective’. Once these constraints are satisfied at the different reference times of the perfect and preterite, the contrasting functions of these tenses are explained. Thus we can account formally for the ‘definiteness effect’ and the ‘lifetime (...)
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  • An Ideological Battle Over Modals and Quantifiers.Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):752-754.
  • Beyond the Roadblock in Linguistic Evolution Studies.James R. Hurford - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):736-737.
  • Not Invented Here.Philip Lieberman - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):741-742.
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  • Welcome to Functionalism.Elizabeth Bates & Brian MacWhinney - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):727-728.
  • Present Perfects Compete.Gerhard Schaden - 2009 - Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (2):115-141.
    This paper proposes a new look at the so-called ‘present-perfect puzzle’. I suggest that it is in fact part of a bigger problem, which also involves simple past tenses. I argue that present perfects compete with simple past tenses, and that the distribution of these tenses shows signs of the impact of this competition. The outcome of the competition is argued to be heavily dependent on which of the two tense-forms is the default. A pragmatic theory is proposed which accounts (...)
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  • Innocent Exclusion in an Alternative Semantics.Luis Alonso-Ovalle - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (2):115-128.
    The exclusive component of unembedded disjunctions is standardly derived as a conversational implicature by assuming that or forms a lexical scale with and. It is well known, however, that this assumption does not suffice to determine the required scalar competitors of disjunctions with more than two atomic disjuncts (McCawley, Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic* (But were ashamed to ask). Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1993, p. 324; Simons, “Or”: Issues in the semantics and pragmatics of disjunction. (...)
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  • Peirce, Perry and the Lost History of Critical Referentialism.Albert Atkin - 2008 - Philosophia 36 (3):313-326.
    This paper traces a lost genealogical connection between Charles S. Peirce’s later theory of signs and contemporary work in the philosophy of language by John Perry. As is shown, despite some differences, both accounts offer what might be termed a multi-level account of meaning. Moreover, it is claimed that by adopting a ‘Peircian turn’ in his theory, Perry might overcome alleged shortcomings in his account of cognitive significance.
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  • Reichenbach, Prior and Hybrid Tense Logic.Patrick Blackburn & Klaus Frovin Jørgensen - 2016 - Synthese 193 (11):3677-3689.
    In this paper we argue that Prior and Reichenbach are best viewed as allies, not antagonists. We do so by combining the central insights of Prior and Reichenbach in the framework of hybrid tense logic. This overcomes a well-known defect of Reichenbach’s tense schema, namely that it gives multiple representations to sentences in the future perfect and the future-in-the-past. It also makes it easy to define an iterative schema for tense that allows for multiple points of reference, a possibility noted (...)
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  • Causal Stories.David Magnus - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):744.
  • The English Resultative Perfect and its Relationship to the Experiential Perfect and the Simple Past Tense.Anita Mittwoch - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (3):323-351.
    A sentence in the Resultative perfect licenses two inferences: (a) the occurrence of an event (b) the state caused by this event obtains at evaluation time. In this paper I show that this use of the perfect is subject to a large number of distributional restrictions that all serve to highlight the result inference at the expense of the event inference. Nevertheless, only the event inference determines the truth conditions of this use of the perfect, the result inference being a (...)
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  • Quotation, Context Sensitivity, Signs and Expressions.Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore - 2006 - Philosophical Issues 16 (1):43–64.
    Can one and the same quotation be used on different occasions to quote distinct objects? The view that it can is taken for granted throughout the literature (e.g. Goddard & Routley 1966, Christensen 1967, Davidson 1979, Goldstein 1984, Jorgensen et al 1984, Atlas 1989, Clark & Gerrig 1990, Washington 1992, García-Carpintero 1994, 2004, 2005, Reimer 1996, Saka 1998, Wertheimer 1999). Garcia-Carpintero (1994, p. 261) illustrates with the quotation expression ''gone''. He says it can be used to quote any of the (...)
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  • Some Reflections on the Individuation of Events.Rom Harré - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (1):49-63.
    Abstract Theories in physics require reference to manifolds of locations and events. Abstract versions of these manifolds, ?space?, ?time? and ?space?time? are frequently used as reference systems. Should they be included in the ontology of physics as well as the material manifolds from which they are abstracted? This problem can be approached through a study of the identity conditions of events. The argument is offered that neither an abstract ?time? of moments is viable, nor is the assumption that events are (...)
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  • In Defense of Exaptation.Wendy Wilkins & Jennie Dumford - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):763-764.
  • Tense and the Psychology of Relief.Christoph Hoerl - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):217-231.
    At the centre of Arthur Prior’s ‘Thank goodness’ argument for the A-theory of time is a particular form of relief. Time must objectively pass, Prior argues, or else the relief felt when a painful experience has ended is not intelligible. In this paper, I offer a detailed analysis of the type of relief at issue in this argument, which I call temporal relief, and distinguish it from another form of relief, which I refer to as counterfactual relief. I also argue (...)
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  • Toward an Adaptationist Psycholinguistics.John Tooby & Leda Cosmides - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):760-762.
  • A Pragmatic Interpretation of Intuitionistic Propositional Logic.Carlo Dalla Pozza & Claudio Garola - 1995 - Erkenntnis 43 (1):81-109.
    We construct an extension P of the standard language of classical propositional logic by adjoining to the alphabet of a new category of logical-pragmatic signs. The well formed formulas of are calledradical formulas (rfs) of P;rfs preceded by theassertion sign constituteelementary assertive formulas of P, which can be connected together by means of thepragmatic connectives N, K, A, C, E, so as to obtain the set of all theassertive formulas (afs). Everyrf of P is endowed with atruth value defined classically, (...)
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  • Two Dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [Including a Detailed Analysis of the 1985 Jones–Pörn Deontic Logic System].Mathijs Boer, Dov M. Gabbay, Xavier Parent & Marija Slavkovic - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):623-660.
    This paper offers a two dimensional variation of Standard Deontic Logic SDL, which we call 2SDL. Using 2SDL we can show that we can overcome many of the difficulties that SDL has in representing linguistic sets of Contrary-to-Duties (known as paradoxes) including the Chisholm, Ross, Good Samaritan and Forrester paradoxes. We note that many dimensional logics have been around since 1947, and so 2SDL could have been presented already in the 1970s. Better late than never! As a detailed case study (...)
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  • New Foundations for Imperative Logic I: Logical Connectives, Consistency, and Quantifiers.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2008 - Noûs 42 (4):529-572.
    Imperatives cannot be true or false, so they are shunned by logicians. And yet imperatives can be combined by logical connectives: "kiss me and hug me" is the conjunction of "kiss me" with "hug me". This example may suggest that declarative and imperative logic are isomorphic: just as the conjunction of two declaratives is true exactly if both conjuncts are true, the conjunction of two imperatives is satisfied exactly if both conjuncts are satisfied—what more is there to say? Much more, (...)
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  • Necessitarian Propositions.Jonathan Schaffer - 2012 - Synthese 189 (1):119-162.
    Kaplan (drawing on Montague and Prior, inter alia) made explicit the idea of world and time neutral propositions, which bear truth values only relative to world and time parameters. There was then a debate over the role of time. Temporalists sided with Kaplan in maintaining time neutral propositions with time relative truth values, while eternalists claimed that all propositions specify the needed time information and so bear the same truth value at all times. But there never was much of a (...)
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  • Complexity and Adaptation.David Pesetsky & Ned Block - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):750-752.
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  • Five Exaptations in Speech: Reducing the Arbitrariness of the Constraints on Language.John Kingston - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):738-739.
  • Self-Reflexive Thoughts.Gilbert Harman - 2006 - Philosophical Issues 16 (1):334-345.
    Alice has insomnia. She has trouble falling asleep and part of the problem is that she worries about it and realizes that her worrying about it tends to keep from falling asleep. It occurs to her that thinking that she will not be able to fall asleep may be a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy. Perhaps she even has a thought that might be expressed like this: I am not going to fall asleep because of my having this very thought. This (...)
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  • 'Could Have Done Otherwise', Action Sentences and Anaphora.Helen Steward - 2006 - Analysis 66 (2):95–101.
  • Issues in the Evolution of the Human Language Faculty.Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):765-784.
  • The Logic of 'Unless'.Marthe Chandler - 1982 - Philosophical Studies 41 (3):383 - 405.
  • Cut Elimination in Transfinite Type Theory.Kenneth A. Bowen - 1973 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 19 (8‐10):141-162.
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  • Existential Graphs: What a Diagrammatic Logic of Cognition Might Look Like.Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2011 - History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (3):265-281.
    This paper examines the contemporary philosophical and cognitive relevance of Charles Peirce's diagrammatic logic of existential graphs (EGs), the ?moving pictures of thought?. The first part brings to the fore some hitherto unknown details about the reception of EGs in the early 1900s that took place amidst the emergence of modern conceptions of symbolic logic. In the second part, philosophical aspects of EGs and their contributions to contemporary logical theory are pointed out, including the relationship between iconic logic and images, (...)
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  • A New–Old Characterisation of Logical Knowledge.Ivor Grattan-Guinness - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (3):245 - 290.
    We seek means of distinguishing logical knowledge from other kinds of knowledge, especially mathematics. The attempt is restricted to classical two-valued logic and assumes that the basic notion in logic is the proposition. First, we explain the distinction between the parts and the moments of a whole, and theories of ?sortal terms?, two theories that will feature prominently. Second, we propose that logic comprises four ?momental sectors?: the propositional and the functional calculi, the calculus of asserted propositions, and rules for (...)
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  • The Intentionality of Memory.Jordi Fernández - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (1):39-57.
    The purpose of this essay is to determine how we should construe the content of memories or, in other words, to determine what the intentional objects of memory are.1 The issue that will concern us is, then, analogous to the traditional philosophical question of whether perception directly puts us in cognitive contact with entities in the world or with entities in our own minds. As we shall see, there are some interesting aspects of the phenomenology and the epistemology of memory, (...)
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  • Prepositions and Points of View.M. J. Cresswell - 1978 - Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (1):1 - 41.
  • Linguistics and Natural Logic.George Lakoff - 1970 - Synthese 22 (1-2):151 - 271.
    Evidence is presented to show that the role of a generative grammar of a natural language is not merely to generate the grammatical sentences of that language, but also to relate them to their logical forms. The notion of logical form is to be made sense of in terms a natural logic, a logical for natural language, whose goals are to express all concepts capable of being expressed in natural language, to characterize all the valid inferences that can be made (...)
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  • Tense and Temporally Neutral Paraphrase.Robert P. McArthur - 1975 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 53 (1):28 – 35.
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  • The Evolution of the Language Faculty: A Paradox and its Solution.Dan Sperber - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):756-758.
  • Temporal Interpretation in Hausa.Anne Mucha - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (5):371-415.
    This paper provides a formal analysis of the grammatical encoding of temporal information in Hausa (Chadic, Afro-Asiatic), thereby contributing to the recent debate on temporality in languages without overt tense morphology. By testing the hypothesis of covert tense against recently obtained empirical data, the study yields the result that Hausa is tenseless and that temporal reference is pragmatically inferred from aspectual, modal and contextual information. The second part of the paper addresses the coding of future in particular. It is shown (...)
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  • Existential Disclosure.Paul Dekker - 1993 - Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):561 - 587.
  • Reflexivity, Fixed Points, and Semantic Descent; How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Reflexivity.Jenann Ismael - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (4):295-310.
    For most of the major philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, human cognition was understood as involving the mind’s reflexive grasp of its own contents. But other important figures have described the very idea of a reflexive thought as incoherent. Ryle notably likened the idea of a reflexive thought to an arm that grasps itself. Recent work in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences has greatly clarified the special epistemic and semantic properties of reflexive thought. This article is an (...)
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