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Background: Theory and research

In James R. Rest & Darcia Narváez (eds.), Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 1--26 (1994)

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  1. Examining the Link Between Organizational Democracy and Employees’ Moral Development.Armin Pircher Verdorfer & Wolfgang G. Weber - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (1):59-73.
    While much is understood about the role of the family context and educational experiences for moral development, less attention has been devoted to the occupational context. In this research, we used Kohlberg’s approach of moral education as a framework and investigated the relationship between structurally anchored organizational democracy and employees’ moral development. Employees of five conventional and five democratic enterprises participated in our study. Consistently with our theoretically derived hypotheses, the results provide initial support for the theoretical model in that (...)
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  • EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education.Karen Schrier - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (4):393-424.
    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework, which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development, learning, and ethical decision-making models, including frameworks and theories associated with games and ethics, as well as prior empirical and theoretical research literature. The EPIC Framework consists of seven ethics education goals, and 12 strategies associated with ethics education, (...)
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  • Scaffolding Computer-Mediated Discussion to Enhance Moral Reasoning and Argumentation Quality in Pre-Service Teachers.Hüseyin Özçinar - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (2):232-251.
    This study investigated the effect of scaffolding computer-mediated discussions to improve moral reasoning and argumentation quality in pre-service teachers. Participants of this study were 76 teaching education students at a Turkish university. They were divided into three groups: a computer-supported argumentation group; a computer-mediated discussion group; and a control group. Participants in the computer-supported argumentation group were instructed in argumentation, and were provided with note starters and graphical argumentation tools. The computer-mediated discussion group, however, was engaged in unstructured interaction on (...)
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  • Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education Through Lakatos’s Philosophy of Science.Hyemin Han - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):32-53.
    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of science, this article mainly utilizes the perspectives of Lakatos’s research program. In particular, the article considers the relations and interactions between different fields, including moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. Finally, the potential (...)
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  • Tweaking the Four-Component Model.Howard J. Curzer - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):104-123.
    By maintaining that moral functioning depends upon four components, the Neo-Kohlbergian account of moral functioning allows for uneven moral development within individuals. However, I argue that the four-component model does not go far enough. I offer a more accurate account of moral functioning and uneven moral development. My proposal retains the account of sensitivity, divides the judgment component into a theorizing component and a reasoning component, and eliminates the motivation and character components.
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  • Moral Judgement Changes Among Undergraduates in a Capstone Internship Experience.Patricia J. Craig & Sharon Nodie Oja - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (1):43-70.
    This mixed-methods study explored the moral growth of undergraduates in a recreation management internship experience. The quantitative phase reported moral judgement gains in Personal Interest and Post-conventional schema, and N-2 scores, as measured by the Defining Issues Test 2, among 33 interns. The case-study method used a pattern matching technique to show congruence between the theoretical patterns of Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral development and observed patterns of judgement and action among 10 intern cases representing low and high levels of post-conventional (...)
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  • Bad Apples In Bad Barrels Revisited: Cognitive Moral Development, Just World Beliefs, Rewards, and Ethical Decision-Making.Neal M. Ashkanasy, Carolyn A. Windsor & Linda K. Treviño - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):449-473.
    In this study, we test the interactive effect on ethical decision-making of personal characteristics, and personal expectanciesbased on perceptions of organizational rewards and punishments. Personal characteristics studied were cognitive moral developmentand belief in a just world. Using an in-basket simulation, we found that exposure to reward system information influenced managers’ outcome expectancies. Further, outcome expectancies and belief in a just world interacted with managers’ cognitive moral development to influence managers’ ethical decision-making. In particular, low-cognitive moral development managers who expected that (...)
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  • Unauthorized Copying of Software: An Empirical Study of Reasons for and Against.Mikko T. Siponen & Tero Vartiainen - 2007 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 37 (1):30-43.
    Computer users copy computer software - this is well-known. However, less well-known are the reasons why some computer users choose to make unauthorized copies of computer software. Furthermore, the relationship linking the theory and the practice is unknown, i.e., how the attitudes of ordinary end-users correspond with the theoretical views of computer ethics scholars. In order to fill this gap in the literature, we investigated the moral attitudes of 249 Finnish computing students towards the unauthorized copying of computer software, and (...)
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  • Bad Apples in Bad Barrels Revisited: Cognitive Moral Development, Just World Beliefs, Rewards, and Ethical Decision-Making.Neal M. Ashkanasy, Carolyn A. Windsor & Linda K. Treviño - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):449-474.
    Abstract: In this study, we test the interactive effect on ethical decision-making of (1) personal characteristics, and (2) personal expectancies based on perceptions of organizational rewards and punishments. Personal characteristics studied were cognitive moral development and belief in a just world. Using an in-basket simulation, we found that exposure to reward system information influenced managers’ outcome expectancies. Further, outcome expectancies and belief in a just world interacted with managers’ cognitive moral development to influence managers’ ethical decision-making. In particular, low-cognitive moral (...)
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  • Danish Evidence of Auditors' Level of Moral Reasoning and Predisposition to Provide Fair Judgements.Bent Warming-Rasmussen & Carolyn Windsor - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):77 - 87.
    The community has legislatively conferred on external auditors a special but lucrative responsibility to provide fair and independent opinions about management''s preparation of company financial statements. In return, auditors are obliged by professional standards to act with integrity, independently and in the public interest. This study examined 174 auditors'' predisposition to provide just and fair judgements, using Kohlberg''s theory of developmental moral reasoning, one of the most widely accepted theories in justice psychology. Respondents came from five international audit firms in (...)
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  • Applying Research Findings to Enhance Pre-Practicum Ethics Training.Alfred Allan - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (6):465-482.
    Professions have a social obligation to ensure that their members’ professional behavior is morally appropriate. The psychology profession in most jurisdictions delegates the responsibility of ensuring that psychologists entering the profession are ethically competent to pre-practicum training programs. Educators responsible for teaching the ethics courses in these programs often base them on Rest’s theory that does not take into account a vast amount of contemporary psychological and neuroscientific research data on moral decision making. My aim with this article is therefore (...)
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  • Effects of Training and Environment on Graduate Students’ Self-Rated Knowledge and Judgments of Responsible Research Behavior.Philip J. Langlais & Blake J. Bent - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (2):133-153.
    Training programs, departmental/disciplinary norms, and individual factors have been hypothesized to influence ethical behavior. This exploratory study surveyed graduate students from a single university in the American Southeast. Relationships were examined among 496 participants’ individual characteristics, training, self-rated knowledge and decision-making skills in research conduct, and judgments of ethically questionable vignettes. Key findings include the increased likelihood of unethical action by students in online programs, a negative relationship between age and unethical actions, and a negative relationship between agreeableness and reports (...)
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  • An Examination of Ethical Influences on the Work of Tax Practitioners.Jane Frecknall-Hughes, Peter Moizer, Elaine Doyle & Barbara Summers - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (4):729-745.
    As a contribution to the continuing debate about tax practitioner ethics, this paper explores the main streams of Western ethical thought that are relevant to tax practitioners’ work, most typically deontology and consequentialism. It then goes on to consider the impact of such ethical influences on the professional ethical codes of conduct that govern tax practitioners’ work, and attempts to unravel the complex work and ethical environment of the practice of tax in terms of tax compliance and tax avoidance. The (...)
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  • An Empirical Analysis of the Ethical Reasoning of Tax Practitioners.Elaine Doyle, Jane Frecknall Hughes & Barbara Summers - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):325-339.
    How tax practitioners approach ethical dilemmas remains generally unexplored in academic literature. We use here Rest’s original Defining Issues Test (Development in judging moral issues. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979; Moral development. Advances in research and theory. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1986), combined with a tax context-specific test and in conjunction with a control group of non-tax specialists, to examine tax practitioners’ moral reasoning in a social and tax context. We investigate: (i) the effect of a tax context on (...)
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  • Moral Development and Narcissism of Private and Public University Business Students.Shanda Traiser & Myron A. Eighmy - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (3):325 - 334.
    In this study, researchers examined the assumption that senior-level undergraduate students from private colleges universities possess higher levels of moral and ethical development than students from public institutions. In addition, the researchers sought to determine (a) if there was a relationship between narcissistic personality traits and the level of moral reasoning, and (b) there was a difference in the level of narcissistic personality tendencies of business students from private vs. public institutions based on demographic and textual variables. A cluster sampling (...)
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  • Rationalism and a Vygotskian Alternative to Business Ethics Education.David Ohreen - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 10:231-260.
    Studies have shown ethics education has not systematically improved the moral reasoning of business students and professionals and, therefore, its effectiveness should be seen as deeply questionable. Business ethics education has limited effect, in part, because it rests on rationalistic traditions within normative ethics, business theory, and cognitive psychology. Emphasis is usually placed on student’s rationally thinking about issues as a way of improving their critical analysis and reasoning skills. Yet by focusing primarily on its cognitive dimension, ethics education has (...)
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  • The Presence and Possibility of Moral Sensibility in Beginning Pre-Service Teachers.Joan L. Whipp, Terry J. Burant & Sharon M. Chubbuck - 2007 - Ethics and Education 2 (2):109-130.
    This paper presents research on the moral sensibility of six pre-service teachers in an undergraduate teacher education program. Using their reflective writing across their first two semesters of coursework as well as focus group interviews in their third semester as sources of data, the paper identifies and describes three distinctive types of moral sensibility and examines ways in which moral sensibility interacts with experiences in teacher education. Suggestions for explicitly incorporating the moral in pre-service teacher education are presented.
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  • An Examination of the Relationship Between Ethical Work Climate and Moral Awareness.Craig V. VanSandt, Jon M. Shepard & Stephen M. Zappe - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (4):409-432.
    This paper draws from the fields of history, sociology, psychology, moral philosophy, and organizational theory to establish a theoretical connection between a social/organizational influence (ethical work climate) and an individual cognitive element of moral behavior (moral awareness). The research was designed to help to fill a gap in the existing literature by providing empirical evidence of the connection between organizational influences and individual moral awareness and subsequent ethical choices, which has heretofore largely been merely assumed. Results of the study provide (...)
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  • Consumer Food Ethics: Considerations of Vulnerability, Suffering, and Harm.Yana Manyukhina - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (4):595-614.
    Over the past years, various accounts of ethical consumption have been produced which identify certain concepts as central to mediating the ethical relationship between the consumer and the consumed. Scholars across disciplinary fields have explored how individuals construe their ethical consumption responsibilities and commitments through the notions of identity, taking care and doing good, proximity and distance, suggesting the centrality of these themes to consumer engagement in ethical practices. This paper contributes to the body of research concerned with unravelling consumers’ (...)
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  • Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Institutions.Mukesh Sud, Craig V. VanSandt & Amanda M. Baugous - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S1):201 - 216.
    A relatively small segment of business, known as social entrepreneurship (SE), is increasingly being acknowledged as an effective source of solutions for a variety of social problems. Because society tends to view "new" solutions as "the" solution, we are concerned that SE will soon be expected to provide answers to our most pressing social ills. In this paper we call into question the ability of SE, by itself, to provide solutions on a scope necessary to address large-scale social issues. SE (...)
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  • Exploring the Relationship Between Virtue Ethics and Moral Identity.Changwoo Jeong & Hyemin Han - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (1):44-56.
    The concept of moral identity based on virtue ethics has become an issue of considerable import in explaining moral behavior. This attempt to offer adequate explanations of the full range of morally relevant human behavior inevitably provokes boundary issues between ethics and moral psychology. In terms of the relationship between the two disciplines, some argue for ?naturalized (or psychologized) morality,? whereas, on the other hand, others insist on ?moralized psychology.? This article investigates the relationship between virtue ethics and moral identity (...)
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  • Ethics in Psychology and Law: An International Perspective.Alfred Allan - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (6):443-457.
    Some psychologists working in the psychology and law field feel that the profession does not provide them with adequate ethical guidance even though the field is arguably one of the oldest and best established applied fields of psychology. The uncertainty psychologists experience most likely stems from working with colleagues whose professional ethics differs from their own while providing services to demanding people and the many moral questions associated with the administration of law. I believe psychology’s ethics does, however, provide adequate (...)
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  • Editors for a Day: Readers' Responses to Journalists' Ethical Dilemmas.Enn Raudsepp - 1999 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (1):42-54.
    Tentative conclusions from this study of readers' responses to a series of "You Be The Editor" features suggest that divergences in ethical attitudes and values may be due to differences in moral sensitivity and motivation, as outlined in James R. Rest's "Four Component Model." In the majority of cases in which editors and readers were on opposing sides, many readers seemed unaware of the professional and institutional considerations that motivated the editors. The editors, on the other hand, were much less (...)
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  • Commentary 2: A Case of Covert Persuasion.Sherry Baker - 2007 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (2-3):221 – 225.
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  • Managers' Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Large Indian Manufacturing Organisations. [REVIEW]Manjit Monga - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):179 - 194.
    Increased globalisation has also seen increased scrutiny of corporate behaviour by the communities. Clearly managers are under increased pressure from stakeholders not only to outperform their competitors, but also are expected to do so in an ethical manner. In order to act ethically an individual is expected to have a well-developed moral imagination and moral reasoning. Literature on ethical reasoning research indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of moral reasoning and ethical behaviour. This paper presents the findings of a (...)
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  • The Impact of Perceived Ethical Culture of the Firm and Demographic Variables on Auditors' Ethical Evaluation and Intention to Act Decisions.Breda Sweeney, Don Arnold & Bernard Pierce - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):531 - 551.
    This study examined the impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and selected demographic variables on auditors' ethical evaluation of, and intention to engage in, various time pressure-induced dysfunctional behaviours. Four audit cases and questionnaires were distributed to experienced pre-manager level auditors in Ireland and the U. S. The findings revealed that while perceived unethical pressure to engage in dysfunctional behaviours and unethical tone at the top were significant in forming an ethical evaluation, only perceived unethical pressure had an (...)
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  • Institutional Context and Auditors' Moral Reasoning: A Canada-U.S. Comparison. [REVIEW]Linda Thorne, Dawn W. Massey & Michel Magnan - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):305 - 321.
    This paper compares the moral reasoning of 363 auditors from Canada and the United States. We investigate whether national institutional context is associated with differences in auditors'' moral reasoning by examining three components of auditors'' moral decision process: (1) moral development, which describes cognitive moral capability, (2) prescriptive reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma ought to be resolved and, (3) deliberative reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma will be resolved. Not surprisingly, it appears that institutional factors are more (...)
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  • An Integral Model of Collective Action in Organizations and Beyond.Lu Tang - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):249-261.
    While a large amount of work has been done to understand public good and to construct conceptual models explaining the antecedents of collective action, current literature is flawed in that most of them only examine the lower-level public good and attribute people's participation in collective action to external variables. It pays little to the developmental nature of collective action. Utilizing Ken Wilber's theory of integral psychology, this paper proposes a holistic definition of public good, emphasizing its different levels of development. (...)
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  • Empathy, Perspective Taking and Personal Values as Predictors of Moral Schemas.Liisa Myyrya, Soile Juujärvi & Kaija Pesso - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):213-233.
    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between empathy variables, personal values and moral reasoning. The impact of empathic concern, perspective taking and personal values measured by the Portrait Value Questionnaire on moral schemas measured by the Defining Issues Test was investigated among 599 students from a university of applied sciences. The results revealed that perspective taking contributed to the post?conventional schema, even after values were added on the hierarchical regression model, and that the personal interest schema (...)
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  • Teacher Candidate Disposition: Moral Judgement or Regurgitation?Lisa E. Johnson - 2008 - Journal of Moral Education 37 (4):429-444.
    Developing teacher candidates who are able to make moral judgements to equitably resolve classroom dilemmas, conduct student assessment and allocate resources is critical for today's diverse classrooms and should be part of fostering professional disposition. However, one challenge of incorporating dispositions in teacher education and a valid argument for those opposing the trend is how to accurately assess growth in the development of in teacher candidates. This study investigates two measures of moral judgement and explores the congruence between these assessments. (...)
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  • Teaching Ethical Decision Making: Designing a Personal Value Portrait to Ignite Creativity and Promote Personal Engagement in Case Method Analysis.Pamela A. Gibson - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):340 – 352.
    The case method approach to introducing ethical issues is a traditional tool for applying critical thinking skills to a specific dilemma. It allows for personal reflection and clarification of an individual's conceptual framework for deciding what is and is not ethical behavior. However, it also affords the student distance from the story line and may, through providing a retrospective critique, prevent sufficient challenge to the student to articulate and defend personal value assessments in addressing the ethical dynamics reflected in the (...)
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  • The Role of Value Priorities and Professional Ethics Training in Moral Sensitivity.Liisa Myyry & Klaus Helkama - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (1):35-50.
    This study investigated the sensitivity to moral issues from a story in a professional context and development of the ability to interpret moral situations in a sample of 50 social psychology students participating in a one-semester course on professional ethics. The relationships between initial value priorities measured by Schwartz Value Survey (1992) and moral sensitivity were also explored. Nearly half of the respondents (46%) progressed on sensitivity from the pre-test to the post-test, whereas the control group's ( n = 6) (...)
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  • Rethinking Moral Growth in College and Beyond.Glen Rogers - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (3):325-338.
    This paper draws on evidence from Alverno's longitudinal research to make the case that the DIT is best characterised as measuring growth in moral reasoning rather than a broader construct of moral development. As a broader moral development construct, the cognitive developmental construction of moral judgement appears to be integrated within the even broader developmental and subjective construction of self as meaning-maker. Factorial and other evidence from the battery of instruments supports reconceptualizing the moral growth of the person and suggests (...)
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  • Commentary 3: We Have All Been Here Before.John J. Pauly, William R. Burleigh & E. W. Scripps - 2007 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22 (2-3):225 – 228.
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  • Changing Moral Judgement in Divinity Students.Wilton H. Bunch - 2005 - Journal of Moral Education 34 (3):363-370.
    Gains in moral judgement, as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT), correlate strongly with advancing education. Curricula that are strongly biblically based may not promote, and students with a strong fundamentalist orientation may not demonstrate, such moral growth. Students at an interdenominational, but very conservative seminary, completed the DIT before and after ethics courses conducted in three different formats. Those students who spent 30 hours in small?group discussions of ethical dilemmas improved their moral reasoning scores, while those who had (...)
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  • Managers’ Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Large Indian Manufacturing Organisations.Manjit Monga - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):179-194.
    Increased globalisation has also seen increased scrutiny of corporate behaviour by the communities. Clearly managers are under increased pressure from stakeholders not only to outperform their competitors, but also are expected to do so in an ethical manner. In order to act ethically an individual is expected to have a well-developed moral imagination and moral reasoning. Literature on ethical reasoning research indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of moral reasoning and ethical behaviour. This paper presents the findings of a (...)
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